– South East Sulawesi Nature Reserves, Minerals and Mining, Plantations,Tribes Map
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Natural resource which also potential is mining sector like asphalt, marmar, and nickel ore. Location of asphalt spreading is in Biton Regency and Muna Regency. The area’s widths of asphalt mining in both regencies are 13,003.67 ha with potential/ deposit reserve amount reach 680,747,000 tons. In marmar store mine type, the location of its spreading is in Buton Regency, Muna Regency, Kolaka Regency with area’s width entirely 189.082 ha with the potency amount / deposit reach 206.237.000.000 m³. While nickel seed’s production that is according to year data 2005 is reaching 1,426,672 ton
Sanggoleo Golf Club
Address:Jl Drs H Abdulah Silondai No 8 Kendari – South-East Sulawesi
Golf Courses with 18 poles, about 40 hectares width has different level. This Golf Course is the only sport facility in Southeast Sulawesi and become the cheapest Golf arena in the world with its good and interesting condition. This Golf Course is located about 10 km from the downtown to the airlines and can reach by public transportation or personal vehicle.
Proposed World Heritage
Wakatobi National Park South East Sulawesi
Date of Submission: 07/02/2005 Criteria: (vii)(viii)(ix)(x) Category: Natural Submission prepared by: Ministry of Emvironment Coordinates: S 5o12′ – 6o10′ E 123o20′ – 124o39′ Ref.: 2006 Description
Wakatobi National Park has very high marine resource potential, in terms of both species and uniqueness, with enchanting submarine landscapes. In terms of configuration, the marine waters of the park generally start flat and then slope seawards, with sheer precipices in some parts. The water depth varies, the deepest parts reaching 1,044 metres with sand and coral at the bottom. This Park has 25 chains of coral reefs, and the total circumference of the coral islands is 600 km. The National Park includes an area of 1,390,000 hectares.
South East Sulawesi 24 Tribes
Bajau 154.000 Islam
5,000 or more in North Maluku (Grimes 1982), 8,000 to 10,000 in South Sulawesi (Grimes 1987), 7,000 in North Sulawesi and Gorontalo, 36,000 in Central Sulawesi, 40,000 in Southeast Sulawesi (Mead and Lee 2007), and several thousand in Nusa Tenggara (Wurm and Hattori 1981, Verhiejen 1986). North Maluku on Bacan, Obi, Kayoa and Sula Islands; South Sulawesi, Selayar, Bone, and Sinjai districts; Gorontalo Province, Popayato and Tilamuta subdistricts; North Sulawesi, Wori, Tumpaan and Belang subdistricts. Widespread throughout Central and Southeast Sulawesi and islands of the East Sunda Sea. Alternate names: Badjaw, Badjo, Bajao, Bajo, Bayo, Gaj, Luaan, Lutaos, Lutayaos, Orang Laut, Sama, Turije’ne’. Dialects: Jampea, Same’, Matalaang, Sulamu, Kajoa, Roti, Jaya Bakti, Poso, Togian 1, Togian 2, Wallace.
The Bajau (also called the Bayo, Gaj, Luaan, or Lutaos) are a highly mobile maritime people group that is found throughout the coastal areas of Sulawesi, Maluku, Kalimantan, Sumatera, and East Nusa Tenggara. Their high mobility led to outsiders calling them ‘sea gypsies.’ In eastern Indonesia, the largest numbers of Bajau are found on the islands and in the coastal districts of Sulawesi. Their everyday language is the Bajau language, which is a branch of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster. While some Bajau have begun to live on land, many Bajau are still boat dwellers. Among the Bajau boat dwellers, local communities consist of scattered moorage groups made up of families whose members regularly return, between intervals of fishing, to a common anchorage site. Two to six families will group together in an alliance to regularly fish and anchor together, often sharing food and pooling labor, nets, and other gear. The boats that are used as family dwellings vary in size and construction. In Indonesia and Malaysia, boats average 10 meters in length with a beam of about 2 meters. They are plank constructed with solid keel and bow sections. All are equipped with a roofed living area made of poles and kajang matting and a portable earthenware hearth, usually carried near the stern, used for preparing family meals. The marine life exploited by the Bajau fishermen is diverse, including over 200 species of fish. Fishing activity varies with the tides, monsoonal and local winds, currents, migrations of pelagic fish, and the monthly lunar cycle. During moonless nights, fishing is often done with lanterns, using spears and handlines. Today, fishing is primarily for market sale. Most fish are preserved by salting or drying. The boat-dwelling Bajau see themselves (in contrast to their neighbors), as non-aggressive people who prefer flight to physical confrontation. As a consequence, the politically dominant groups of the region have historically viewed the Bajau with disdain as timid, unreliable subjects. The Bajau are Sunni Muslims of the Shafi’i school.
