Maps of East Java, Mining, Plantations, Iljen Plateau, Madura Kangean Islands
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Minerals and Mining
|One of natural resources potentials which is produced is mining sector, with mining area’s width reach 10,992.86 ha, production amount which is produced is 29,458,718.76 tons per year. Production type which is produced from mining sector such as: mountain stone/ andesite with production 55,255.00 tons per year; sand with production 2,003,432.92 ton per year; limestone with production 16,311,268.00 tons per year; feldspar with production 198,094.18 tons per year; kaolin with production 1,868,683.00 tons per year; dolomite with production 456,681.52 tons per year; marble with production 1,177,864.00 tons per year; quartz-sand with production 62,973.40 tons per year, bentonite with production 16,600.00 tons per year; fill land with production 74,141.00 tons per year; trass with production 80,225 tons per year; sand/ stone gravel with production 7,075,176.87 tons.|
|In East Java, Indonesia lies Kawah Ijen volcano, 2,600 meters tall (8,660ft), topped with a large caldera and a 200-meter-deep lake of sulfuric acid. The quietly active volcano emits gases through fumaroles inside the crater, and local miners have tapped those gases to earn a living. Stone and ceramic pipes cap the fumaroles, and inside, the sulfur condenses into a molten red liquid, dripping back down and solidifying into pure sulfur. Miners hack chunks off with steel bars, braving extremely dangerous gases and liquids with minimal protection, then load up as much as they can carry for the several kilometers to the weighing station. Loads can weigh from 45 to 90kg (100 – 200 lbs), and a single miner might make as many as two or three trips in a day. At the end of a long day, miners take home approximately Rp50,000 ($5.00 u.s.). The sulfur is then used for vulcanizing rubber, bleaching sugar and other industrial processes nearby.|
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|Car license numbers:|
N: Malang, Probolingo, Pasuruan, Lumajang, Batu.
P: Besuki, Bondowoso, Situbondo, Jember, Banyuwangi.
S, Bojonegoro, Mojokerto, Tuban, Lamongan, Jombang.
W: Sidoarjo, Gresik.
AE: Madiun, Ngawi, Magetan, Ponorogo, Pacitan.
AG: Kediri, Blitar, Tulungagung, Nganjuk, Trenggalek.
|The main point of East Jawa is located at the northern coast, in Surabaya: a rising industrial and commercial centre, and the second largest city in Indonesia. With it’s three milion residents this factory-, and seaport city has developed into the economical capital of entire Eastern Indonesia. The seaport ( Tanjung Perak’e.g. Cape Silver ) is a crossing of trade between the eastern islands of the archipelago and the seaports in the west, a role which Surabaya filled for centuries already. Partly as a result of softening rules the industry as well as the service sector grew tremendously. The famous poor sight of the city is disappearing more rapidly, and is being replaced by that of a metropolis. It even looks like if it will get back it’s important status of most important centre of trade and industry in the entire archipelago; a position it lost to Jakarta after the Second World War. In contrary to Jakarta, with it’s mixture of cultures, Surabaya is an real Jawanese city. Other than In Solo and Yogyakarta, the Jawanese in Surabaya mainly originate from the pasisir ( the coast, the bordr area ) and they belong on the whole to the santri, a more orthodox stream in the Islam.|
Original inhabitants are called Arèk Suroboyo in Jawanese. They are free, proud and sometimes a little simpleminded. The city has a faster pace and a more cosmopolitan look on life than the hinterland, cultivated by centuries of contacts with traders from overseas.
People have little interest in the fuss and etiquette of the royal cities; Surabays is a commecial centere and it’s society reasonable egalitarian. Surabaya has little to offer to tourists, but lovers of the sparkling and busy nightlife can enjoyt this city, especially when they look beneath the surface. Who really wants to enjoy the city has just to copy the middle class; a small walk to the evening market of the shopping mall. Public happenins are an extremely good moment to meet, at watch, other people.
The story of the shark and the crocodile The name Surabaya originates from a stoey about a fight between sura ( a shark ) and a baya ( a crocodile ). In that fight they united and formed the character S, which can be found at the back of the Monument of the Heroes, on the city arms. Another explaination is saya ing baya, a Jawanese proverb; ‘brave in the face of fear’. With this the ajèk Suroboyo are meant, which offered strong resistance against the fierce attack of sultan Agung. But just as well this proverb can be used fo the people who fought in the later revolution.
It’s not exactly known when Surabaya was founded, but in the seventies the city council declared 31 May 1293 as the big dag. Historically this was the dat at which the Chinese-Mongolian troops were conquerred by Raden Wijaya and he founded the empire of Majapahit. The harbour developped from a small village at the banks of a brackish side-rivers of the Brantas. Maybe this is a declaration of it’s Chinese name, Sishui, which means ‘muddy water’. Chinese sources report that the city was ‘the gate to the mighty Brantas, the main route which leads to the inlands of Jawa’.
