Mambi subdistrict, between Mandar and Kalumpang. Dialects: Aralle, Tabulahan, Mambi. Aralle has 84%89% lexical similarity with other dialects listed, 75%80% with Bambam [ptu], Pannei [pnc], Ulumandak [ulm] dialects.
South central portion of central Sulawesi, Lore Selatan subdistrict, 14 villages; Pamona Selatan subdistrict, 2 mixed villages; Poso Pesisir subdistrict, 4 mixed villages; Parigi subdistrict, some in Lemusa village; Ampibabo subdistrict. Ako in northern Mamuju District, Pasangkayu subdistrict. 23 villages or parts of villages. Alternate names: Bada’, Tobada’. Dialects: Bada, Ako. Lexical similarity: 85% between Bada and Behoa [bep], 91% between Behoa and Napu [npy], 80% between Bada and Napu [npy]. The three are geographically, politically, culturally separate.
Bambam, Pitu Ulunna Salu 30.000 Christian
west Polmas District, Mambi subdistrict, Maloso and Mapilli rivers watershed, into Majene and Mamuju districts. Alternate names: Pitu-Ulunna-Salu. Dialects: Bambam Hulu, Salu Mokanam, Bumal, Mehalaan, Pattae’, Matangnga, Issilita’, Pakkau. Complex dialect chain. Lexical similarity: 83%94% with Bumal; 85%80% with dialects of Aralle-Tabulahan [atq], Pannei [pnc], and Ulumanda [ulm].
The Bambam people trace their beginnings to the seven offspring of Pongkapadang and Torije’ne’ who formed a confederacy called Pitu Ulunna Salu (Seven River Heads), which provided a united front against outside, hostile groups. The Dutch colonial government came in the early 1900’s and brought schools, abolished slavery, introduced taxes, and brought Christianity. During World War II the Japanese sent troops to control the area, even though it was quite remote and not economically significant.
The Bambam area suffered further hardships from 1950 through 1965 – a time of raids and rebellion. A group of fanatical Muslim rebels took over the town of Mambi and began forcing people in other villages to convert to Islam. In response, the people of Bambam formed the Peoples’ Defense Organization (Organisasi Pertahanan Rakyat). With assistance from the nationalist Battalion 710, the OPR attacked Mambi and drove the rebels back to the coast near Mamuju. After this, the 710 Battalion began abusing the people of the Bambam area, so the OPR forced the 710 to retreat. The OPR cut off all trails into the area, and continued to guard it until civil order was restored in 1964.
Where are they located? The majority of the Bambam people reside in the Mamasa regency in the highlands of West Sulawesi province of Indonesia. Villages are scattered throughout the watersheds of the Salu Mambi, Salu Dengen and Salu Mokanam rivers. It is a very mountainous region, with peaks reaching heights of up to 3000 meters.
Home and family are top priority to most Bambam people. The nuclear family consists of parents and unmarried children, but often a household includes elderly parents or newly married children. On the surface, relationships appear to be very harmonious. Anger is rarely expressed. Conforming, keeping the peace, and maintaining the status quo are cultural values. The people are generally very cooperative and sociable, which goes hand in hand with their way of working together. Whether it is preparing fields, planting, weeding, harvesting, repairing paths or building a house, people like to work with companions. Sometimes wages are paid, but often it is a matter of helping someone in return for their help at another time. The rice growing cycle is central to the Bambam lifestyle. Daily activities and planning are based on the cycle of repairing paddies, planting, weeding and harvesting. Feasts and ceremonies are also tied into this cycle. Tasks are clearly defined by gender.
While the rice growing cycle is central to the Bambam lifestyle, in recent years the economy has been most affected by the coffee and cacao crops. These provide the needed cash for purchasing goods brought in from outside.
There are three religious groups among the Bambam: the Christians (Protestant and Catholic), the Moslems, and the Mappuhondo (animists). The traditional beliefs of the Mappuhondo affect the beliefs of those who call themselves Christian or Moslem.