Bugis 3.500.000 Islam
Western coast of southeast Sulawesi in Kolaka, Wundulako, Rumbia, and Poleang districts. Also in major towns of Sulawesi. Large enclaves also in other provinces of Sulawesi, Kalimantan, Maluku, Papua, and Sumatra; coastal swamp areas such as Bulukumba, Luwu, Polewali in Polmas, Pasangkayu in Mamuju districts. Also in Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Boegineesche, Boeginezen, Bugi, Buginese, De’, Rappang Buginese, Ugi. Dialects: Bone (Palakka, Dua Boccoe, Mare), Pangkep (Pangkajene), Camba, Sidrap (Sidenrang, Pinrang Utara, Alitta), Pasangkayu (Ugi Riawa), Sinjai (Enna, Palattae, Bulukumba), Soppeng (Kessi), Wajo, Barru (Pare-Pare, Nepo, Soppeng Riaja, Tompo, Tanete), Sawitto (Pinrang), Luwu (Luwu’, Bua Ponrang, Wara, Malangke-Ussu). Bone or Soppeng dialects are central.
The Bugis (sometimes called the Ugi) live in the province of South Sulawesi. The Bugis region is called Tellumponcoe, and it consists of the regencies of Bone, Wajo, and Soppeng. There are also Bugis people settled throughout the regencies of Luwu, Sidenneng, Polmas, Pinrang, Pare-pare, Barru, Pangkajene, Maros, Bulukumba, and Sinjai. The Bugis are a dynamic and highly mobile people, considered by many to be the dominant people group in South Sulawesi. Many Bugis have left their home area to seek success and wealth. In particular, they have migrated to Sumbawa, Jawa, Papua, and even Malaysia. Their Ugi language is divided into several dialects, namely Luwu, Wajo, Bira Selayar, Palaka, Sindenneng and Sawito.
Most Bugis make their living by hunting, fishing, farming, raising livestock or making handicrafts. Typically, the Bugis who live in the mountain ranges gain their livelihood by working the soil, while those living in the coastal areas generally work as fishermen. The Bugis traditional dress is called Wajo Ponco, which is believed to have originated from Melayu (Malay) dress. Currently, the dress is only used for traditional ceremonies and dances. The Bugis believe very strongly that certain days are good days, with good fortune for events and activities held on the first Wednesday and last Thursday of each month. Conversely, they consider Saturday to be a bad day, with misfortune more likely to happen on this day. In Bugis tradition there are different levels of social status that are based upon one’s ancestors. These different levels include descendants of a king, descendants of nobles (La Patau), descendants of district administrators (Aru Lili) and descendants of various kinds of slaves. Two of the most important cultural values for the Bugis people are called siri (personal honor) and siri-pesse (communal honor). A Bugis person must defend, maintain, and build one’s own siri. The effort to obtain and maintain siri varies according to the context. For instance, in an economic context, siri means working hard and being faithful. In a personal context, if a person’s siri is offended serious forms of revenge will be considered. Islam reinforced the traditional Bugis concept of siri in such a way that today the typical Bugis person sees siri as the key to his or her self-identity as a Bugis Muslim. The Bugis line of descent is bilateral (traced through both parents). After marriage the newlyweds may choose to live near either the husband’s or wife’s family, although initially, they live at least briefly near the wife’s family. The Bugis people are famous for their fervent adherence to Sunni Islam.