During the good period of Majapahid in the 14th century Surabaya had a lower position compared with the near seaports of Tuban and Gresik. Until the first half of the 19th century, the seaport of Pasuran even was bigger. The city got more fame when it held strong against the aggresion of Mataram, Madura and the VOC threathened to invade Surabaya, in the 17th and 18th century. Leaders of resistance like Trunojoyo ( a disloyal prince from Madura ), Sawunggaling ( a local hero ) and Untung Surapati ( a rebelling Baltic slave ) brought huge losses to the Dutch and Mataram.
Eventually the city was lost to the VOC, except of the quarters near the harbour where European, Chinese and other Asian traders lived, it was no more than a Jawanese kampung until the turn of the century, houses of wood and bamboo. As many other cities on Jawa Surabaya got it’s colonial looks only after 1900; big stone buildings besides green and wide lanes, most of the times close to the kampungs, when they didn’t have to dissappear. Even now people speak about ‘the people from the wide lanes’ and from ‘the people from the small alleys’.
City centre Just like Jakarta, Surabaya developed around the harbour, and gradulately grew southwards. A visit to the city normally starts in the new commercial and governmental centre around Jalan Tunjungan and Jalan Pemuda, a fast developing, smaller version of Jalan Thamrin – Sudirman – Gatot Subroto, the main archer in Jakarta.
Point of recognition dfor Jalan Tunjungan is Hotel Majapahit, the former ‘Oranje Hotel’. At this place the flag-incident took place in September 1945, the spark in the revolutionair barrel of gunpowder of the city. With just across Hotel Sarkies, at Jalan Embong Malang, the corner forms the lost colonial history, with at the eastern side the former private club Deutsche Verein at Jalan Gentengkali, now known as Balai Sahabat.This place offers a good Chinese restaurant, also accessible for non-members. At this street is also the cultural centre, Taman Budaya for expositions and shows. In the morning students practice classical dances. The complex was used for the bupati ( regent ) until the seventies.
At Jalan Dolog is a statue of king Kertanagara in his incarnation of the Bhuddha Asokbhya. The from Malang originating statue was taken to Surabaya earlier. The feet carried the date 1289. Jawanese still honour the statue, that is locally know as ‘Joko Dolog’ ( fat boy ).
More to the east, at Jalan Pemuda, is Grahadi, the official residence of the governor of East Jawa, once the stately residence house. From the road the back of the building can just be seen; at the front if a small canal. In this quarter transport over water was very common. The statue of Soerju, the first governot of East Jawa, dresses up the park across Grahadi.
East of this is the Balai pemuda, built in 1907 as the Simpang Club. It was rebuilt into a luxury cinema and exhibition room of Surabaya. More north, in the middle of a traffic island is a statue of Sudirman, commander-in-chief of the Indonesian revolutionary troops. Here is also the city house, built by the Dutch, which offered a view over the Taman Surya park. The nearby ice-cream salon Zangrandi with it’s colonial air it’s a part of the city. More to the east at Jalan Pemuda is one of the biggest malls in Southeast Asia. Across are food stalls and the river market at Jalan Kayoon; you can buy semi precious stones, in gold and silver if you like.
Further south, at the other bank of the river is Jalan Irian Barat, at night a famous place for transvestites, the only place in entire Indonesia where the waria( fake woman ) are illegal. Along Jalan Keputran ( Prince Street ) many vegetable traders collected at night, futher south, where Jalan Keputran changes into Jalan Dinoyo, is a Chinese temple where on special Thursdays wayang kulit shows are given.
Old city North of the triangle Jalan Tunjungan – Pemuda – Kaliasin are the old quarters of Surabaya. On Jalan Pahlawan is the Monument of the Heroes ( Tugu Pahlawan ) dating back to the fifties. It is built for the bravery of the youghts of Surabaya during the battle of Surabaya. At this famous Surabaya got it’s nickname ‘City of Heroes’. East of the square is the colonial governors house which partially dates back to the thirties.
From here the route goed back in time. Walk towards the north over Jalan Veteran ( used to be Jalan Niaga, the colonial buildings date from the 1920’s ) to Jembatan Merah, the Red Bridge, in the centre of the former trading quarter. The color of the bridge came from the fight between the shark and the crocodile, at least, that’s the story.
Jalan Kembang Jepun ( ‘Japanese Flowers’ ), east of the bridge got it’s name because of the houses with Japanses prostitutes ( karayuki-san ). Now it’s a business district, and also the centre of Surabaya’s big Chinese quarter. Just south of the Kembang Jepun at Jalan Sompretan is the Hok An Kiong temple, built in the 18th century by Chinese traders to honour Mazu, the proctection goddess of the sailors.