Traditionally, one finds favor with the gods by having penaba sambulo-bulo “straight breath”. This is being good, which means caring for others, not lying, doing what one says they will do. The gods will not like it if you seek to destroy the plans of others. You need to look out for the good of others.
“Tometampa” the creator god made man, animals, plants, everything which is in the world. He is the creator god, but is not consider the boss of the gods. Each of the gods controls their domain (river, hill, village, type of work or task, etc). The Christians believe in the creator God and that He is in charge of all things.
When a Bambam person dies he goes sau’ anitu “downriver to the ghost place” which is the place of the dead. People are not sure where that place is, “maybe at the edge of the world”. The river is crossed (salu sidilambam), and they cannot go across if they have no water buffalo to pull across carrying all their belongings. That is why the family must butcher at least one water buffalo for their funeral. Christians still butcher buffalos for funerals, but they say they do this because they’d be ashamed if they did not.
Baras 300 Islam
Mamuju District, south Pasangkayu and north Budong-Budong subdistricts, between Lariang and Budong-Budong rivers, a few villages mainly in Desa Baras. Alternate names: Ende. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 84% with Da’a Kaili [kzf], 85% with Inde dialect of Kaili, Da’a [kzf], 80% or more with other Kaili varieties, 64% with Uma [pkk].
Budong Budong Tangkou 90 Islam
Mamuju District, Budong-Budong subdistrict, Tongkou village, on Budong-Budong River. Alternate names: Tangkou, Tongkou. Dialects: Similar to Aralle-Tabulahan [atq], Ulumandak [ulm]. Lexical similarity: 56% with Mamuju [mqx] and Seko Padang [skx], 61% with Seko Tengah [sko], 72% with Panasuan [psn].
Bugis 3.500.000 Islam
Western coast of southeast Sulawesi in Kolaka, Wundulako, Rumbia, and Poleang districts. Also in major towns of Sulawesi. Large enclaves also in other provinces of Sulawesi, Kalimantan, Maluku, Papua, and Sumatra; coastal swamp areas such as Bulukumba, Luwu, Polewali in Polmas, Pasangkayu in Mamuju districts. Also in Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Boegineesche, Boeginezen, Bugi, Buginese, De’, Rappang Buginese, Ugi. Dialects: Bone (Palakka, Dua Boccoe, Mare), Pangkep (Pangkajene), Camba, Sidrap (Sidenrang, Pinrang Utara, Alitta), Pasangkayu (Ugi Riawa), Sinjai (Enna, Palattae, Bulukumba), Soppeng (Kessi), Wajo, Barru (Pare-Pare, Nepo, Soppeng Riaja, Tompo, Tanete), Sawitto (Pinrang), Luwu (Luwu’, Bua Ponrang, Wara, Malangke-Ussu). Bone or Soppeng dialects are central.
The Bugis (sometimes called the Ugi) live in the province of South Sulawesi. The Bugis region is called Tellumponcoe, and it consists of the regencies of Bone, Wajo, and Soppeng. There are also Bugis people settled throughout the regencies of Luwu, Sidenneng, Polmas, Pinrang, Pare-pare, Barru, Pangkajene, Maros, Bulukumba, and Sinjai. The Bugis are a dynamic and highly mobile people, considered by many to be the dominant people group in South Sulawesi. Many Bugis have left their home area to seek success and wealth. In particular, they have migrated to Sumbawa, Jawa, Papua, and even Malaysia. Their Ugi language is divided into several dialects, namely Luwu, Wajo, Bira Selayar, Palaka, Sindenneng and Sawito.
