Sarmi Regency, Mamberamo Hulu subdistrict, Lakes Plain area, Baso River mouth east of Dabra at Idenburg River, to headwaters in Foya Mountains. Alternate names: Avinomen, “Baso” , Foja, Foya. Dialects: Similar to Warembori [wsa].
Angguruk Yali 19.000 Christian
Central highlands area northwest of Nalca, east of Grand Valley Dani. Alternate names: Angguruk, Northern Yali, Yalimo. Dialects: Related to Yali of Ninia [nlk], Yali of Pass Valley [yac].
Awbowo 400 Animism
100% monolingual. Modera River, south of Kopkaka [opk] and northwest of Korowai [khe]. Alternate names: Kvolyab. Dialects: Not related to Ok, Asmat, Awyu-Dumut, Momuna [mqf], or highland languages like Dani or Mek. Lexical similarity: 55% with Bayono [byl].
Bayono 100 Islam
South of Awbono [awh] on Steenboom River. Dialects: Not related to language families like Ok, Asmat, Awyu-Dumut, Momuna, or highlands language families like Dani or Mek. Lexical similarity: 55% with Awbono.
Jayawijaya Regency, Kurima subdistrict, village of Burumakok, south of Sumtanon, east of Siradala, lowlands area south of main ranges, southeast of Sumo and Dekai, south of Langda and Bomela.
Damal , Amungme 23.000 Christian
Paniai Regency, Ilaga and Beoga subdistricts, central highlands west of Western Dani, east of Ekari, southeast of Kemandoga River source, throughout Puncak Jaya, north and south Carstens Mountains. Alternate names: Amung, Amung Kal, Amungme, Amuy, Enggipiloe, Hamung, Oehoendoeni, Uhunduni. Dialects: Damal, Amung, Amongme, Enggipilu. Related to Ekari [ekg], Moni [mnz], Wolani [wod]
Dera 1.400 Christian
Northeast Papua, south of Jayapura, near Waris. 13 villages. Also in Papua New Guinea. Alternate names: Dra, Kamberataro, Mangguar.
Mamberamo Hulu subdistrict, Lakes Plain area south of Idenburg River east of Taiyeve. Alternate names: Taworta, Taworta-Aero, Taria, Dabra, Bok.
Diuwe 100 Islam
Southwest of Sumo, east of Catalina River
Lakes Plain area, Toli-Dou village, west and south of Taiyeve. Alternate names: Taori, Taori-So, Tolitai.
Duvle 300 Christian
Lakes Plain area south of Van Daalen River and north of Mulia, Paniai. Eastern dialect along Dagai River, western along Fedide and Wedi rivers. Alternate names: Duvde, Duve, Duvele, Duvre, Wiri. Dialects: Eastern Duvle, Western Duvle. Few dialect differences.
Eipomek 4.100 Christian
Eastern highlands area, Eipo River, east of Nalca [nlc]. Alternate names: Eipo, T-Valley. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Una [mtg].
Emem 2.100 Christian
Border area south of Jayapura. Alternate names: Emumu, Imimkal, Kiamerop. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 25% with Yafi [wfg].
Foau Tribe 690 Christian
East Lakes Plain area just north of lower Idenburg River, Foa and Mudiay villages. Alternate names: Doa. Dialects: Similar to Diebroud [tbp].
The Foau people raise sago and vegetables and some also hunt pigs and crocodiles in the swampy lowlands. At an altitude of 100-700 meters above sea level the Foau people can best be accessed by airplane. History / Activities The Foau people are descendents from the Koida, Abaruda, Guinis and possibly Kuani clans. Intermarriage with Dabra, Baso, Taiyeve, Mander, Ures or Jagowa people is common. Education No junior high schools nor high schools are in the language area. Life in the Area The Foau people usually wear modern clothing. The Foau peoples’ diet consists of fish, corn, bananas, sweet potato, and sago. The FOAU people use a variety of tools: machettes, axes, shovels, and crowbars. Houses are generally built on stilts with palm or sago frond flooring. The people get their drinking water straight from the river and only sometimes boil it. There are no health clinics in the area and transportation routes are not adequate. There are 2 Evangelical Christian Churches of Irian Jaya in the language area. Language Information and Use The Foau are sometimes known as the Doa people but they prefer to be called Foau . The Foau language is part of the East Lake Plain language family.