The only pure confucian temple of Indonesia, built in 1907, is at Jalan Kapasan. The Sunday mass is similar to the Christian mass; this influence dates back to the turn of the last century when Chinese students of Chinese missionaries reformed the population.
In this neighborhood is also the Klenteng Bukuh ( Hok Tik Hian ) where daily shows are given with handdolls from Fukien ( potehi ). The accultation is big, the players – which speak Hokkien – and the musicians who are mainly Jawanese. The parking attendant who sells the dolls is from Madura.
An even more crazy example of the blending of religion and culture in Surabaya is Jalan Panggung, where old Chinese totok’s are besided Islamic houses of prayer. Walking among other people you will arrive at Pasar Pabean, an enormous market where traders trade in goods from the countryside, seafood, spices, perfumes and semi gems, like it has gone fot centuries.
Further north the Jalan Kyai Mas Mansyur takes you directly to the past of Surabaya: the heart of the Arabic quarter, whith a kashba-air. The gate which dresses up Jalan Ampel Suci leads to the Mesjid Sunan Ampel, the oldest mosques of the city. The grave of the namer of the mosque is at the back, Sunan Ampel, one of the nine legendaric heroes wali which the Islam took to Jawa in the 15th century.
Just north of the Arabic quarter is the historical harbour Kali Mas. For centuries it was visited by sailboats from all over the archipelago. Even now the rubust pinisi-ships from South Sulawesi can be seen here. They anchor on the two kilometre wide quay west of the modern seaport area Tasnjung Perak, not open for public.
Jalan Kapasari ( bach to Jalan Kapasan and then right ) has a flea market which attracts many vistors on Sundays.
More south the street is names Jalan Kasumabansa; here is the THR, Surabaya’s centre of shopping and enjoyment for the big audience. Covered- and outside theathres bring traditional dance, and modern music to ythe visitors. Besides is Taman Remaja Surabaya ( Surabaya Youthpark ), a non stop pasar. Very interesting is the show of transvestites which is held on Thursday evenings. With their best voices they sing songs on which young guys try to dance. Suburbs
At the most remote Southeastern corner of the city, at the end of Jalan Kenjeran, is Pantai Ria Kenjeran, Kenjeran Beach. There is no beach in the area and the new amusement park has changed into a love hotel, but in the old park there certainly is good seafood for sale. It’s in the middle of the Madurese fishing villages, which hold birding contests as a popular game of gambling; illegal, but inexstinctable.
South and West of the Kenjeran, past the campus of the Institut Teknologi Surabaya ( ITS ), is a flamboyant nouveau riche quarter. On scheduled times the Indonesia-America Friendschip Association holds art expositions. At Toko Miroto good collections of arts and crafts can be found.
At the Southern egde of Surabya, besides Jalan Raya Darmo, the Dutch built an elegant quarter at the start of the 20th century. At Jalan Taman Mayangkera 6 is the Mpu Tantular Museum, placed in the house of the former representative of the ‘Javaansche Bank’ ( Jawanese Bank ). It has a small but important historical and archeological collection. Across the museum is the Kebun Binatant, one of the oldest and biggest zoo’s in Southeastern Asia, with among the animals the Komodo Dragons and river dolphins from Kalimantan.
The way back to the centre takes you along Jalan Diponegoro to the busy crossing with Jalan Girilaya. Here is the famous brothel Dolly’s, named after the lady whi started the sex-industry in this quarter in the 1960’s. This red-light-disctrict gives a sobering view on the blending of normal housed, houses of prayer and brothels.
|Malang was a popular stay for colonials. The city had a cool climate and is located on a nice, with vulcanoes surrounded plauteau, 450 metres above the pressing heat of the lowlands. In the east the active Gunung Semeru dominates the view; the Gunung Anjasmoro, Arjuna and Penderman in the north are covered with hotels and holiday places. Southwest of the city is the mystical Gunung Kawi, where pilgrims pray for prosperity.|
Following the Dinoyo-inscription from 760 a kingdom flourished at the location of the current city; in the area there are many old objects. The modern Malang is an colonial city though. The growth started after 1870, when Europeans built coffe-, rubber, and cacao plantations and the sugar industry of the government started to grow. The wealth attracted more and more Dutch. They built houses in the city, and holiday house in the mountains of Batu, Selekta and Lawang.
The alun-alun of Malang was constructed in 1882 following the standard pattern; at it’s border a market, a mosque, a prison and regents house. Later the Europeans built the house of the assisting resident, the Protestant church and later a bank building and a society. In 1914 a new city centre across the River Kali Brantas was constructed around a square at it’s centre. At the same time a new quarter north of the city was built, complete with wide lanes and big trees. The colonial feeling can still be felt around here.