Most Bugis make their living by hunting, fishing, farming, raising livestock or making handicrafts. Typically, the Bugis who live in the mountain ranges gain their livelihood by working the soil, while those living in the coastal areas generally work as fishermen. The Bugis traditional dress is called Wajo Ponco, which is believed to have originated from Melayu (Malay) dress. Currently, the dress is only used for traditional ceremonies and dances. The Bugis believe very strongly that certain days are good days, with good fortune for events and activities held on the first Wednesday and last Thursday of each month. Conversely, they consider Saturday to be a bad day, with misfortune more likely to happen on this day. In Bugis tradition there are different levels of social status that are based upon one’s ancestors. These different levels include descendants of a king, descendants of nobles (La Patau), descendants of district administrators (Aru Lili) and descendants of various kinds of slaves. Two of the most important cultural values for the Bugis people are called siri (personal honor) and siri-pesse (communal honor). A Bugis person must defend, maintain, and build one’s own siri. The effort to obtain and maintain siri varies according to the context. For instance, in an economic context, siri means working hard and being faithful. In a personal context, if a person’s siri is offended serious forms of revenge will be considered. Islam reinforced the traditional Bugis concept of siri in such a way that today the typical Bugis person sees siri as the key to his or her self-identity as a Bugis Muslim. The Bugis line of descent is bilateral (traced through both parents). After marriage the newlyweds may choose to live near either the husband’s or wife’s family, although initially, they live at least briefly near the wife’s family. The Bugis people are famous for their fervent adherence to Sunni Islam.
Campalagian 33.000 Islam
Majene District, Polmas, south coast. Alternate names: Tallumpanuae, Tasing, Tjampalagian. Dialects: Campalagian, Buku. Lexical similarity: 50%58% with Mandar [mdr], 50%62% with Bugis [bug], 55% with Bugis Bone [bug], 62% with Bugis Pangkajene [bug], Bugis Sidrap [bug].
The Campalagian people primarily live in the cities of Polmas and Campalagian and the surrounding district of Majene. This area is located in the province of South Sulawesi. Sulawesi is a large mountainous island often described as being shaped like an orchid or crab. It has a coastline of about 5,000 kilometers and consists mainly of four peninsulas separated by deep gulfs, with two of the peninsulas extending southward and two northeastward. The majority of Campalagian live in lowland areas, which are typically fertile for various forms of agriculture. Other names for these people are Tulumpanuae or Tasing. They speak the Campalagian language. The culture of the Campalagian has been influenced by its more populous and more powerful neighbors, namely the Toraja and Bugis peoples. The languages of Toraja and Bugis have influenced the Campalagian language and consequently there are many similarities. The Campalagian live as farmers, fishermen, and traders. Trading is usually done in the city of Campalagian which is located in the coastal area. They also raise water buffalo, goats, cattle, and chickens. A farming community is known as pallaung-ruma, consisting of two groups: pa’galung (farmers of irrigated fields) and pa’dare (farmers of unirrigated fields). The fishermen are known as pakkaja. The tools used distinguish them: pameng use hook and line; pa’bagang use a fishing platform; pajala use nets; and pa’belle use special traps made of long nets. Traders are usually known as padagang or saudagara. Trading is usually done in the city of Campalagian, which is located on the coast. Marriage among the Campalagian people is still under the direction of the parents, including the selection of a spouse. Unlike some areas, there is already a high school in the city. Health-care seems to be adequate, particularly when compared to other more poorly served areas. Almost every Campalagian person identifies himself or herself as a follower of the religion of Islam.
Da’a Kaili 35.000
Da’a and Inde. 3,000 to 5,000 Da’a and Inde are in south Sulawesi. Central Sulawesi, South Sulawesi provinces in Marawola, Dolo, Sigi-Biromaru, Palolo, Banawa subdistricts. Bunggu’ used for Da’a and Inde in south Sulawesi, Mamuju District, Pasangkayu subdistrict, near Palu. Alternate names: Bunggu, Da’a. Dialects: Da’a (Pekawa, Pekava, Pakawa), Inde. Some intelligibility with Ledo dialect of Kaili, Ledo [lew] and other Kaili varieties, but with major sociolinguistic differences. Lexical similarity: 98% between the Da’a and Inde dialects.