Gresi 3.400 Animism
West of Lake Sentani, southeast of Genyem, Hawa, Bring, Tabangkwari, Yansu, Ibub, Sunna, Klaysu villages. Alternate names: Geresi, Glesi, Gresik, Klesi. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 80% with Kemtuik [kmt].
Hupla 4.500 Christian
Central highlands area east of Baliem gorge. Alternate names: Soba. Dialects: Similar to Lower Grand Valley Dani [dni]
Iwur River valley border area, Ok Iwur, east to Ok Denom. Alternate names: Iwoer.
Kapauri 200 Christian
Upper Idenburg River, north bank, Pagai village, Kamikaru and Magri hamlets. Alternate names: Kapor
Kaure Tribe 500 Christian
Because their homeland is hilly and swampy with trees the KAURE people are farmers, hunters, and gatherers. At an altitude of 200-850 meters above sea level the KAURE people can best be accessed by bus or other vehicle. There is a road into KAURE territory from Jayapura. The government housing center near the main airstrip was closed in 1973 because of rebel activity. Traditionally the women dance (akelik wakela) around men who are also dancing (opi wakela) and holding bows & arrows. Marriage customs dictate that children must marry outside both parents’ clan by paying a bride price. A church service funeral is often followed by a meal served in front of one of the village homes. Many KAURE people believe the spirit of a dead person lingers around the village. There is 1 junior high school in the language area and no high schools. There are already a few books in the KAURE language. Women’s main tasks consist of preparing sago, getting water and firewood, washing, and caring for their young. Most KAURE people wear modern clothing and eat sago, fruits and vegetables, as well as pig, bird, and deer. The KAURE people are known to make decorative drawings on their arrows, but some have modern equipment such as a TV, radio, and tape recorder. The government supplied aluminum for housing but some of the people prefer homes of sago roofs and palm-stem walls. The people identify themselves by clan. The leaders are often the oldest clan member or village head. Malaria, lung infections, and skin diseases are common in the area. Language Information and Use Both INDONESIAN and Kaure is used at church. Kaure is also considered a trade language.
Jayawijaya Regency, Okbibab subdistrict, east of Sogber River
Ketengban 11.000 Christian
Near Papua New Guinea border, east highland slopes scattered, east of Eipomek [eip] and west of Ngalum [szb]. Alternate names: Kupel, Oktengban. Dialects: Okbap, Omban, Bime, Onya. Lexical similarity: 69% with Una [mtg]
Ketum Tribe 1.000 Animism
99% monolinguals. Northeast of Wambon [wms]. Alternate names: Kitum, Wambon-Ketum. Dialects: Related to Wambon, Mandobo. Lexical similarity: 49% with Wambon.
There are at least 1000 speakers of the Ketum language. They reside in the hills within the province of Papua, Indonesia. They live primarily by gardening and hunting in their foothills. With their land at an elevation of 200-500 meters above sea level, the Ketum people can best be visited by helicopter. There are neither junior high schools in the language area nor high schools. The people eat vegetables, pigs, and wild animals. There is no road infrastructure in the area and neither are there radios or electricity. The people get their drinking water from a river or rainwater. There are no toilet facilities in this remote area. The Ketum people have no gospel cassettes, films nor videos in their language. There is one Reformed church building in the language area. Almost all of the Ketum people (99.00%) are monolingual so they use Ketum at home with family and in the village with their friends. Many are registered as Catholics or Christians, but traditional religious influences are strong.
Kimki 500 Christian
Pegunungan Bintang Regency, Batom subdistrict, border area where Sepik River enters Papua. Alternate names: Aipki, Kimgi, Sukubatom, Sukubatong.
Komyandaret 300 Animism
East of Korowai [khe], north of Tsaukambo [kvz] and Wanggom [wng]. Dialects: Similar to Tsaukambo.
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Jayawijaya Regency, Kurima subdistrict, Siradala, Burungmakok villages. Lowlands area south of the main ranges, southeast of Sumo and Dekai, south of Langda and Bomela. Alternate names: Kopka. Dialects: Marub, Tokuni. Similar to Kwer [kwr].
Korowai 3.600 Animism
3,000 monolinguals. South coast area, north of Boma, northeast of Senggo, southeast of Siradela, southwest of Awimbon. Alternate names: Kolufaup. Dialects: North Korowai, South Korowai.