Bunku 24.000 Islam
100 Routa, 16,400 Bungku, 2,500 Torete, 1,000 Tulambatu, 800 Landawe, 650 Waia. Central Sulawesi, Bungku Utara, Bungku Tengah, and Bungku Selatan subdistricts, along east coast; 45 villages or parts of villages. Tulambatu in northern Southeast Sulawesi, Konawe District, Asera, Soropia, and Lasolo subdistricts, with difficult access. Alternate names: Nahina. Dialects: Bungku, Routa, Tulambatu, Torete (To Rete), Landawe, Waia. Lexical similarity: 81% with Torete, Waia, Tulambatu, and Landawe dialects, 38% with Pamona dialects [pmf], 88%, with Landawe dialect, 84% with Waia dialect, 82% with Torete dialect, 74% with Wawonii [wow], 66% with Taloki [tlk], Kulisusu [vkl], and Koroni [xkq], 65% with Moronene [mqn], 54% with the Mori and Tolaki groups, 82% with the Routa dialect.
The Bungku people (also called “To Bungku”) live in the districts of North Bungku, Central Bungku, South Bungku, and Merui, in the Poso Regency of Central Sulawesi Province. They are also found in several other areas of Sulawesi. The Bungku people are further divided into subgroups such as Lambatu, Epe, Rete, and Ro’Uta. The language used by the Bungku people is Bungku (often called Bungku Laki, or Male Bungku), which is of the same group with various Filipino languages. This language can be divided into several dialects, such as Taa, Merui and Lalaeo. The immigrant communities in this area use their own language, such as the Bugis, Bajo and Jawa languages. Many marriages take place between the Bungku people and the immigrant peoples, hence the relationship between the groups is relatively good in this region. In the past, Bungku people lived in remote inland areas and had little contact with outsiders. With the building of the Trans-Sulawesi highway, they have become more open to outsiders. Although they are inhabitants of Southeast Sulawesi, their culture is greatly influenced by the Bugis culture. According to history, some of the Bungku ancestors were a group of Bugis who migrated to the area. The Bungku make their living as farmers. They grow rice, corn and sweet potatoes as their primary crops, and coconuts and sago palms as secondary crops. The Bungku also harvest resin and rattan that grow in the thick jungles that still exist in their area. Their land is typically less fertile than other areas of Southeast Sulawesi. Formerly, Bungku communities were segregated into three classes. The heads of the village formed the elite group. The common people formed the middle group. The slaves were the final and lowest group. The majority of the Bungku people have embraced Islam.
Busoa 2.600 Islam
Southeast Sulawesi, southwest coast of Buton island, Batauga subdistrict, Busoa and Laompo villages. Alternate names: Bosoa. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 84% with Kambe-Kambero (probably a dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka]), 70%79% with Muna dialects, 71% with Muna [mnb], 76% with Lantoi [zka].
Cia-Cia 83.000 Islam
The Cia-Cia, more commonly known as the South Butonese, are located on the southern tip of Buton Island, to the southeast of Sulawesi. They are close neighbors to the Wolio (also known as the Butonese) and to the Muna. Their language, Cia-Cia, is a member of the Austronesian language family and is closely related to Wolio.
The Butonese, or Wolio, live in the area which was formerly known as the sultanate of Buton. Around the fifteenth century, immigrants from Johore established the kingdom of Buton, with a king, or raja, as the ruler. The sixth raja converted to Islam in 1540, making him the first sultan and his kingdom, a sultanate.
The sultanate of Buton remained independent until the death of the last sultan in 1960. At that time, the sultanate was dissolved and finally integrated with the nation of Indonesia. This union, however, resulted in a loss of tradition for the Butonese. The Cia-Cia base much of their livelihood on agriculture, since the soil of the islands is very fertile. The main crops grown are corn, dry rice, and cassava. Many Cia-Cia are also fishermen or boat builders. However, since economic opportunities are lacking, many sail to faraway islands to earn money in commercial enterprise or labor. Some of these never return. Today, people of Butonese origin live throughout eastern Indonesia.
Seafaring is considered men’s work, along with ironworking, boat building, brass and silver manufacturing, and most of cultivating the fields. Pottery, weaving, the preparation of meals, domestic work, and the management of the family’s money are the women’s primary responsibilities.