The good, 90 kilometre road from Surabaya to Malang takes you to the
botanical garden of Purwodadi, an department of the Kebun Raya Bogor. The garden, where the beautifull Baung-falls are, stretches all the way to the lower hills of the Arjuna. The imposant Jugendstil hotels Niagara, which is said to be haunted, was designed for a rich Chinese in 1911 by the Brasillian architect Pinitu.
Malang is a good place to view at a good walk. The Balai Kota Malang, the city house at Jalan Tugu is the best point for a start. On the big, round square with the mahony trees for the shade.
The Splendid Inn at Jalan majapahit used to be a landhouse; in 1973 it was rebuilt into a hotel.
Toko Oen. Since the father of the current owner opened the store at the end of the 1930’s, on the inside nothing changed. Tourists and ladies from Malang buy fresh bread and nice cakes there, though it’s closed on Mondays.
Besides the western road of the alun-alun is the reformed church and just a little ahead the most important mosque of the city. In the southwestern corner of the square is Hotel Pelangi, the former Palace Hotel. Dutch tiles decorate the walls of the coffeehop. At the southern side of the square is a main kantor pos post office. It’s a gathering point for street sellers of food, toys and sellers who try to sell medicines to passers-by.
Twenty kilometres west of Malang are the holiday places of Batu en Selekta, which are from the Dutch times. The old colonial buildings and the modern weekend vill;a’s belong to the rich of Malang and Surabaya.
The main road from Malang to the northwest leads to Dinoyo, with a good pottery industry.
A turn to the right takes you to Selekta. The bumby road climbc up along villas and impressivee trees towards Hotel Selekta. The hotel, once an exclusive place of relaxation,
The village of Sumber Brantas is just ahead, near the sources of the Brantas river. The road full of holes climbc to the vegetable nurseries and forested ravains over which is a cool fogg.
Past the pass are untouched hot sources of the Canggar, a well-known spot among youths.
Back on the main road appear dozens of warung when you near the small city of batu. Various kinds of vegetables are sold; the area is well-known for its vegetables. The holiday hotels are past Batu, hold a rest at Amsterdam restaurant.
West of Batu starts Songgoriti, a place of holiday. Near Candi Songgoriti are the hot suplhur sources and the recreation park Tirtanirwana with swimming pools, playgrounds and a fishing pond. The main road with hairpin curves climbs along Gunung Panderman. This path ends at a small densely forested claft with a 60 metre high fall Cuban Rondo.
Back on the main road the route takes you to sawahs, some falls and closed, mountainous rainforest to the cities of Pare and Kediri in the lowlands. At the border of the forest, 28 kilometres from Malang, is the swimming pool of Dewi Sri. Here the road descents towards Ngantang and the Selorejo-reservoir ( 43 kilometres from Malang ), loved by watersporters.
The southern coast
60 Kilometres south of Malang are the beached of the rough southern coast, battered by wind, deserted and beautiful. The most are only reachable by car; a journey through poor farmers villages over rough landroads and stone hills. Ngliyep is attracting most visitors, especially on holidays like Labuhan ( normally in October ). However the sea looks very attractive, along these beaches are dangerous streams and whirlpools. This is the place of the Queen of the Southern Sea, Myai Ratu Kidul; the color green angers her and a huge wave takes away innocent swimmers.
At Sendangbiru swimming is safe. Here, boats can be hired ( make a clear price after bargaining ) for a trip to the island reserve Sempu with sandy creeks which are overshadowed by low trees. It is said that this is the last place where the Jawanese tiger can be found. The green area of the 800 hectare big island is being engulfed in warm waves, and offers a view towards Jawa’s green coastal area.
The beach of Balekambang is a popular place; in the sheltered bay are two small islands, connected by footbridges. On one of them is an Balinese temple, in which every March the Jalanidipuja-ceremony is held. On the beach here Suran-ceremonies – to celebrate Jawanese New Year – are held too, normally in July.
All three beaches can be reached by car. Others are only with four-wheel-drive and on foot along paths used by fishermen, like the beaches of Modangan and Tamban.
About 36 kilometres west of malang is the mystical Gunung Kawi, favorite place among pilgrims who want to become rich instantly.
|The Ijen Plateau lies in the centre of the Ijen-Merapi Maelang Reserve, which extends over much of the mountainous region directly west of Banyuwangi and borders on the Baluran National Park in the north east. As at Mt. Bromo , the caldera is best viewed from the air.|
Fortunately, almost all commercial flights operating between Denpasar – Surabaya, Yogyakarta or Jakarta usually fly, if not directly over, then close by Ijen plateau, where the seemingly luminous blue/green crater lake forms an unmistakable landmark. It is a beautiful scenery and located about 32 km to the north west of Banyuwangi.