The Korowai people are a Papuan people group of 3,500 to 4,000 speakers. Traditionally there are no villages. Each family/clan lives in a tree house on their own area. Regularly there are sago grub feasts that bring the people together. They are located between the Upper reaches of the Eilanden and Becking river systems, in the north extending east to the Casuary River which drains in the Digul. They are hunter-gatherers who also practice horticulture (bananas and tubers) and they have domesticated pigs. Their lives revolve around finding food and money, solving women and pig problems and organizing sago grub feasts. They believe that localized spirits control the world and their lives and pig sacrifices have to be brought to keep these evil spirits from being nasty to the people. They strongly believe that every bad thing that happens is caused by spirits, witchcraft and magic and needs to be countered with anti-magic.
Korupun Sela 5.800 Christian
Jayawijaya Regency, Kurima subdistrict, Siradala, Burungmakok villages. East highlands on upper reaches of Erok River, southwest of Nalca, east of Yali of Ninia. Alternate names: Kimyal of Korupun, Korapun. Dialects: Korupun (Duram), Dagi, Sisibna (Gobugdua), Deibula, Sela. Related to Nalca [nlc]. Lexical similarity 60% with Nipsan [nps].
Kosare 300 Christian
Hulu Atas, west of Nawa and Idenburg rivers juncture. Alternate names: Kosadle.
Jayawijaya Regency, Kurima subdistrict, Kwer village. Lowlands area south of the main ranges, southeast of Sumo and Dekai, south of Langda and Bomela. Dialects: Similar to Kopkaka [opk]
Kwerisa 50 Christian
Lower Rouffaer River, Kaiy village. Alternate names: Taogwe. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Biritai [bqq].
Lower Grand Valley Dani 23.000 Christian
Central highlands, Baliem Grand Valley, and upper gorge. Dialects: Lower Grand Valley Hitigima (Dani-Kurima, Kurima), Upper Bele, Lower Bele, Lower Kimbin (Kibin), Upper Pyramid.
Manem 700 Christian
South of Jayapura, northeast border area, Wembi, Yeti, Kiba villages. Alternate names: Jeti, Skofro, Wembi, Yeti.
Mid Grand Valley Dani 63.000 Christian
Baliem Valley. Alternate names: Baliem Valley Dani, Central Grand Valley Dani, Tulem.
Molof 300 Christian
South of Jayapura, west of Senggi, Molof and Waley villages. Alternate names: Ampas, Poule. Dialects: Not closely related to any other language.
Momuna 2.200 Christian
Lowlands just south of main ranges, from south of Silimo east to south of Korupun-Sela [kpq]. Alternate names: Somage, Somahai, Sumohai.
Murkim 100 Islam
Pegunungan Bintang Regency, Batom subdistrict, southeast of Yetfa [yet], Mot and Milki villages. Dialects: Possible genetic relationship to Lepki [lpe].
Senggi Subistrict, Keerom Regency, Namla village. Dialects: Possible genetic relationship to Tofanma [tlg]
Narau 100 Christian
Jayapura area, Kecamatan Kaureh.
Nduga 14.000 Christian
Jayawijaya, Tiom, central highlands, south of high ranges, south of Western Dani, north of Asmat. Scattered. Alternate names: Dauwa, Dawa, Ndauwa, Ndugwa, Pesecham, Pesechem, Pesegem. Dialects: Sinak Nduga, Hitadipa Nduga.
Ngalum 14.000 Christian
Northeast of Nakai, valleys of Ok Sibil, Ok Tsop, perhaps Ok Bon, main range border area north of Muyu [kts] (Yongkom) and Iwur [iwo]. Also in Papua New Guinea. Alternate names: Sibil. Dialects: Ngalum, Apmisibil, Sibil.
Nggem 3.700 Christian
North of Wamena, middle Haflifoeri River. Dialects: Similar to Walak [wlw]. Lexical similarity: 67% with Yali (Pass Valley) [yac], 62% with Walak, and 50% with Western Dani [dnw].
Ninggerum 1.700 Christian
Border area and in Papua New Guinea between Ok Birim and Ok Tedi rivers. Alternate names: Kasiwa, Kativa, Muyu, Ninggeroem, Ninggirum, Ninggrum, Orgwo.