Cia-Cia houses are raised above ground and built of sturdy planks. The roofs are made of small planks, palm leaves, or iron, and the houses have only a few windows. Most villages have markets where woven silk, cotton, and other fabrics are traded. Many villages also have small stores and peddlers selling various items from their carts.
Today, most Cia-Cia marriages are monogamous (having one spouse). Although parents are involved in the arrangement of the marriages, the young people are free to choose their partners. After marriage, the couple lives with the bride’s family until the husband can build his own house. Infants are reared by both father and mother alike.
Education is highly valued for both boys and girls in Butonese society. This emphasis on education has caused their literary art to flourish, resulting in the writing of books and long poems which have become a part of Butonese culture. Foreign language study is also encouraged, and many Butonese are improving their positions in society. Islam was first accepted by the Butonese nobility. They shared their religious knowledge with the commoners, but they did so in a limited way, keeping the villagers dependent upon them. Today, 95% of the Cia-Cia are Muslim, but the belief in various supernatural beings plays a role in village life. Such beings include guardian spirits, harvest spirits, evil spirits who cause illness, and helpful spirits who give guidance. Ancestral spirits are thought to help their living relatives or cause illnesses, depending on the behavior of the relatives. The Cia-Cia also consider nature to be the material form of God’s creation and, therefore, glorify it.
Kamaru 3.700 Islam
Southeast Sulawesi, southeast Buton Island. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 68% with Lasalimu [llm], 67% with Wolio [wlo], 54% with Cia-Cia [cia], 51% with Pancana [pnp], 49% with Tukang Besi [khc], 45% with Muna [mnb]
Kioko 1.200 Islam
Southeast Sulawesi, Kulisusu subdistrict, Buton Island. Dialects: Kioko, Kambowa. Possibly dialect of the Pancana [pnp] language. Lexical similarity: 82% with Kambowa dialect, 81% with Laompo dialect of Muna [mnb], 74% with Muna, 75% with Liabuku [lix] and Busoa [bup].
Kodeoha 1.900 Islam
Southeast Sulawesi, North Kolaka District, Lasusua subdistrict, Kolaka west coast. 4 villages. Alternate names: Kondeha. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Rahambuu [raz]; 70% with Tolaki [lbw], Mekongga, and Waru [wru]; 54% with the several Mori and Bungku [bkz] groups.
Kulisusu 26.000 Islam
Southeast Sulawesi, Kulisusu and Bonegunu subdistricts, northeast corner of Buton Island. Alternate names: Kalisusu, Kolensusu, Kolinsusu. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81% between dialects, 77% with Taloki [lbw], 75% with Koroni [xkq], 66% with Wawonii [wow] and Bungku [bkz] group, 65% with Moronene [mqn], 54% with the Mori languages and Tolaki.
The Kulisusu of Indonesia are located in northeastern Buton Island, which is to the southeast of Sulawesi. Of the estimated 25,000 Kulisusu speakers, a majority live on the narrow hilly peninsula which juts southward separating the Koro Bay on the west from the Banda Sea on the east, an area approximately 5 km in breadth and 20 km in length. Pressures created by an expanding population are currently being eased by the availability of new land, (virgin forest) both north along the coast, as well as in the mountains and foothills surrounding the Koro Bay. This land is also valued by the national government as a site for locating transmigrants from the more populous islands of Indonesia.Although little has been written about the Kulisusu, we do know they have been settled in their present location for at least the past 400 years. While they have apparently always been a small people group, they enjoyed a period of independence in the early 17thcentury until their capital town was sacked by forces from Ternate (in Maluku Islands). It was probably then, or shortly after, that Islam was introduced. Thereafter, because of the continuing threat from Ternate, the Kulisusu found it best to ally themselves as a vassal state under the neighboring Wolio people, whose sultans ruled from the southern part of Buton island. Most Kulisusu families have their own farmlands and work together in cultivating the lands. They primarily cultivate cassava, corn, and rice, along with assorted vegetables and fruits. In addition to personal consumption, produce is also sold in the markets, and the Kulisusu are known for having low prices. Some Kulisusu are also traders who travel to many other islands in and around Indonesia or work on merchant ships. Kulisusu who have become governmental employees are respected because of their prestige, high salary, and the opportunities they get to improve their lives. Those who work in fields other than farming are generally better off and more successful. Because of the strong extended families of the Kulisusu, each adult who is working will share at least a part of his or her salary with the larger family. Honesty and hard work are valued. The level of crime is extremely low. Kulisusu people are followers of Islam.