The principal attraction at Ijen is the large, sulphureous crater lake which lies hidden between sheer walls of deeply furrowed rock at more than 200 meters. The Ijen crater itself lies at approximately 2,300 meters above sea level. It forms a twin volcano with the now extinct Mount Merapi. The enormous crater lake, which is 200 meters deep and covers an area of more than meters, a million square meters, contains about 36 million cubic meters of steaming, acid water.
Ijen crater shows a special type of volcanic feature common to Indonesia, about 1 kilometer in diameter and 175 meters deep. The floor is covered completely by a warm lake, milky blue green in colours held back by a dam built many years ago by the Dutch, in order to keep the hot, mineral laden water from raining the crop lands below.
The crater can be reached from either the east or the west by any kinds of vehicles, but the second part of the trip covers distance 3 km on foot (jungle track). However, the latter is more popular approach, since the climb from the road’s end to the edge of the lake is only one and a half hours. And a walk around the lake takes a full day.
The temperature drops at night, near the crater rim it can fall to about 5° Celcius. The road ends at Jampit, where very basic shelter is available. It is also possible to sleep in the old vulcanology station further up the hill, now used by sulphur collectors, but permission must be obtained in advance.
The sulphur is transported entirely on foot. In the past, horses were used but they were found to be less practical on the hazardous terrain. Today, the mine yields nine to twelve tons of sulphur per day.
Individual loads of up to 70 kg are carried by men, often barefooted, up to the rim of crater and then 17 km down the mountainside to a factory near Banyuwangi. The porters are paid by weight. The most important advice if you are travelling to Ijen is: “If you lose your way, just look out for the sulphur trail”. The meaning was clear, since a continuous flow of two way traffic,carrying the sulphur down the mountainside from the lake and trudging up again to re-load, had left a yellow trail on the well worn path. The best time for seeing Ijen Crater is at 8 to 9 am.
How to reach Ijen Crater
Surabaya – Bondowoso :by bus [191 km]
Bondowoso – Sempol :by bus [165 km]
Sempol – Banyuapit :by bus [14 km]
Banyuapit – Paltuding :by minibus, or car [4 km]
Paltuding – Ijen Crater :on foot [4 km]
Denpasar [Bali] – Banyuwangi :by bus and ferry [140 km]
Banyuwangi – Jambu :by minibus [18 km]
Jambu – Ijen Crater :on foot [21 km]
|After thrashing through the wild jungles of eastern Java, smart adventurers take a turn through banana plantations and rubber trees, to an aromatic oasis that serves home-grown feasts and pots of coffee that are fit for paradise|
FROM THE KITCHEN COMES THE RICH AROMA OF EXOTIC SPICES like nutmeg and clove. On the table, a feast awaits: soup filled with wild mushrooms, platters of banana fritters and fried ferns, and a fresh vegetable casserole. Besides sweets of cinnamon and chocolate, there’s also sinful agar, a vanilla pudding with coffee Jell-O.
To this glorious Garden of Eating, the houseboy adds a huge pot of Javanese coffee, thick enough to stand up even the heaviest spoon.
There is something special about sipping Java, as coffee is called in many parts of the world, in the land that made it famous. Better yet, we’re drinking Javanese coffee fresh from the source, at the very plantation where it is grown, roasted and brewed.
In fact, every ingredient on the table – from the bountiful main courses right down to the tiny grains of pepper – comes from the surrounding soil. At Kaliklatak, at the eastern end of Java, a short ferry ride from Bali, images of Eden are everywhere.
At 1,000 hectares, and employing 600 workers, the highly-successful Kaliklatak rubber and coffee plantation is Java’s largest. The ranch claims 115 hectares of cocoa, 550 hectares of coffee, 130 hectares of rubber trees, 80 hectares of cloves, plus an assortment of nutmeg, cinnamon, pepper, vanilla and all varieties of fruits and vegetables.
More than anything, though, the plantation has proven that the pursuit of profit needn’t ruin paradise. At Kaliklatak, commerce coexists with immense natural beauty. Scores of orchid species mingle with American cactus, palms from Saudi Arabia, parrots and monkeys. Statues and religious shrines add a mystical spell.
The ranch, which rents 20 cottages to curious visitors, also produces bananas so fine that Kaliklatak’s variety, Pisang Ambon Kuning, was long ago named the National Banana.
“The government asked me to plant 200 hectares more of bananas,” says I.H. Soehoed Prawiroatmodjo, who has run the ranch since her husband died in 1982. “I told them I’m too old. So I gave them some seeds and said, ‘do it yourself’.”
Age hasn’t hampered this sprightly matron, who drives her jeep around the ranch, stopping to pull unsightly weeds from around the rubber trees with her own strong hands. Nor is she timid about expressing her opinions, even when criticism of the ruling family is involved.