Dakka 2.000 Islam
Polewali-Mamasa District, Wonomulyo subdistrict. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 72%77% with Pannei [pnc] and Bambam [ptu].
Kalumpang 15.000 Christian
southeast Mamuju District, Kalumpang subdistrict. Alternate names: Galumpang, Ma’ki, Maki, Makki, Mangki, Mangkir. Dialects: Karataun, Mablei, Mangki (E’da), Bone Hau (Ta’da). Small dialects not listed. Lexical similarity: 78% with Mamasa [mqj], 78% with Tae’ [rob], 74% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda]. Between Karataun and Bone Hau dialects: average 82%.
The Kalumpang people are located within the jungles of central Western Sulawesi. This is a new province and they were origianlly classified as Southern Sulawesi. There are several large villages, such as Kalumpang, Buttu, Tambing-Tambing and Batuisi. The Kalumpang people are primarily agrarian. Small scale gardens are used to produce the food that they need to survive and wild animals are hunted for food. There is a strong sense of community within this region. This area is predominantly Christian,
Mamasa 124.000 Christian
Polmas District, Polewali subdistrict, along Mamasa River. Dialects: Northern Mamasa, Central Mamasa, Pattae’ (Southern Mamasa, Patta’ Binuang, Binuang, Tae’, Binuang-Paki-Batetanga-Anteapi). Lexical similarity: 78% with Toraja-Sa’dan [ska].
Mamuju 77.000 Islam
The Mamuju people’s main livelihood is agriculture and fishing. They cultivate copra and cocoa on a small scale, and also grow cloves, corn and cassava along the coast. They also raise cattle. Their primary forest product is ebony wood. In the city, some Mamuju work as traders, teachers or nurses.The houses of the Mamuju have a simple structure, with most of the walls made of plaited bamboo and the roof made of palm leaves. Their houses are built on stilts approximately two meters high.The Mamuju people live peacefully with their neighbors, whom they regard as their own family. They work together, such as in building their houses, in preparing festivities, and in drying copra. The Mamuju treat visitors as honored guests, but serious conflict will arise if they feel they have been dishonored or shamed. Many women and girls wear gold earrings to show that they are not poor. Groups of men and women never mix together. When they catch fish, men take the boats, while the women wait on the beach. The Mamuju tribe have several kinds of leaders, who are always men. They rely on a dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) to determine the correct days for various activities, such as weddings and harvest ceremonies. They also have a religious leader and a leader who is chosen by the regional government. The religious leader is the most influential, while the governmental leader is only effective when the people regard him as being a good leader. Important informational meetings are usually held at the mesjid (mosque). The Mamuju have many of their own rules and regulations. For serious offenses, a person often has to give a cow to the offended party. In the life of the Mamuju, young people make their own choice of who to marry. Women are usually 16-17 years old when they marry, while men are usually 18-20 years old. They like to have many children and there are usually 5-6 children in a family. Nearly all of the Mamuju are Muslim.
Mandar 273.000 Islam
Majene and Polewali-Mamasa districts, Mamuju District, a few settlements; Pangkep District islands, and Ujung Lero near Pare-Pare. Alternate names: Andian, Mandharsche, Manjar. Dialects: Majene, Balanipa (Napo-Tinambung), Malunda, Pamboang, Sendana (Cenrana, Tjendana). A complex dialect grouping, there may be more dialects than those listed. Balanipa and Sendana may each be more than 1 dialect. Balanipa is the prestige dialect. Mandar, Mamuju [mqx], and Bambam [ptu] are separate languages in a language chain.
The Mandar (or Andian) people live in the low coastal plains and mountains of the regencies of Majene, Mamuju, and Polewali Mandar in the province of West Sulawesi (in Indonesian Sulawesi Barat). Their language is the Mandar language, which has four dialects: Balanipa, Majene, Pamboang, and Awok Sumakengu. The Mandar have been greatly influenced by the larger neighboring Bugis, Makassar, and Toraja Sa’dan peoples.The Mandar region is surrounded by mountains with a large area in the middle suitable for rice fields. Their main sea products are the cakalang fish and turtle. A rare and protected type of bird in the area is known as the mandar bird (in the armimadea family).
