Gunung Agung

Mount Agung
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Mount Agung or Gunung Agung is a mountain in Bali, Indonesia. This stratovolcano is the highest point on the island. It dominates the surrounding area influencing the climate. The clouds come from the west and Agung takes their water so that the west is lush and green and the east dry and barren. The Balinese believe that Mount Agung is a replica of Mount Meru, the central axis of the universe. One legend holds that the mountain is a fragment of Meru brought to Bali by the first Hindus. The most important temple on Bali, Pura Besakih, is located high on the slopes of Gunung Agung.[4] Gunung Agung last erupted in 1963-1964 and is still active, with a large and very deep crater which occasionally belches smoke and ash. From a distance, the mountain appears to be perfectly conical, despite the existence of the large crater. From the peak of the mountain, it is possible to see the peak of Mount Rinjani on the island of Lombok, although both mountains are frequently covered in clouds. Contents 1 The 1963-1964 Eruption 2 Recreation 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links The 1963-1964 Eruption On February 18, 1963, local residents heard loud explosions and saw clouds rising from the crater of Mount Agung. On February 24, lava began flowing down the northern slope of the mountain, eventually traveling 7 km in the next 20 days. On March 17, the volcano erupted (VEI 5), sending debris 8 to 10 km into the air and generating massive pyroclastic flows.[5] These flows devastated numerous villages, killing approximately 1500 people. Cold lahars caused by heavy rainfall after the eruption killed an additional 200. A second eruption on May 16 led to pyroclastic flows that killed another 200 inhabitants.[6] The lava flows missed, sometimes by mere yards, the Mother Temple of Besakih. The saving of the temple is regarded by the Balinese people as miraculous and a signal from the gods that they wished to demonstrate their power but not destroy the monument the Balinese faithful had erected. Recreation View from the top There are two routes up the mountain; one from Besakih proceeds to the higher western peak and starts at approximately 1,100 m (3,610 ft). The second route, reputed to take four hours (one-way), proceeds to the southern peak and commences higher from Pura Pasar Agung, near Selat. A path connecting the southern ascent with the western ascent is available during the dry season. Cecilie Scott[7] provides an account of the ascent from Pura Pasar Agung to the southern peak. Greg Slayden describes a climb from Besakih[8] claimed to have taken a remarkable four and a half hours to the peak and Ken Taylor[9] that took much longer and included getting lost. Guides are available in Besakih and also in Pura Pasar Agung. The mountain can also be climbed without a guide. The climb from Besakih is quite tough. It is sometimes tackled as a single climb generally starting about 10 p.m. for a dawn arrival at the peak and sometimes with an overnight camp about three quarters of the way up. The climb from Pura Pasar Agung generally starts around 2:30 a.m. for a dawn arrival. It is far harder than the more popular Balinese climb up Gunung Batur. It is not a mountain that needs ropes and not quite high enough for altitude sickness, but adverse weather conditions develop quickly and warm waterproof clothing is required and should be carried. A dawn arrival at the top is recommended in order to avoid clouds that typically cover the top from approximately 9 a.m. onwards. There is no water available along the route. For the Besakih route proceed through the temple complex then continue on a path that travels continuously upwards on a steep narrow spur through open forest and jungle most of the way. There is little potential to get lost until the route opens up towards the top where the correct route doubles backwards. Many climbers miss this turn and continue up a small valley which can be climbed out of with some difficulty.

This Ribu is the highest point on the popular island of Bali and holds incredible spiritual significance for the Balinese. It is still an active volcano, and the last major eruption was in 1963. Folklore has it that when the deities made mountains for their thrones they set the highest peak in the east, the direction of honor to the Balinese. In every temple a shrine is dedicated to the spirit of Gunung Agung. The tapering form of cremation towers, pagodas, and even temple offerings bear the shape of a mountain, mirroring reverences for this holy volcano. Every aspect of Bali’s geography and ecology is influenced by the towering range of volcanic peaks that dominate the island. They have created its landforms, periodically regenerated its soil, and helped to produce the dramatic downpours which provide the island with life-giving water. The Balinese recognize these geophysical facts of life, and the island’s many volcanoes, lakes and springs are considered by them to be sacred.

There are two routes to reach the crater rim which leave from different places. If you aim to reach the highest point of Gunung Agung then one needs to depart from Pura Besaki, Bali’s most sacred temple. The best guides are to be found in the nearby village of Selat. However if you are happy to reach the rim which is short by about 150 meters from the very top, then start hiking from Pura Pasar Agung which is Bali’s highest elevated temple. Views from both sides are just spectacular.

To reach the summit from Pura Besakih takes approximately 6 hours, and many people climb at night in order to reach the top for sunrise. Pura Besakih is not one temple but a vast complex of temples sprawling across the mountain side. For most visitors the first impression is of the hundreds of towering meru, their many tiered roofs of black palm fibre thatching pointing skyward. Their structural core, is an unobstructed square tunnel down which deities, ancestor, and spirits can descend on festive occasions to take their places in the shrines at their base. Pura Besakih is a landing field for the Gods.

