South East Sulawesi
Kepulauan Padamarang Marine Reserve
|A. Legal base, location, and space |
The Padamarang waters of ± 36.000 ha has been proposed to be a marine reserve on June 10, 1997 by recommendation of Governor of South East Sulawesi Province no. 521.51/2221, following the decree of Head of Kolaka District no. 522.3/30/96.
The Padamarang is composed of Padamarang Island (± 80 ha), Lambasina Besar Island (± 280 ha), Lambasina Kecil Island (± 80 ha), Lemo Island (± 30 ha), Iju Island (± 5 ha), Lima Island (± 5 ha), Maniang Island (± 500 ha), Kukusan Island (± 110 ha), and Buaya Island (± 140 ha). The islands of Maniang, Buaya, Kukusan, and Lemo are now under mining consesion of PT. Aneka Tambang Pomalaa.
The Padamarang is geographically positined between 4°02’52” – 4°10’42” southern latitude and 121°19’02” – 121°32’33” eastern longitude, administratively in Wundulako Sub-district, Kolaka District. Management of the Padamarang is under authority of RPH Pomalaa, BKPH Mekongga, KPH Kolaka. The group of Padamarang Islands is located in Wapongga Bay in the west of South East Sulawesi Peninsula. This area is bounded by Pao-Pao Bay in the north, the land of South East Sulawesi in the east, and Bone Bay in the west.
The Padamarang is topographically flat and hilly, with slope between 8% 20%. Some islands such as Maniang Island (222 m), and Padamarang Island (325 m – 702 m) are at an altitude of 200 m. The waters area of these villages is covered by coral reef ecosystem whose is mostly fringing reef. The deepest site of Padamarang waters reaches 60 m.
The climate of Padamarang is type A, with rainfall 2.000 mm/year and temperature between 18°C – 24°C. Rainy season is October – March and dry season is April – September.
A survey by the Directorate of Nature Preservation in 1991 found 16 species of coral reef, 13 species of coral fish and ornamental fish, 17 species of consumable fish, 14 species of mollusk, and 8 species of sea grass:
a. Reef, e.g. Acropora spp., Porites spp., Seriatopora spp., Pocil/opora app., Stylopora spp., Acropora spp., Pavona spp., Fungia sp., and Heliopora sp.
b. Coral fish, e.g. Abudefduf sp., Acanthurus sp., Amphiprion sebal, Chaetodon spp., Chaetodonplus sp., Centropyge sp., Drephane sp., Labroides sp., Lethrinus spp., Pomachantus sp., Zebrasoma sp.,
c. Consumable fish, e.g. skipjack (Scomberomorus sp.), tuna (Tuna salbatoru), tongkol (Karsuwonus sp.), layang (Decapterus sp.), bambangan (Lutjanus sp.), kuwe (Caranx sp.), selar (Selar sp.), belanak (Mugil sp.), ekor kuning (Caesio sp.), lemuru (Sardinella sp.), manyung (Tachysurus sp.), lencam (Lethrinus sp.), kakap (Lates sp.), cumi-cumi (Eutherynus sp.), gurita (Octopus sp.) and ubur-ubur (Rhopilana sp.).
d. Mollusk, e.g. Gastropoda, Palecypoda, kima raksasa (Tridacna gigas), kima sisik (T. squamosa), kima kecil (T. maxima), kima tapak kuda (Hippopus hippopus), kepala kambing (Cassis cornuta), siput hijau (Turbo marmoratus), and troka (Trochus niloticus).
e. Seaweed, e.g. Caulerpa taxifolia, Eucheuma spp., Gelidium sp., Gracilaria spp., Halimeda sp., Hypnea sp., and Turbinaria sp.
f. Echinodermata, e.g. sea cucumber (Holothuria atra, H. argus impatiens, H. scaraba. H. vagabunda, Mueliria lecanora, Stichopus ananas), ‘bulu babi’ (Diadema setosum, Diadema sp.), ‘bintang laut putih’ and ‘bintang laut biru’, as well as ‘bintang bantal’.
g. Crustacea, e.g. Charybdis cruciata, Panulirus dasyprus, P. versicolor (udang barong), Portunus pelagius, Phodopthalmus sp., dan Thalamita danae.
h. Coast vegetation, e.g. ‘cemara laut’ (Casuarina equisetifolia), ‘waru’ (Hibiscus tiliaceus), ‘putat laut’ (Baringtonia asiatica), ‘nyamplung’ (Callophyllum inophyllum, ‘cantigi’ (Vaccinium sp.), ‘beringin laut’ (Ficus sp.), and ‘buta-buta’ tree.
i. Wild animals, e.g. green turtle (Chelonia midas), scaled turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata), and various species of water birds.
The Padamarang is easily accessible because of its location in the sea voyage line of Kolaka (South East Sulawesi) to Bajoe (South Sulawesi). It is about 4 hours from Kendari or 45 minutes from Kolaka.
The main problems identified are illegal fishing using bomb and cyanide, coral mining, and grabbing endangered marine biota.
South East Sulawesi Kepulauan Padamarang Nature Recreation Park