Lasalimu 1.900 Islam
Southeast Sulawesi, Southeast Buton Island, Lasalimu subdistrict. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 68% with Kamaru [kgx], 64% with Cia-Cia [cia], 57% with Tukang Besi, 51% with Pancana [pnp], 50% with Wolio [wlo] and Muna [mnb].
Liabuku 1.200 Islam
Southeast Sulawesi, Bungi subdistrict, south Buton Island, part of Liabuku village north of Bau-Bau. Dialects: Quite divergent from other Muna varieties. Lexical similarity: 82% with the Burukene dialect of Muna [mnb], 72%76% with other Muna dialects, 72% with Muna, 75% with Kioko [ues].
Moronene 41.000 Islam
5% are monolingual. 23,000 in Moronene, 14,000 in Tokotu’a. Includes about 3,500 now living in cities. Second or third generations in cities no longer speak Moronene. Southeast Sulawesi, Bombana District. Tokotu’a on Kabaena Island; Wita Ea on the mainland portion of Bombana District opposite Kabaena, with Rumbia subdialect in Rumbia subdistrict, and Poleang subdialect in Poleang, Poleang Timur, and Watubangga subdistrict of Kolaka District. Alternate names: Maronene, Nahina. Dialects: Wita Ea (Rumbia, Poleang), Tokotu’a (Kabaena). Lexical similarity: 80 % of Wita Ea dialect 80% with Tokotu’a dialect; 68% with Menui dialect of Wawonii [wow], 66% with Kulisusu [vkl], 65% with Taloki [tlk], Koroni [xkq], Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz], 64% with Bungku [bkz], and 57% with Tolaki [lbw].
Sulawesi is an island with a coastline of about 3,500 miles. It consists mainly of four peninsulas separated by deep gulfs, with two of the peninsulas extending southward and two, northeastward. On the southern part of the island is one of Sulawesi’s highest points, Mount Lompobatang, an extinct volcano reaching a height of 9,419 feet. Although the climate of the area is tropical, it is somewhat modified by elevation and the closeness of the sea.
For the Maronene, maize grown in swiddens (land cleared by the “slash and burn” method of farming) is the staple crop, but sweet potatoes, sugarcane, vegetables, tobacco, and coffee are also grown. Scattered among the clearings are their homes, which are usually built on stilts. They are generally made of woven grasses and have very high roofs.
Distinct social classes are still quite pronounced for most of the people groups in Sulawesi, with a higher noble class, a lower noble class, and a class of commoners. Each class usually has its own code of behavior, along with various customs and traditions. A region is typically divided into village territories, and rights to land use are administered by the village council. However, the council retains ultimate ownership of all the land.
Maronene marriage customs require payments to the girl’s family at the time of engagement and again at the wedding. The amount of the bride-price depends on the social rank of the young man. Prior to marriage, the groom is required to serve a probationary period with his prospective parents-in-law. To avoid this requirement, many young couples choose to elope. In the past, slaves and their descendants were not permitted to marry each other, though they could live together. Also, noble women did not marry commoners. Polygyny (having more than one wife) was common among some of the aristocracy, but is rarely found today.
Presently, Indonesia has more than eight million farmers who do not own land. To those willing to move from overcrowded areas to less developed islands, the government offers free land, housing, and other assistance. Islam is the dominant religion in Indonesia today and is practiced by a majority of the population.