Ninia Yali 12.000 Christian
Central highlands area south of Angguruk, east of Soba, west of Korupun, Ninia, Holuwon, and Lolat villages; Elelim, transmigrated by government in 1989 following earthquake. More than 50 villages. Alternate names: Jalè, Jaly, Ninia, North Ngalik, Southern Yali, Yali Selatan. Dialects: Different from Yali of Pass Valley [yac], Yali of Angguruk [yli], Hupla [hap].
Nipsan 3.000 Christian
Jayawijaya, Kurima, just west of Hmanggona. Alternate names: Southern Jale, Yale-Nipsan. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 78% with Kosarek Yale [kkl], 59% with Nalca [nlc].
Papasena 600 Christian
Lakes Plain area, lower Idenburg River just east of Rouffaer River juncture. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 23% with Sikaritai [tty]
Pass Valey Yali 6.600 Christian
Central highlands, east of Angguruk and northwest of Naltya, Jayawijaya, Kurulu, and Kurima. Alternate names: Abendago, North Ngalik, Pass Valley, Western Yali, Yaly. Dialects: Pass Valley, Landikma, Apahapsili. Related to Yali of Ninia [nlk], Yali of Angguruk [yli]
Sause 400 Christian
Southwest of Sentani, northwest of Lereh, Ures, Mubararon, Sause-Bokoko, Witti-Yadow, Lidya, Puaral villages. Alternate names: Seuce.
The Sause people primarily hunt and gather to sustain themselves but there are some who garden and do logging as well. At an altitude of 100-900 meters above sea level the Sause people can best be accessed by vehicle. There is a road to Lereh and an airstrip in Wres that is no longer useable. History / Activities The Dasera, Winim, Buriam, Burumban clans combine to make up the Lwes village of the Sause. Intermarriage with the Ures, Maburaron, Witi, Mander, and Foau peoples occurs frequently. Traditionally after death, corpses were put on platforms but now the dead are buried. Education There are no junior high schools nor high schools in the language area. Life in the Area Sause women’s main activity is pounding sago. Most Sause men wear shorts and T-shirts and most of the women wear wrap-around cloth. They eat sago, wild pig, kangaroo, fruit, and vegetables. Most Sause people use bows and arrows to hunt. House walls are generally made of palm or tree bark with a leaf or zinc roof. There are some roads in the Sause area and electricity just outside the area in Lereh and in the logging town of Wamho. The people identify themselves as Sause even thoughs their leaders are determined by clan. Malaria, TB, tumors, and hernias are common physical aliments.
Silimo 6.800 Animism
Central highlands south of the range immediately west of Baliem River, Amo, Kiniage valleys. Alternate names: Paiyage, South Ngalik, Usak, Wulik. Dialects: Lower Samenage.
Sowanda 200 Christian
South of Jayapur, northeast border area. Alternate names: Waina, Waina-Sowanda, Wanja, Wanya, Wina.
Tangko 100 Christian
West of Nakai [nkj], Kawemaot village
Tebi 200 Christian
Border area south of Jayapura, south of Yafi [wfg], east of Emem [enr], north of Towei [ttn], Dubu, Jembatan Web, Affi villages. Alternate names: Dubu.
Tofanma 300 Christian
South Jayapuraborder area, Keerom Regency, Senggi subdistrict, Tofanma Satu, Tofanma Dua, and most of Namla villages. Alternate names: Tofamna. Dialects: Not closely related to any other language.
The TOFANMA people mainly hunt and gather food but some also garden. There is a road at the edge of their homeland but their lands range from an altitude of 600 to1850 meters above sea level. There are no junior high nor high schools in the language area. Some of the TOFANMA people wear modern clothes. The peoples’ main dietary staple is sago, but they also eat sweet potatoes and bananas. Salt would be a healthy addition to their diet. The TOFANMA people utilize metal axes and knives as well as traditional tools. Houses are generally built on stilts and house walls are made of sago branches. The people get their drinking water generally straight from the river. The Evangelical Christian Church of Indonesia is in the language area.
Towei 200 Christian
Border area south of Jayapura, Towe Hitam village, south of Dubu [dmu], west of Emem [enr]. Alternate names: Towe.