Many Mandar live by farming rice fields or orchards while some work as fishermen. In the Sendana and Malunda areas, their produce includes copra and cocoa. The rice fields of Polmas are irrigated, while other regencies still use the traditional means of depending on rainfall. As a society that used to be an independent kingdom, the Mandar people recognize three social classes. The high class consists of the nobility (Todiang Laiyana), the middle class is the commoners (Tau Maradika), and the lowest class is the slave class (Batua). The nobility are referred to as Daeng for the “royal class” and Puang for the “proper class”.The history of the development of the Mandar family system has been marked by several periods. First was the Tomakala period, which was during the time when there was no regular government and no law. Second was the the transition period (Pappuangang), when the social relationship system began to form. Third was the Arajang period, which had systematized structures, regulations, and values. Arajang guidelines are still influential but they have been fused with Islamic and modern structures. Currently, the king does not rule by hereditary right, but is chosen by the traditional leaders (hadat). In the Mandar tradition, if the headdress of community leaders is worn angling to the left, it is a call for the king to reconsider his leadership and policies. If all the elders come and walk in front of the palace while wearing their headdress angling to the left and also carrying spears and keris (sacred knives), this is sign for the king to step down from his throne voluntarily. If the king does not step down voluntarily, then they will try to depose him with force (even to the point of killing him). If they are not able to accomplish this by force, then many of them will leave their villages. In the Mandar viewpoint, a king is regarded as a bad king if the people leave in this manner. The Mandar people are Muslims.
Panasuan 800 Christian
Mamuju District, northeast of Kalumpang [kli], west of Seko area. 2 villages. Alternate names: To Pamosean, To Panasean. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with Seko Tengah [sko], 63% with Seko Padang [skx], 72% with Tangkou [tkx].
Pannei 11.000 Islam
Polewali-Mamasa District, Wonomulyo subdistrict. Alternate names: Tapango. Dialects: Tapango, Bulo. Lexical similarity: 87%93% between the Bulo dialect and other varieties, 75%80% with dialects of Ulumanda’ [ulm], Bambam [ptu], Aralle-Tabulahan [atq].
The Pannei people live in the district of Wonomulyo of the regency of Polewali Mandar in the province of West Sulawesi (in Indonesian Sulawesi Barat). Sulawesi is a large mountainous island often described as being shaped like an orchid or crab. It has a coastline of about 5,000 kilometers and consists mainly of four peninsulas separated by deep gulfs, with two of the peninsulas extending southward and two northeastward. They use the Pannei language in daily life. This language has two dialects, Tapango and Bulo.
The Pannei make their living in various ways. They work as farmers, fishermen, craftsmen, traders/merchants, and government officials. The craftsmen usually are known as tukang or panre. The term tukang is used for the group of society that work as carpenters or stonemasons. The term, panre, is used for those that are homebuilders (panre bola), gold and silver crafters (panre ulaweng), and blacksmiths (panre besi). They also use specific terms to describe clothing tailors (pa’jai), cloth weavers (pa’tennung) and those who manufacture iron (pa’lanro).Other jobs include government positions and the military. Government officials are known as pajama kantoro (office officials), which also includes teachers. Those in the military usually are known as surodadu (soldier).In the past guerilla-fighters were called pa’barani (courageous person). These warriors served the Bugis kingdom against other kingdoms initially, and later fought against the Dutch colonialists. The pa’barani were reputed to always be eager to fight; engaging in conflict or war without regard for personal safety, for the glory of the king and kingdom. Almost all Pannei people are followers of Islam.
Sarudu 5.100 Islam
south Pasangkayu District, Mamuju subdistrict. Alternate names: Doda’. Dialects: Nunu’, Kulu (Lariang). Lexical similarity: 75% with Uma [ppk], 80% with Benggaulu dialect of Uma [ppk].