Muna 298.000 Islam
Off southwest Sulawesi, Muna Island, northwest coast of Buton Island; Central Maluku, Ambon. Dialects: Standard Muna (Northern Muna), Tiworo (Eastern Muna), Gu, Lakudo, Mawasangka, Kadatua, Siompu, Katobengke, Burukene, Laompo, Kapontori. Subvarieties of Standard Muna are: Tungkuno, Kabawo, Lawa, Katobu, Tobea Besar; of Gulamas are: Gu, Mawasangka, Lakudo, Wale-Ale, Lawama, Kadatua, Lowu-Lowu, Kalia-Lia, Katobengke, Topa, Salaa, Lawela, Laompo, Burukene. Lexical similarity: 71% with Pancana [pnp], 62% with Cia-Cia [cia], 52% with Wolio [wlo], 50% with Lasalimu [llm], 47% with Tukang Besi [khc] or [bhq], 45% with Kamaru [kgx].
The Muna people (also called Mendo-Wuna) live in Southeast Sulawesi Province on the larger islands of Muna and Buton, and the smaller islands of Kadatua, Siompu, Bangkomalape, and Tiworo. Muna Island is separated from Buton Island by a strait stretching from north to south. According to tradition, the word muna, was taken from the name of a hill with a “flowering rock”. Today, this place, Bahutara, has become a tourist attraction. Meanwhile, the word wuna means flower in the Muna language.The Muna people are grouped into several sub-groups such as Ghoera, Siompu, Kaobengke, Lakudo, and Kadatua. Each group speaks the Muna language with a different dialect. The Muna dialect is used in the north, the Gumas dialect is used in the south, and the Tiworo dialect is used in the east. Muna language recognizes social levels, depending upon which person is being addressed. Muna language is similar to Buton language. The Muna people make their living as farmers, with their primary crops being corn and rice. Other crops include sweet potatoes, sugar cane, and various kinds of spices. Part of their commerce comes from marketing the products of the jungle such as wood and rattan. The pokadulu custom (mutual assistance) influences various activities in the Muna community, as groups of people will gather to do large projects such as clearing, planting and harvesting fields.The Muna people usually live in the interior of the islands, rather than in the coastal regions. They live together in kinship groups, which are called Tombu. These groups form communities in the larger settlement. The locations of these communities are far apart, and contact is limited due to many natural barriers such as valleys, mountains and rivers. The lineage of descent of the Muna is patrilineal (tracing descent from the father). In Muna marriages, the groom pays a bride price to her family. This price is determined by the groom’s social status in the community; the higher his status, the higher the price. Before the marriage, the future husband must undergo a trial period by his future in-laws. However, this requirement is the main cause of many elopements.In the past, servants were not permitted to marry each other, but were permitted to live together. Women of the noble class also were not permitted to marry men from other social classes. Polygamy became popular among the nobility, but is rarely practiced anymore. The majority of Muna people follow Sunni Islam.
Rahambuu 6.200 Islam
Southeast Sulawesi, North Kolaka District, Pakue subdistrict, west coast north of the Kodeoha. Alternate names: Wiau, Wiaoe, Noihe. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 87% between dialects, 75% with Kodeoha [vko], 70% with Tolaki [lbw], Mekongga dialect of Tolaki [lbw], and Waru [wru]; 54% with Mori [mzq] or [xmz] and Bungku [bkz] groups.
Taloki 600 Islam
Southeast Sulawesi, northwest coast Buton Island, Wakorumba subdistrict, Maligano village; possibly south Buton Island, Kapontori subdistrict, Wakalambe village. Alternate names: Taluki. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 77% with Kulisusu [vkl]; 75% with Koroni [xkq]; 66% with Wawonii [wow], Bungku [bkz], Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz]; 65% with Moronene [mqn].
Tolaki 800 Islam
650 Asera, fewer than 100 Wiwirano, 200 Laiwui. Southeast Sulawesi, Konawe, South Konawe, Kolaka and North Kolaka districts. Mekongga in Mekongga Mountains, near west edge Soroako. Alternate names: Tololaki, To’olaki, Lolaki, Laki, Tokia. Dialects: Wiwirano (Nohina ), Asera (Asera Wanua, Noie ), Konawe (Kendari, Tambuoki , Kioki ), Mekongga (Kolaka, Bingkokak, Norio , Tamboki , Konio ), Laiwui. Lexical similarity: 88% between Wiwirano and Asera dialects, 84% with Konawe, 85% with Mekongga, 81% with Laiwui, 78% with Waru, 70% with Rahambuu and Kodeoha, 54% with the Mori and Bungku groups. Mekongga has 86% with Konawe, 80% with Laiwui.
