Komodo National park Introduction

Komodo National park


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It is located in the center of the Indonesian archipelago, between the islands of Sumbawa and Flores. Established in 1980, initially the main purpose of the Park was to conserve the unique Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) and its habitat. However, over the years, the goals for the Park have expanded to protecting its entire biodiversity, both terrestrial and marine. UNESCO, both indications of the Park’s biological importance.
Komodo National Park includes three major islands: Komodo, Rinca and Padar, as well as numerous smaller islands creating a total surface area (marine and land) of 1817km (proposed extensions would bring the total surface area up to 2,321km2). As well as being home to the Komodo dragon, the Park provides refuge for many other notable terrestrial species such as the orange-footed scrub fowl, an endemic rat, and the Timor deer. Moreover, the Park includes one of the richest marine environments including coral reefs, mangroves, sea grass beds, seamounts, and semi-enclosed bays. These habitats harbor more than 1,000 species of fish, some 260 species of reef-building coral, and 70 species of sponges. Dugong, sharks, manta rays, at least 14 species of whales, dolphins, and sea turtles also make Komodo National Park their home.
Threats to terrestrial biodiversity include the increasing pressure on forest cover and water resources as the local human population has increased 800% over the past 60 years. In addition, the Timor deer population, the preferred prey source for the endangered Komodo dragon, is still being poached. Destructive fishing practices such as dynamite-, cyanide, and compressor fishing severely threaten the Park’s marine resources by destroying both the habitat (coral reefs) and the resource itself (fish and invertebrate stocks). The present situation in the Park is characterized by reduced but continuing destructive fishing practices primarily by immigrant fishers, and high pressure on demersal stocks like lobsters, shellfish, groupers and napoleon wrasse. Pollution inputs, ranging from raw sewage to chemicals, are increasing and may pose a major threat in the future.
Today, the PKA Balai Taman Nasional Komodo and PT. Putri Naga Komodo are working together to protect the Park’s vast resources. Our goals are to protect the Park’s biodiversity (both marine and terrestrial) and the breeding stocks of commercial fishes for replenishment of surrounding fishing grounds. The main challenge is to reduce both threats to the resources and conflicts between incompatible activities. Both parties have a long term commitment to protecting the marine biodiversity of Komodo National Park.
There are a total of over 2,300 people living in the park.
There are only 3 villages in the park.
Komodo village has 1400 people, Rinca village has 1074 people and Kerora Village has 223 people
In Komodo village, most people are originally from Bima (East Sumbawa), Selayar (South Sulawesi) and Manggarai (West Flores). In Rinca village, the people come from the same places as Komodo village, but there are also Bajo people from Sulawesi. In Kerora village, the people originally came from Bima and Manggarai.
There is some evidence that the original people of Komodo lived on Gunung Ara. Trees such as jackfruit, coconut and mango, as well as remains of ceramics on Gunung Ara suggest that people once inhabited that area several hundred years ago.
However, the people of Komodo village are thought to have settled there less than 100 years ago. There is a story that the settler of Komodo village were exiles from Bima.
Most people who live in the park are fishermen, but there are also merchants and teachers. Some people carve Komodo dragons for sale to the visitors.
The 219,322 ha. Komodo National Park, including Mbeliling and Nggorang Protection Forests and Way Wuul-Mburak Nature Reserve, comprises the two substantial islands of Komodo and Rinca together with numerous small islands, surrounding waters and a section of mainland Flores. The park was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1991, is listed as a Man And the Biosphere Reserve and is world famous for its endemic Komodo Dragons.
The islands of Komodo National Park are generally rugged with sheer cliffs, small bays and inlets. Pulau Komodo is hilly to mountainous with a maximum elevation of 827 m. Large parts consist of savanna with Lontar Palms, and open grassland. Smaller parts of Komodo are covered with tropical decidous, quasi-cloud forest and two small mangrove communities.
Pulau Rinca mainly comprises rolling hills, but the south is dominated by the Doro Ora (667m) while the north has the low but steep peaks of Gunung Tumbah (187m) and Doro Raja (351m).
Numerous coral reefs are also part of the park. Unlike other areas of Indonesia they show relatively little damage from dynamite fishing. The reefs are little-explored although they offer beautiful underwater scenery.
Komodo Dragons occur on Pulau Komodo, Pulau Rinca, Gili Motong and in parts of West Flores. It’s unclear whether the reptiles still occur on Pulau Padar. Recent estimates place the total population of the Komodo Dragon at less than 3,000 individuals. The animals are most easily spotted at the PHPA Dragon watch site on Pulau Komodo.
There used to be a daily, except Fridays, boat service from Sape on Sumbawa via Komodo to Labuhanbajo on Flores and vice versa. However, this boat service has been ceased and access to the park is now difficult. Tourists are forced to charter local unsafe fishing boats at hugely inflated rates. UPDATE 2001: Boats from Sape to Labuhanbajo once again stop at Komodo, but not daily.
Permits and obligatory guides are available at the various PHPA offices.
To explore the coral reefs make Labuhanbajo your base.
* Flores
o Several possibilities in Labuhanbajo
* Komodo
o PHPA Guesthouse, Loh Liang
* Rinca
o PHPA Guesthouse, Loh Buaya
PHPA, Loh Liang, Komodo
PHPA, Loh Buaya, Rinca
PHPA, Sape, Sumbawa
PHPA, Jl.Jend.Sudirman 87, Labuhanbajo, Flores
Bajo Beach Diving Club, Labuhanbajo, Flores.