The central temple in the complex, Pura Penataran Agung, is dedicated to the God Shiwa. Pura Batu Madeg (Temple of the Standing Stone), approached from behind the Pura Agung and to the left (northwest) is dedicated to Wisnu. Pura Kiduling Kreteg (Temple of the South Bridge) over a bridge and across a gully to the right (southeast) is dedicated to Brahma. There are nineteen more temples spreading up the mountain slopes, each with its own purpose and ceremonial season, but the three dedicated to the Hindu trinity are the most important. Almost every day village groups come to pray and collect holy water to take home for local temple ceremonies, or to pay their respects upon completion of the complicated cycle rituals.
Each temple in the complex has its own annual ceremony and approximately every tenth year the impressive Panca Wali Krama, a purification for the whole of Bali, draws almost everyone on the island to refresh their links to the Gods.

If you wish to be on the summit for sunrise then it is wise to spend the night prior to the adventure at one of the home stays that are easy to find at the parking area of the temple. Your home stay will also organize your compulsory guide that is absolutely essential for successful climb. Estimate six hours for your hike to the summit which includes 45 minutes of rest time, meaning that you need to start your extremely exhausting but most memorable adventure around midnight. The first 45 minutes will lead you past the mother temple (927m) , and then along vegetable plantations following an actual trek that is used by worshipers to reach the last temple (Pura Bangpuhan, at 1,182m) belonging to the Besakih temple complex. Once you pass the temple, cross the parking area and then the path leads slightly downhill before ascending past two recently cleared open fields. This will take a good 20 minutes ending at the entrance of the forest, (1,316 metres) where the actual fun starts.

For the next three to four hours a good torch or much better a high quality head light is absolutely essential, as the dense forest prevents any moonlight from penetrating down to the track. The first hour and half is steep but still comfortable and often broken by flatter passages across ridges. This first 1/3 of the uphill struggle ends at a point which we call the “super root ”, (1,723 metres) a very steep section across some massive roots offering good grip.

The following two hours are very tough, steep and often very slippery. Here one starts to realize why Gunung Agung is without doubt one of the hardest volcanoes in Indonesia to climb, as the path leads straight up towards the summit and not crisscross up a flank like found on most hills in Europe. At an altitude of 2200 meter the forest gradually gets less dense and with it the path starts to become stonier and often covered by loose gravel offering an additional challenge. After four hours of hard and strenuous slow climbing our so called base camp (2,622 metres) is reached. This is an area which offers very little space for two tents and is often used by local hikers as a resting point before heading to the summit for the sunrise.

The next section, which is a good 300 metres long, climbs just over 100 metres altitude and is the only part of the entire hike where utmost care needs to be taken. This is the only area where one could fall over a cliff and with it get seriously injured. The final hour of the climb continues to be very steep and frustratingly slow going. You reach the final cone of the volcano which is very rocky at the lower section. The last 100 metres before the first summit are not that steep anymore but offer terrific views of the highest point of Gunung Agung which is about 350 meters ahead to the East. Once again at this point extra care must be taken from the often howling trade winds which can gust up to 100km an hour. There are several cracks in the ground offering protection from these freezing cold winds. Especially during the months of June, July, August and September we were several times forced to quit here as it was simply too dangerous to continue with our quest. This first summit is actually only 11 metres lower than the highest summit.

The final 15-20 minutes along the ridge are an absolute joy. By now the sunrise is only minutes away and the entire horizon is painted with the warm colours only found during tropical sunrise. Despite the glory in the distance one needs to watch every step along the mostly less then one metre wide track. Missing a step could easily result in a disaster as on both sides the mountain falls down several hundred metres. About half way across the ridge there is one last technical passage which requires the utmost of attention, as the path winds in the shape of a horseshoe around and up a recent rock slide. This section is very slippery and offers very little grip and is best conquered going up on all fours or downwards on your backside.

Once past this section, there is only 100 metres left to the summit of a very special mountain, offering some of the best volcanic views in Indonesia. The crater is an impressive 700 metres in diameter. For most Balinese Gunung Agung is very simply their holy mountain and only very few ever consider actually venturing to the top of this sacred volcano. The catastrophic eruption of 1963 killed over 20,000 people and left an everlasting deep respect for this life giving and life taking mountain of the Gods. Many maps still list Agung as being over 3140m high – in truth it is approximately 100 metres less than that as a result of the powerful 1963 eruption.