Tomadino 800 Islam
Central Sulawesi, Bungku Tengah subdistrict, Sakita village on east coast, outskirts of Bungku town. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Bahonsuai [bsu], 68% with Mori Atas [mzq], Mori Bawah [xmz], and Padoe [pdo].
Tukang Besi North 130.000 Islam
The Tukangbesi Utara (North Tukangbesi) people can be found in the northernmost two islands of the four Tukangbesi islands in Southeast Sulawesi Province. They are neighbors with the Wolio (Buton) and Muna people. The Tukangbesi Utara people speak the Tukangbesi language, which is closely related to Cia-Cia. Available information shows that their culture is virtually the same as the Tukangbesi Selatan, but they claim a separate identity for reasons not yet clear to researchers.The Tukangbesi language is most commonly spoken in the Binongko and Tomea dialects. Education is emphasized for boys and girls alike. They have a tradition of literary skill, and this is displayed in culturally important books and long poems. At the beginning of 15th century, migrants from Johor, in what is now Malaysia, established the kingdom of Buton. This kingdom included the Tukangbesi Islands and was ruled by a raja (king). In 1540, the sixth raja converted to Islam, making him the first sultan. His sultanate lasted until the death of the last sultan in 1960 lead to integration with the nation of Indonesia. The Tukangbesi Utara base much of their livelihood on agriculture, since the soil of the islands is very fertile. The main crops grown are corn, dry rice, and cassava. Many Tukangbesi Utara are also fishermen or boat-builders. However, since economic opportunities are lacking, many sail to other locations. Some of these never return, and people of Tukangbesi Utara origin live throughout much of eastern Indonesia. Seafaring is considered men’s work, along with ironworking, boat building, brass and silver manufacturing, and most work in the fields. Pottery, weaving, preparing meals, cleaning, and managing the family’s money are the women’s primary jobs. Tukangbesi Utara houses are raised above ground and built of sturdy planks. The roofs are made of small planks, palm leaves, or iron, and the houses have only a few small windows. Most villages have markets where woven silk, cotton, and other fabrics are traded. Although parents are involved in the arrangement of marriages, the young people are free to choose their partners. After marriage, the couple lives with the bride’s family until the husband can build his own house. Both spouses are actively involved in caring for their children. Most Tukangbesi Utara people are Muslims,
Tukang Besi South 156.000 Islam
100,000 in Maluku. Tukang Besi archipelago south islands, Binongko and Tomea islands off Sutheast Sulawesi; Maluku, Taliabu, Mongole, Sulabesi, Buru, Seram, Ambon, and Alor islands. Bonerate dialect in Bonerate, Madu, Kalaotoa, and Karompa islands in Selayar District, South Sulawesi; numerous settlements throughout western Papua. Alternate names: Buton, Tukang-Besi, Wakatobi. Dialects: Binongko, Bonerate, Tomea (Tomia). Lexical similarity: 70%75% with Tukang Besi North [khc], 48% with Cia-Cia [cia], 49% with Lasalimu [llm], average of 35% with other nearby languages. Lexical similarity 85% between Binongko and Tomea, 81% with Bonerate, 79% between Tomea and Bonerate.
Waru 400 Islam
Southeast Sulawesi, Konawe District, Asera subdistrict, Mopute village by Lindu River. Alternate names: Mapute, Mopute. Dialects: Waru, Lalomerui. Lexical similarity: 86% between the Waru and Lalomerui dialects, 79% with Tolaki [lbw] dialects and Mekongga (dial Tolaki [lbw]), 70% with Rahambuu [raz] and Kodeoha [vko], 54% with the Mori [mzq] or [xmz] and Bungku [bkz] groups.
Wawoni 28.000 Islam
14,000 Wawonii, 7,500 Menui. Southeast Sulawesi, Wawonii and Menui islands near Kendari. Alternate names: Wowonii. Dialects: Wawonii, Menui. Lexical similarity: 75% with Bungku [bkz] and Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz], 66% with Taloki [lbw], Kulisusu [vkl], and Koroni [xkq], 65% with Moronene [mqn].