* Acacia spp.
* Annonia squamosa
* Avicennia alba
* Avicennia marina
* Azyma sarmentosa
* Barleria prionitis
* Lontar palm – Borassus flabellifer
* Brachiaria ramosa
* Bruguiera sp.
* Callicarpa sappan
* Callophyllum inophyllum
* Callophyllum spectabile
* Capplaris seplaria
* Cassia fistula
* Cassia javanica
* Cassutha filiformis
* Ceriops candoleana
* Cerops tagal
* Chloris barbata
* Chrysopogon spp.
* Cladogynos orientalis
* Colona kostermansiana
* Gebang – Corypha utan
* Crotalaria retusa
* Cyperus javanicus
* Dalbergia latifolia
* Digitaria adscendens
* Diospyros javanica
* Eulalia leschenaultiana
* Ficus drupacea
* Gleichenia oleosa
* Glycosmis pentaphylla
* Harrisonia brownii
* Heteropogon contortus
* Hypoestes populifolia
* Alang-alang – Imperata cylindrica
* Ipomoea pescaprae
* Jatropha curcas
* Lumnitzera racemosa
* Mischocarpus sundaicus
* Murraya paniculata
* Opuntia sp.
* Oroxylum indicum
* Pandanus sp.
* Piliostigma malabaricum
* Podocarpus neriifolius
* Rhizophora mangle
* Rhizophora mucronata
* Rhizophora stylosa
* Rhizophora sp.
* Schleichera oleosa
* Schoutenia ovata
* Setaria adhaerens
* Solanum junghulnii
* Sonneratia spp.
* Spinifex littoreus
* Sterculia foetida
* Tabernaemontana floribunda
* Tamarindus indica
* Terminalia catappa
* Terminalia zollingeri
* Themeda frondosa
* Themeda triandra
* Themeda sp.
* Thespesia populnea
* Uvaria rufa
* Zizyphus horsfeldi
* Zizyphus jujuba