Tsaukambo 800 Christian
West side of upper Digul River, north of Wanggom, south of Komyandaret. Alternate names: Kotogüt, Tsokwambo, Tsakwambo. Dialects: Most similar to Komyandaret [kzv]. Also related to Korowai [khe], Wanggom [wng], Kombai [tyn].
The TSAKWAMBO people maintain their livelihood by food-gathering, hunting, fishing, and logging in their isolated lowlands. With their land at an altitude of less than 100 meters above sea level, the TSAKWAMBO people can best be accessed by using a boat up the Digul and Arup rivers. By motorized canoe it is a 3 hour trip from Kouh to TSAKWAMBO land or Merpati flys into Tanah Merah which is somewhat close. The TSAKWAMBO people have sagoworm feasts for some visitors and festivities often include dressing up in traditional clothing (with dog teeth, bird feathers, etc). The TSAKWAMBO people often intermarry with the “Taret” people of Danokit village. Most TSAKWAMBO people wear modern clothing but rarely washed the clothing. The people eat sago, sagoworms, vegetables and fruits, as well as animals they hunt. The TSAKWAMBO have machettes, steel axes, and bow & arrows that they regularly use. Houses are generally framed with log posts having palm or cement floors and plank or stem walls. A tin or leaf roof completes the house. There are no SSB radios, telephones, or electric facilities in the area but there is a community TV. A health clinic is in Biwage but many of the TSAKWAMBO people have skin and lung diseases, and malaria. Some also have elephantisis. The nearest market is a long distance away in Kouh.
Una 5.000 Christian
East highlands on south slopes of main ranges east of Sela Valley, west of Ngalum, Bidabuh, east Weip Valley, Yay Valley, around Langda, Bomela, Sumtamon. Alternate names: Goliath, Langda, Mt. Goliath, Oranje-Gebergte. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Eipomek [eip], 69% with Ketengban [xte].
Upper Grand Valley Dani 23.000 Christian
Central highlands, Baliem Grand Valley, and upper gorge
Usku 100 Christian
South of Jayapura, Usku village; west of Namla [naa], south of Molof [msl] areas. Alternate names: Afra. Dialects: Not closely related to any other language.
Viid 200 Christian
Border area south of Jayapura, Senggi village. Alternate names: Senggi.
Northeast Papua, Keerom Regency, Waris subdistrict, south of Jayapura. Alternate names: Walsa.
Waritai 200 Christian
Lakes Plain area around Taiyeve. Alternate names: Wari, Weretai. Dialects: Related to Doutai [tds].
Western Dani 218.000 Christian
Central highlands, west of Baliem Grand Valley, east from upper Kemandoga Valley. Alternate names: Dani Barat, Ilaga Western Dani, Laany, Lani, Oeringoep, Timorini. Dialects: Western Dani of Pyramid, Western Dani of Bokondini. Other dialects not as distinct as those listed. Lexical similarity: 65% with Obokuitai [afz], 60% with Wano [wno].
Yetfa 900 Christian
Pegunungan Bintang Regency, Okbibab subdistrict, border area east and north of Sobger River, south of Ji Mountain. Also in Papua New Guinea. Alternate names: Biaksi, Biksi, Inisine. Dialects: Yetfa and Biksi are 2 ethnic groups, speaking the same language.
Zorop 200 Christian
Northeast Papua, border area south of Jayapura, Warlef village, Yabanda Satu. Alternate names: Yafi, Jafi, Yaffi, Wagarindem, Wargarindem, Jafi Wagarindem, Warlef. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 25% with Emem [enr].
Born in the Netherlands on 23-04-1940 and passed away in Bali on 25-05-2015. Farelli was the pseudonym of a remarkable man who was infused with an obsessive desire to create things that did not yet exist. Born in the Netherlands in 1940 Dolf Versteegh left his home country in 1990 in order to start a new life on the Island of Bali. Without any formal education he reinvented himself as an architect, as a designer of furniture, as a sculptor and as a writer.
As a teenager Dolf spent only three years in High School but he kept studying history and the natural world all his life and during his last 25 years on Bali he revealed himself not only as versatile artist but also as a formidable scholar of biology.
Farelli was a prolific creator of web content and what he has left behind will remain standing as a great monument to his creative spirit, his ingenuity and his never-ending search for knowledge.