The Wawonii can be found on the island of Wawoni, which is located off the southeastern coast of the major island of Sulawesi. Their language, which they call Wawonii is related to the Bungku and Tulambatu languages. Although there is not as much information currently available about the Wawonii as there is on some other people groups, that which is available shows a way of life similar to their better known neighbors, the Bingkoka, the Pancana, and the Muna. All of these groups once belonged to the sultanate of Butung (the island of Buton was once known as Butung). The sultanate included Butung, Muna, Kabaena, and other small islands. The Sultan of Butung ruled the Wawonii through a hierarchy of advisors and officials. Local chiefs, who were selected from the families of their predecessors, lived in the capital. The Wawonii were under Dutch rule from 1910 until 1949 at which time they became part of the newly independent Indonesian nation. The Wawonii’s primary way of making a living is by growing corn. Crops other than corn include sweet potatoes, sugar cane, various vegetables, tobacco, and coffee. New fields are opened by the “slash and burn” technique of cutting down trees and burning the underbrush. The Wawonii are forced to move each time their fields become infertile, because their farming techniques cause infertility in their current fields.Their houses are spread throughout the new areas they clear out of the jungle. Houses are built on stilts, and their very high roofs are made of woven thatch. Most people groups in Sulawesi are still familiar with different social classes in their social systems. The Wawonii use the typical groupings of nobility, middle class, and common people. Usually, each respective class has its own customs, in addition to different traditions and habits. The privilege of owning land is decided by the community advisory committee, which has unconditional authority over all the land.The lineage of descent of the Wawonii is patrilineal (tracing descent from the father). In Wawonii marriages, the groom pays a bride price to her family. This price is determined by the groom’s social status in the community; the higher his status, the higher the price. Before the marriage, the future husband must undergo a trial period by his future in-laws. However, this requirement is the main cause of many elopements. Almost all Wawonii people practice Sunni Islam.
Wolio 66.000 Islam
Southeast Sulawesi, southwest Buton Island, Bau-Bau. Also in Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Baubau. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Cia-Cia [cia], 60% with Masiri dialect of Cia-Cia [cia] and Lantoi dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka].
The Wolio people (also called the Baubau, Buton, or Butung) live in Indonesia and Malaysia. In Indonesia they live on the small islands of Buton, Muna, and Kabaena, located in the Southeast Sulawesi Province. Their ancestors were immigrants from Johor, Malaysia at the beginning of 15th century, who also founded the Buton dynasty. In 1540 the sixth king became a follower of Islam. He reshaped the kingdom to become a sultanate, and set himself up as the first sultan. The sultanate of Buton lasted until the death of the last sultan in 1960. With his death, the Buton sultanate ended and thus its traditions have been lost. Buton today is known for its production of asphalt. Many people have moved to other islands to find work. At the present time, many Wolio people live in the areas of Maluku and Papua. They speak the Wolio language, which is from the Buton-Muna group of languages in their daily life conversation. Other than that, the Arabic language is also understood by some, especially in religious writings and older written materials. In each of their villages there usually is a market for the selling of materials related to cloth products, such as silk, cotton, and others. Many villages also have small stores, and peddlers also can be seen selling their wares throughout the village. Wolio people primarily live as farmers because their land is very fertile. Primary crops are rice, corn, and cassava. Many people also work as sailors or shipbuilders. The water around Buton and Muna is also filled with fish, especially tuna and “yellow tail” fish.The Wolio houses are built using boards, with small windows added. The roofs are built with small boards and coconut leaves. These houses are raised up to two meters above the ground. In the Wolio community, the men are mainly involved in labor outside the home, while the wife works in the home and manages the family and their finances. Marriage relationships in Buton are monogamous. Newly married couples live in the bride’s parents’ house until the man is able to build their own house. Both parents share the responsibility of raising their children. The Wolio people place a great priority on education. Good education for their children has been a high priority. This, added to their willingness to study foreign languages, has resulted in noticeable social advancement. Almost all Wolio people have beliefs centered in Sufi Islam.