* Nusa Tenggara fruit bat – Cynopterus nusatenggara
* Western bare-backed fruit bat – Dobsonia peronii
* Lombok flying fox – Pteropus lombocensis
* [ ] – Rhinolophus simplex
* Large-footed mouse-eared bat – Myotis adversus
* Long-tailed macaque – Macaca fascicularis
* Domestic dog (feral) – Canis familiaris
* Common Palm Civet – Paradoxurus hermaphroditus
* Blue whale – Balaenoptera musculus
* Sperm whale – Physeter macrocephalus
* Dugong – Dugong dugon
* Domestic horse (feral) – Equus caballus
* Water buffalo (feral) – Bubalus bubalis
* Rusa deer – Cervus timorensis
* Wild boar – Sus scrofa
* Komodo rat – Komodomys rintjanus
* Ricefield rat – Rattus argentiventer

* Orange-footed Scrubfowl – Megapodius reinwardt
* Green Junglefowl – Gallus varius
* Red-backed Buttonquail – Turnix maculosa
* Sunda Woodpecker – Dendrocopos moluccensis
* Collared Kingfisher – Todirhamphus chloris
* Sacred Kingfisher – Todirhamphus sanctus
* Blue-tailed Bee-eater – Merops philippinus
* Horsfield’s Bronze-Cuckoo – Chrysococcyx basalis
* Australian Koel – Eudynamys cyanocephala
* Lesser Coucal – Centropus bengalensis
* Yellow-crested Cockatoo – Cacatua sulphurea
* Glossy Swiftlet – Collocalia esculenta
* Asian Palm-Swift – Cypsiurus balasiensis
* Savanna Nightjar – Caprimulgus affinis
* Spotted Dove – Streptopelia chinensis
* Island Collared-Dove – Streptopelia bitorquata
* Ruddy Cuckoo-Dove – Macropygia emiliana
* Little Cuckoo-Dove – Macropygia ruficeps
* Emerald Dove – Chalcophaps indica
* Barred Dove – Geopelia maugeus
* Nicobar Pigeon – Caloenas nicobarica
* Black-naped Fruit-Dove – Ptilinopus melanospila
* Green Imperial-Pigeon – Ducula aenea
* Pied Imperial-Pigeon – Ducula bicolor
* Whimbrel – Numenius phaeopus
* Eurasian Curlew – Numenius arquata
* Common Redshank – Tringa totanus
* Common Sandpiper – Tringa hypoleucos
* Grey-tailed Tattler – Tringa brevipes
* Ruddy Turnstone – Arenaria interpres
* Red-necked Phalarope – Phalaropus lobatus
* Beach Thick-knee – Esacus neglectus
* Pacific Golden-Plover – Pluvialis fulva
* Grey Plover – Pluvialis squatarola

* Little Ringed Plover – Charadrius dubius
* Malaysian Plover – Charadrius peronii
* Greater Sand Plover – Charadrius leschenaultii
* Parasitic Jaeger – Stercorarius parasiticus
* Great Crested-Tern – Sterna bergii* Black-naped Tern – Sterna sumatrana
* Bridled Tern – Sterna anaethetus
* Sooty Tern – Sterna fuscata* Osprey – Pandion haliaetus
* Brahminy Kite – Haliastur indus
* White-bellied Fish-Eagle – Haliaeetus leucogaster
* Short-toed Snake-Eagle – Circaetus gallicus
* Variable Goshawk – Accipiter hiogaster
* Spotted Kestrel – Falco moluccensis
* Oriental Hobby – Falco severus
* Australian Hobby – Falco longipennis
* Red-footed Booby – Sula sula
* Pacific Reef-Egret – Egretta sacra
* Great-billed Heron – Ardea sumatrana
* Striated Heron – Butorides striatus
* Great Frigatebird – Fregata minor
* Lesser Frigatebird – Fregata ariel
* Bulwer’s Petrel – Bulweria bulwerii
* Wedge-tailed Shearwater – Puffinus pacificus
* Wilson’s Storm-Petrel – Oceanites oceanicus
* Indonesian Honeyeater – Lichmera limbata
* Helmeted Friarbird – Philemon buceroides
* Golden Whistler – Pachycephala pectoralis
* Large-billed Crow – Corvus macrorhynchos
* White-breasted Woodswallow – Artamus leucorynchus
* Black-naped Oriole – Oriolus chinensis
* Wallacean Cuckooshrike – Coracina personata
* Black-faced Cuckooshrike – Coracina novaehollandiae
* Wallacean Drongo – Dicrurus densus
* Black-naped Monarch – Hypothymis azurea
* Pied Bushchat – Saxicola caprata
* Great Tit – Parus major
* Pacific Swallow – Hirundo tahitica
* Striated Swallow – Hirundo striolata
* Zitting Cisticola – Cisticola juncidis
* Lemon-bellied White-eye – Zosterops chloris
* Yellow-spectacled White-eye – Zosterops wallacei
* Arctic Warbler – Phylloscopus borealis
* Black-fronted Flowerpecker – Dicaeum igniferum
* Plain-throated Sunbird – Anthreptes malacensis
* Olive-backed Sunbird – Nectarinia jugularis
* Flame-breasted Sunbird – Nectarinia solaris