Every summit is very special in it’s own way and Gunung Agung is certainly not different. What makes this mountain very different is the fact that after 6 long and extremely physically demanding hours you reach the summit of a mountain towards which every single building and temple on Bali is orientated. Not a day passes in the lives of every Balinese where not at least once a day he visits his temple at home for a prayer in respect of the holy mountain and Pura Besakih the mother temple.
Shorter hike to the crater rim only: The route from Pura Pasar Agung reaches the crater rim but you cannot get to the summit. There are always guides waiting at the car park of Pura Pasar Agung (1,575m). The hiking adventure starts at the car park with a welcoming or heart breaking 297 steps to, or from the temple. At the gates of the temple, guides will make an offering to the Gods, to ask for forgiveness, protection and a safe return from this sacred mountain. It would be terrific if you also show your respect and light up a few incense sticks, place them on one of the shrines and say your own short prayer as a sign of respect to the people and culture of Bali.

The path first leads to the left around the temple, past a couple of water reservoirs tanks, from where you have beautiful views of the temple. Then across a small opening in the woods and then immediately into very steep and dense high alpine rainforest. The track climbs steeply up a narrow path that is carved by deep ravines and littered by countless roots from magnificent tall trees often requiring hands and feet to scramble over. If you depart at 2.30 am for a sunrise at the summit then a good torch light is absolutely essential to illuminate the path. More practical is a headlight allowing you to keep your hands free.
After a good hour the forest gets gradually lighter and less dense and eventually the path passes a small concrete dam which channels rainwater from the higher mountain region into PVC pipes back to the reservoirs just above Pura Pasar Agung. This normally marks the first third of the track. Here the path flattens for a couple of metres and offers good views on the return journey.

After a short flatter passage across a small ridge the path now inclines again rather steeply, but this time up the first rocky surfaces. Here the forest is not as dense anymore and every metre altitude gained offers increasingly better views of Bali far below. At times this section can be slippery, especially after recent rainfall. There are several short and steep drops requiring your hands for additional safety, but definitely nothing to worry about. This next section will take about 1 hour of continuous hard steep hiking ending once the vegetation gives way to pure volcanic rock surface. If you depart Pura Pasar Agung around 4 am, by now the horizon will be lit up by early morning light, making the remaining route clearly visible.

At this stage (2,425m) it is crucial to be lead by your local guide as there is no more clearly visible path ahead. The only signs of the track are countless graffiti painted by local mountaineers over the years. If you are on the way up, and should for some unexplained reason become separated from your guides then simply follow these markings up to the top. However on the way down those markings are rather difficult to see and should you be unlucky to experience a weather change with thick mist and fog, then you are in deep trouble.

The final third of the track is very steep, rocky and at times very slow going and often slippery, but what a small price to pay for the dramatic scenery unfolding in every direction. Two-thirds of Bali including the coastline as well as the neighbouring islands of Lombok, Nusa Lemongan, Nusa Penida and Nusa Dua far below you. Then to the West the entire mountain ranges of Bali including the towering volcanoes of East Java in the misty distance. Finally ahead of you a rugged mountaintop with the the peak of Gunung Agung high above to the left, which is separated by a deep – and impossible to pass – volcanic ravine.

The last third will take a good 1 to 1 1/2 hours of very hard work, and concentrated high altitude climbing. The final 75 metres are not as steep and the going gets suddenly easier which increases the personal satisfaction. The view from the rim (2,866m) is simply breathtaking. Volcanic scenery at its best. Here your guides will make offerings and prayers to the Gods and thank them for protecting everyone on their journey as well as for the joy received by reaching the top.

Eventually the decision has to be made to start the long, hard and strenuous journey back towards Pasar Agung – a journey that will take about as long as it takes to get up.

Bagging information provided by Heinz von Holzen


Getting thereCare hire is easy and cheap in Bali and drivers should know the starting points.
AccommodationThere is some very basic accommodation near Pura Besakih but guests have reported bed bugs! Better stay in one of the main hotel areas.
PermitsNot necessary but have a photocopy of your passport just incase.
Water sourcesTake sufficient supplies with you.
Subregion Name:Lesser Sunda Islands (Indonesia)
Volcano Number:0604-02=
Volcano Type:Stratovolcano
Volcano Status:Historical
Last Known Eruption:1964 
Summit Elevation:3142 m10,308 feet
Symmetrical Agung stratovolcano, Bali’s highest and most sacred mountain, towers over the eastern end of the island. The volcano, whose name means “Paramount,” rises above the SE caldera rim of neighboring Batur volcano, and the northern and southern flanks of Agung extend to the coast. The 3142-m-high summit of Agung contains a steep-walled, 500-m-wide, 200-m-deep crater. The flank cone Pawon is located low on the SE side of Gunung Agung. Only a few eruptions dating back to the early 19th century have been recorded from Agung in historical time. Agung’s 1963-64 eruption, one of the world’s largest of the 20th century, produced voluminous ashfall and devastating pyroclastic flows and lahars that caused extensive damage and many fatalities.

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