Few in Indonesia would be so bold, but Prawiroatmodjo has always enjoyed the ability to level with the nation’s leaders. While working as a journalist in the 1950s, she traveled with long-serving Suharto’s only predecessor, President Sukarno.
Her journalism career was cut short after meeting her husband, a military leader who retired a few years later. He wanted to move to the country, to make things grow. They looked at numerous parcels for a retirement villa, but knew Kaliklatak would be their home from the moment they first saw the sprawling ranch, tucked on a forested hillside overlooking a volcano and the sea.
“My husband was a real Javanese,” she says. “He believed the saying, ‘Put before you the ocean, behind you the mountains; in between the land will bring you happiness’.” And, it has.
Kaliklatak produces 300 tons of coffee in a good year. Rubber is harvested daily. Each worker tends 500 trees, collecting the thin trickle of white sap that runs slowly down the circular notch cut into each one. Banana plants are harvested twice a month, producing five to six tons monthly.
Assessing all this bounty, and the beauty of Kaliklatak’s spacious gardens, it’s hard to believe that this magnificent and productive plantation was left in ruins following World War II. Hard work transformed the soil, and the Prawiroatmodjos devoted themselves to restoring the land’s spiritual qualities.
In a book printed two years after her husband’s death, Mrs. Prawiroatmodjo recounts his dream to build more than a mere ranch, but also a model village. It is centered by an ornate fence, with carvings that tell the history of the people of Indonesia, from the creation of the sun and the moon, until modern times.
The spiritual gate and fence were finished in 1960, but the family continued to add shrines and statues throughout the plantation. They invested heavily in ornamental plants and established nurseries for their favorite flowers, shrubs and trees. They experimented with a variety of crops, which flourished in the rich volcanic soil.
“My husband said we should plant spices. That was his idea, so that visitors would know what Indonesia had to offer, and why the Dutch came to these islands, for the spices,” she says.
Even after all this time, the Dutch still come, along with Europeans, Americans and tourists from every part of Asia. They come from Jakarta or Bali to Banyuwangi, then make the 15-kilometer drive through towering forests of teak to the plantation on the picturesque slopes of 9,000-foot Mt. Merapi.
At Kaliklatak,one stay in cottages with two bedrooms, bath, living room and lovely verandas. Each of the 20 cottages, or Pondoks, is of an unique design, as are the surrounding gardens.
Guests can take tours of the rubber factory, where the sap is pressed and squeezed until thick bundles of latex are produced. They can also watch workers sorting the four grades of Kaliklatak coffee, most of which winds up ground into the thick paste that makes the pungent Javanese coffee. Or they can wander freely around the plantation, which is really a community unto itself, with over 300 houses, several stores, three schools, a mosque and a church.
Bedtime comes early on the plantation, unless guests find a singing session in one of the ranch towns. The workers are friendly, and eager to welcome guests.
Supano, one cottage worker, has lived on the ranch his entire life. He was born here and attended a plantation school. Both his parents lived here even before the Prawiroatmodjos bought the plantation. Supano, 38, says he expects both his children to grow up and work on the farm. His wife feels the same way. They met in the farm school. She was born here, too.
And you could hardly find a better place to spend your life, as many visitors find. “Guests often come for one night and stay for three,” says Mrs. Prawiroatmodjo proudly.
Kaliklatak offers a rare sort of rustic luxury; primitive pampering. Understandably, some visitors roam no further than the wicker furniture on their own personal veranda, where they are served by their own personal houseboy, who produces colorful and nutritious meals that bring new meaning to the theme of home cooking. Much of the food is harvested on the plantation that very day.
And topping it all off are piping hot pots of Java – fresh from the ranch, here in the heartland of Indonesia.
Margo Utomo Kalibaru
It was in 1943 when the late Mr. H. R.M. Moestadjab the founder of Margo Utomo inherited piece of land in Kalibaru, Banyuwangi. He thereafter continue his father’s business in this land, where coconut, nutmeg, coffee, pepper and cloves are grown, not to forget the milking cows farm with only small number of cows at that time, the only farm in this region which provides nutrient food during difficult time.
Proposed World Heritages
Mount Lawu Cultural and Natural Landscape Heritage East Java
|Criteria Requirements – Heritage|
1. Uniqueness and characteristics of heritage Natural Heritage
1.1 Significance of ecological systems and natural habitats.
Mount Lawu preservation area covers a wide variety of tourism attractions. It is a pilgrimage destination for some people because they believe that Sunan Lawu (Sunan means the messenger of Islam) died there.
It is also the home of Sarangan lake and Tawangmangu waterfalls, two already popular tourist destinations.
But the main reason behind the preservation is an archaeological sites lies at 900 meters above sea level. The unique temples found in mount Lawu is somehow almost like a miniature of Inca remnants in Peru.
Together with a prominent university and some NGOs, the government is planning to make this area a significant culture preservation program.