The Sarudu live in the northern part of the Indonesian province of West Sulawesi (Sulawesi Barat). This province was formally separated from South Sulawesi and became an independent province in 2004. The Sarudu live in the North Mamuju District, and primarily in the Sarudu subdistrict, which is an along the western coast of Sulawesi, just north of the mouth of the Lariang River. Most of the Sarudu live in small towns or villages, and recently a motor road has been built through the area. The area is a flat alluvial plain. Parts of it are swampy, and the weather is always hot and humid. It is likely that the ancestors of the Sarudu came from the mountains of Central Sulawesi, where the present-day Uma people live, and that they ate rice as their main staple. (The root word in the Sarudu language for “eat” is identical to the word for “cooked rice.”) But the main staple of most Sarudu now is sago. Most Sarudu are farmers, planting corn (maize), rice and various vegetable crops. They also cultivate sago palm trees, from which they obtain the edible starch that forms a main part of their diet. They also tend chickens, cows and other livestock, and catch fish in local rivers and streams. Although the Sarudu live not far from the sea, few Sarudu have become seafarers and few make their living fishing in the sea.
According to a survey done by a translation team in 1987, there are approximately 4000 Sarudu people. In the Sarudu subdistrict, which is the center of the Sarudu area, there are 11 villages and the population is mostly Sarudu. In addition, many Bugis people live in the Sarudu area, and there are also people from several Kaili dialects that live among and near the Sarudu. Like the Sarudu, all of these people are Muslim.
Seko Padang 6.600 Christian
2,300 in the Seko area. South Sulawesi, Luwu Utara District, Limbong subdistrict, northeast section; half resettled Central Sulawesi, Palolo Valley. Alternate names: Seko, Sua Tu Padang, Wono. Dialects: Lodang, Hono’ (Wono).
Seko Tengah 2.500 Christian
west Limbong subdistrict along Betue River. Alternate names: Pewanean, Pewaneang, Pohoneang, Seko. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Seko Padang [skx], 67% with Panasuan [psn].
Tae’ 250.000 Islam
South Sulawesi, Kabupaten Luwu from Larompong District through Sabbang, and scattered pockets. Rongkong in Luwu District, southeast Limbong and Sabbang subdistricts. Also an enclave in Wasuponda, Nuha subdistrict near Soroako town. Alternate names: East Toraja, Luwu, Rongkong, Rongkong Kanandede, Sada, Sangangalla’, Tae’ Tae’, Taeq, To Rongkong, Toraja Timur, Toware. Dialects: Rongkong, Northeast Luwu, South Luwu, Bua, Toala’, Palili’. Lexical similarity: 92% among dialects, over 86% with the northern dialects, 80% with Toraja-Sa’dan.
Talondo’ 400 Christian
Talondo and Pedasi villages; Mamuju District, Kalumpang subdistrict. 1 village. Dialects: May be in the Seko subgroup (Padang [skx] or Tengah [sko]). Lexical similarity: 80% with Kalumpang [kli].
Topoiyo 2.600 Islam
Mamuju District, Budong-Budong subdistrict inland along Budong-Budong River. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 66% with Sarudu [sdu] and Da’a [kzf], 56% with Ledo [lew], 54% with the Parigi dialect of Kaili [lew].
Toraja-Sa’dan 631.000 Christian
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South Sulawesi, Tana Toraja District, large groups in Luwu District, Makassar City; southeast Sulawesi, west coast, Kolaka and Wundulako districts. Alternate names: Sa’dan, Sa’dansche, Sadan, Sadang, South Toraja, Ta’e, Tae’, Toradja, Toraja. Dialects: Makale (Tallulembangna), Rantepao (Kesu’), Toraja Barat (West Toraja, Mappa-Pana). Rantepao is prestige dialect.