* Green Turtle – Chelonia mydas
* Hawksbill Turtle – Eretmochelys imbricata
* Common Flying Lizard – Draco volans
* Dibamus novaeguineae
* Cosymbotus platyurus
* Cyrtodactylus dermandvillei
* Cyrtodactylus laevigatus
* Four-clawed Gecko – Gehyra mutilata
* Tokay – Gekko gecko
* House Gecko – Hemidactylus frenatus
* Dwarf Gecko – Hemiphyllodactylus typus
* Mourning Gecko – Lepidodactylus lugubris
* Cryptoblepharus burdeni
* Cryptoblepharus renschi
* Emoia similis
* Mabuya multifasciata
* Sphenomorphus emigrans
* Sphenomorphus florensis
* Sphenomorphus schlegeli
* Sphenomorphus striolatus
* Komodo Dragon – Varanus komodoensis
* Indian Wart Snake – Acrochordus granulatus
* Dog-toothed Cat Snake – Boiga cynodon
* Dog-faced Water Snake – Cerberus rynchops
* Dendrelaphis inornatus
* Elaphe subradiata
* Common Wolf Snake – Lycodon capucinus
* Mock Viper – Psammodynastes pulverulentus
* White-lipped Pit-Viper – Trimeresurus albolabris
* Two-headed Snake – Cylindrophis opisthorhodus
* Indonesian Spitting Cobra – Naja sputatrix
* Common Blind Snake – Ramphotyphlops braminus
* Ramphotyphlops polygrammicus
* Typhlops schmutzi
* Russell’s Viper – Viperia russelli
* Estuarine Crocodile – Crocodylus porosus

* Oreophryne jeffersoniana
* Kaloula baleata

* Surgeonfish – Acanthuridae
* Triggerfish – Balistidae
* Fusilier – Caesionidae
* Jack – Carangidae
* Silvertip Shark – Carcharhinus albimarginatus
* Reef Blacktip Shark – Carcharhinus melanopterus
* Butterflyfish – Chaetodontidae
* Batfish – Ephippidae
* Sweetlips – Haemulidae
* Snapper – Lutjanidae
* Moray Eel – Muraenidae
* Damselfish – Pomacentridae
* Ray – Rajidae
* Whale Shark – Rhincodon typus
* Tuna – Scombridae
* Basslet – Serranidae
* Barracuda – Sphyraenidae
* Puffer – Tetradontidae
* Reef Whitetip Shark – Triaenodon obesus


* Acropora symmetrica
* Acropora spp.
* Caulastrea sp.
* Echinophyllia spp.
* Echinopora spp.
* Fungia spp.
* Heterocyathus spp.
* Heteropsammia spp.
* Hydnophora sp.
* Merulina spp.
* Millepora spp.
* Montipora spp.
* Mycedium spp.
* Pachyseris spp.
* Porites spp.
* Seriatopora caliendrum
* Seriatopora spp.
* Stylophora pistillata

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