The endangered Javanese Tiger and wild deer is also inhabited the area.
Majapahit Kingdom built these temples in 15th century. They are as follows : Sukuh temple, Ceto temple, Ketek temple, Planggatan temple, and Petirtaan Simbatan Wetan.
Some statues also found in these temples. Hindu disciples are regularly performing their rituals in these temples.
Some tourist facilities have been built to cater the needs of visitors that include parking lot, souvenir shop, museum, accommodation etc.
During Indonesia’s independence day, a cultural festival is held in the temples.
The local government of Karanganyar have made and agreement with the local government of Gianyar Bali which is a Hindu Island to make Ceto temple not only as a pilgrimage destination but also a cultural destination.
They also provide signage to give clear direction for visitors.
Penataran Hindu Temple Complex East Java
|Date of Submission: 19/10/1995|
Submission prepared by:
Directorate General for Culture
Penataran temple is the largest and most important Hindu temple in East Java. It lies just 10 Kilometers north of Blitar on the lower slopes of Mt. Kelud. Dedicated to the god Siva. the temple was in use for at least three hundred years, from the 12th to 15th centuries. Most of the buildings which can be seen today were constructed during Majapahit’s golden century.
The layout of the temple is similar to that found in the Balinese “pura” today. A number of small buildings are scattered within a sacred, walled enclosure, with the largest and most important temple at the rear of the complex, Hindu legends, among them the Ramayana epic, are carved in relief on the temple walls and terrace foundations.
Trowulan Ancient City East Java
|Date of Submission: 19/10/1995|
Submission prepared by:
Directorate General for Culture
The Nagarakretagama contains poetic descriptions of the palace of Majapahit and its surroundings, but is limited to the royal and religious sectors. Some of the details are vague, and scholars who have tried to compile a plan of the capital have come to different conclusions.
Older research at Trowulan has concentrated on monumental remains: temples, tombs, and a bathing place. Archaeological surveys and excavations have recently found the remains of industrial, commercial and religious activity, habitation areas and water supply systems, all of which are evidence of dense population during the 14th to 15th centuries.
Descriptions in contemporary sources
According to the account of Prapanca in the Nagarakretagama poem, the royal compound was surrounded by a thick, high wall of red brick. Nearby was the fortified guard post. The main gate into the palace was located in the north wall, and was entered through huge doors of decorated iron. Outside the north gate was a long building where courtiers met once a year, a market place, and a sacred crossroads. Just inside the north gate was a courtyard containing religious buildings. On the western side of this courtyard were pavilions surrounded by canals where people bathed. At the south end a gate led to rows of houses set on terraces in which palace servants lived. Another gate led to a third courtyard crowded with houses and a great hall for those waiting to be admitted into the ruler’s presence. The king’s own quarters, which lay to the east of this courtyard, had pavilions on decorated red brick bases, ornately carved wooden pillars, and a roof decorated with clay ornaments. Outside the palace were quarters for Shiva priests, Buddhists, and other members of the nobility. Further away, and separated from the palace by open fields, were more royal compounds, including that of the chief minister Gajah Mada. Here Prapanca’s descriptions end.
A 15th-century Chinese source describes the palace as clean and well kept. It was said to have been enclosed within a brick wall more than 10 metres high and with a double gate. The houses inside were built on pillars and were 10–13 metres high, with wooden floors covered with fine mats on which people sat. Roofs were made from wooden shingles and the dwellings of the common people were roofed with straw.
A book on Majapahit court etiquette defines the capital as ‘All where one can go out without passing through paddy fields.’ Temple reliefs from Majapahit do not depict urban scenes, but some contain sketches of settlements indicated as pavilions enclosed within walls. The word ‘kuwu’ in Nagarakretagama seems to refer the settlement units consisting of a group of buildings surrounded by wall, in which a large number of people lived under the control of a nobleman. This pattern characterised the 16th-century coastal cities of Java described by early European visitors, and Majapahit’s capital was probably composed of such units.
The ancient city ruins at Trowulan had been discovered by the 19th century. Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, governor of Java from 1811 until 1816 and an indefatigable enthusiast for the island’s history, reported the existence of ‘ ruins of temples…. scattered about the country for many miles ‘. Much of the region was blanketed with dense teak forest at that time, making detailed survey impossible. Nonetheless, Raffles was so impressed by what he saw that he was later to refer to Trowulan as ‘ this pride of Java ‘.
Excavations in and around Trowulan have shown that parts of the old settlement still lie buried under several metres of mud and volcanic debris, a result of the frequent eruptions of nearby Mount Kelud, as well as frequent flooding of the Brantas river. Several archaeological ruins lie scattered around Trowulan village. Several are quite damaged, while others have undergone reconstruction. Most are constructed of red brick.