Ulumanda’ 34.000 Islam
18,000 in Polmas and Majene. West Sulawesi, Majene, Mamuju, and Polewali-Mamasa districts. Alternate names: Awo-Sumakuyu, Botteng-Tappalang, Kado, Oeloemanda, Tubbi, Ulumandak, Ulunda. Dialects: Sondoang, Tappalang, Botteng. About 6 dialects. Lexical similarity: 75%80% with dialect of Bambam [ptu], Aralle-Tabulahan [atq], Pannei [pnc].
The Ulumanda people live in the districts of Polmas, Majene and Polewali-Mamasa in the province of South Sulawesi. The area where the Ulumanda people live is mountainous and rich in raw materials such as minerals, sand, rattan, and ebony wood. The Ulumanda are closely related to the Bungku people who live in Poso Regency of Central Sulawesi.It has been suggested that the Ulumanda are descendants of Bungku groups who migrated to South Sulawesi. Other designations for the Ulumanda are Ulumandak, Ulunda, Tubi, Awosumakuyu, Botteng-Tappalang, and Kayo. Their everyday language is the Ulumanda language, which is divided into three dialects: Sondang, Tappalang and Boteng. The Ulumanda’s main occupation is farming, with rice as the main crop, and additional crops being corn, potato, and sago. Some Ulumanda gain their livelihood from gathering and marketing resin and rattan. Most Ulumanda living on the coast tend to work as fishermen. The soil in Ulumanda is relatively less fertile than in other areas of South Sulawesi.In the past, there were two classes in the Ulumanda society: the upper class (tribal chiefs and nobility); and the common people. Today, the Ulumanda choose their village leader from the higher cast. In actuality, there are 3 leaders in a village: the leader chosen by the government, the cultural leader, and the spiritual leader. In many cases, the Ulumanda villages are self-governing and self-policing. In the event of a crime or offense, payment is often demanded in the form of a water buffalo or some other valuable animal or possession. Sometimes they pay by transferring ownership of a plot of coconut growing land. The payment often depends on the economic situation of the offender. In the past, marriages were arranged, but now the young people can choose for themselves. However, the man’s payment of a bride price is often more than a year’s wages, and the cost of the wedding ceremony is very expensive (the woman’s family does not pay anything). For this reason, many Ulumanda young people elope to nearby villages to be married. If they marry in their home village, the ceremony takes place in the woman’s house. At present, virtually all Ulumanda people are Muslims.
increasing. 15,000 in the region, 5,000 outside (1990 SIL), 500 in Benggaulu. Central Sulawesi, Donggala District, South Kulawi and Pipikoro subdistricts, Pipikoro, banks of the Koro’ and Lariang Koro’ rivers. 32 villages. Bana in South Sulawesi, Luwu Utara District, enclave within the Seko Padang [skx] dialect area; Benggaulu in South Sulawesi, south Pasangkayu District, Mamuju subdistrict; some migrated to Gimpu and Palolo valleys, Palu and Pani’i, north of Palu. Alternate names: Pipikoro, Koro, Oema. Dialects: Winatu (Northern Uma), Tobaku (Western Uma, Dompa, Ompa), Tolee’ (Eastern Uma), Kantewu (Central Uma), Southern Uma (Aria), Benggaulu (Bingkolu), Bana. Literature exists in Kantewu dialect, but many would prefer to read their own dialect.
Born in the Netherlands on 23-04-1940 and passed away in Bali on 25-05-2015. Farelli was the pseudonym of a remarkable man who was infused with an obsessive desire to create things that did not yet exist. Born in the Netherlands in 1940 Dolf Versteegh left his home country in 1990 in order to start a new life on the Island of Bali. Without any formal education he reinvented himself as an architect, as a designer of furniture, as a sculptor and as a writer.
As a teenager Dolf spent only three years in High School but he kept studying history and the natural world all his life and during his last 25 years on Bali he revealed himself not only as versatile artist but also as a formidable scholar of biology.
Farelli was a prolific creator of web content and what he has left behind will remain standing as a great monument to his creative spirit, his ingenuity and his never-ending search for knowledge.