Candi Tikus is a ritual bathing pool (petirtaan) which is perhaps the most exciting recent archaeological finding at Trowulan. Candi Tikus means ‘rat temple’, the name given to the discovery in 1914 because the site appeared during the excavation to be a rat-breeding enclosure. Restored to its present condition in 1985 and 1989, this complex of red brick takes the form of a sunken, rectangular basin, into which a flight of steps descends on the northern side. The principal structure, which projects from the southern wall of the basin, was apparently modelled on the legendary Mount Mahameru. No longer complete, it consisted of terraced foundations, upon which would have rested a concentric arrangement of ‘turrets’ surrounding the highest peak of the building.
Not far from Candi Tikus in the Keraton district stands the recently restored gateway of Bajang Ratu, an elegant red brick paduraksa gate dating from the mid-14th century. The form of the structure is tall and slender, rising to a height of 16.5 metres and displaying intricate relief decoration, especially on the roof section. Bajang Ratu in Javanese literally means ‘dwarf or defect monarch’. Folk tradition links the gate with Jayanegara, the second Majapahit king, successor to Kertarajasa Jayawarddhana, founder of the Majapahit Empire. According to tradition, Jayanegara fell from the gate as a child, causing defects to his body. The name probably also means ‘little monarch’, as
Jayanegara ascended to the throne at a young age. Historian connect this gate with Çrenggapura (Çri Ranggapura) or Kapopongan of Antawulan (Trowulan), the shrine mentioned in Nagarakertagama as the dharma place (holy compound) dedicated to King Jayanegara during his death on 1328.
Wringin Lawang is located a short distance south of the main road at Jatipasar. The name in Javanese means ‘The Banyan Tree Gate’. The grand gate portals are made from red brick, with a base of 13 x 11 metres and a height of 15.5 metres, and date from the 14th century. The gate is of the ‘Candi Bentar’ or split gateway type, a structure which may have appeared during the Majapahit era. Most historians agree that this structure is the gate of an important compound in the Majapahit capital. Speculations concerning the original function of this majestic gateway have led to various suggestions, a popular one being that it was the entrance to the residence of Gajah Mada.
Candi Brahu in the Bejijong district is the sole surviving structure of what was once a cluster of historic buildings. According to popular folk belief, it was in the vicinity of Candi Brahu that the cremation ceremonies for the first four Majapahit rulers were carried out. This tradition, while difficult to prove, is supported in part by material evidence, which suggests that the monument once served as a royal mortuary shrine. The royal personage to whom the building was dedicated remains unclear. The ruin of Candi Gentong lies nearby.
The Islamic tomb of Champa Princess is believed to be the tomb of a Majapahit king’s consort. According to local traditions, she is said to have married one of the last of the Majapahit kings and to have converted him to Islam before her death in 1448.
Segaran Pool is a large rectangular pool with size 800 x 500 metres. The name Segaran originated from the word ‘segara’ in Javanese which means ‘sea’, probably the local suggest that the large pool is the miniature of the sea. Surrounding the water basin is rectangular wall made of red brick thus make the form of the pool. The pool brick structure is discovered in 1926 by Maclain Pont, at that the pool was covered in dirt and mud. Reconstruction took place some years later and now Segaran pool is functioned by locals as recreational pool and fishing pond. The brick structure originated from 14-15th century Majapahit era. The actual function of the pool is unknown. The study suggested that the pool probably served various functions, but mainly the as city reservoir, the source of fresh water essential for high density urban area, especially during dry season. Another local popular belief is this pool is use as the bathplace and swimming pool to train Majapahit troops, also as recreational pool for Majapahit royalties to entertain the envoys and guests.
Near northeast edge of Kolam Segaran lies the ruin of Candi Menak Jingga. The structure is now ruined and stones scaterred around the vicinity with the base still lies buried underground. Excavation still on the progress. The structure is made from carved andesite stone on outer layer with red brick in inner layer. The most exciting feature of this structure is the parts contained ornaments (probably roof part) identified as Qilin, a Chinese mythical creature. This might suggested a strong cultural relationship with China especially during Ming Dynasty. The local tradition linked this site with the pavilion of Queen Kencana Wungu, the Majapahit queen from the tales of Damarwulan and Menak Jingga.
At Umpak, stones form the base for wooden pillars, which were probably part of wooden building. The organic material has decayed and only the stone base remains.
In the Troloyo district, numerous Islamic tombstones have been discovered, the majority of which date from between 1350 and 1478. These finds confirm not only that a Muslim community was well established in Java by the mid 14th century, but also that the religion was officially acknowledged and practised within the royal capital itself.
A really nice site about Trowunan is :http://www.eastjava.com/books/majapahit/html/museum.html
– Maps of East Java, Mining, Plantations, Iljen Plateau, Madura Kangean Islands