Mineral cultivation also adds the export value, and this mainly cement raw material, identified that raw material contents such as in Wonogiri Regency (138,289 million tons), Blora (3,483 million tons), Grobogan (4,025 million tons), Kebumen (17,000 million tons), Pati (1,353 million tons), and Rembang (1,313 million tons). All of this is not geothermal potential yet which is in Semarang Regency.
Car license numbers: G: Pekalongan, Tegal, Brebes, Batang, Pemalang. H: Semarang, Salatiga, Kendal, Demak. K: Pati, Kudus,Jepara, Rembang, Blora,Grobogan. R: Banyumas, Cilacap, Purbalingga, Banjarnegara. AA: Kedu, Magelang, Purworejo, Kebumen, Temanggung, Wonosobo. AB: Yokyakarta, Bantul, Kidul, Sleman, Kulon Progo. AD: Surakarta, Sukoharjo, Boyolali, Sragen, Karanganyar, Wonogiri, Klaten.
Borobudur temple is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world. This colossal relic of Borobudur was built by Sailendra dynasty between 778 to 842 AD; 300 years before Cambodia’s Angkor Wat, and 400 years before work had begun on the great European cathedrals. Little is known about its early history except that a huge workforce – sculptors, artists, statue and carving experts – must have been labored to move and carved the 55,000 cubic meters of stone. This Borobudur historic site is a cultural legacy and becomes major sources of Indonesian culture, which is located about 40 km north of Jogjakarta City in central part of Java island.
Sir Thomas Stanford Raffles revealed the temple in 1815. He found the temple in wined condition and buried under volcanic ash. He ordered an archeologist, H.C. Cornelius to excavate and clear the site from undergrowth and do thorough investigation. More than 200 laborers were occupied for 45 days to uncover and remove earth, bushes, and trees which buried the historic temple. The massive restoration project began from 1907 to 1911 led by Dr. Tb. van Erp. Later, with the help of UNESCO, the second restoration to rescue Borobudur was carried out from 1973 to 1983. Since then, it becomes UNESCO World Heritage and Treasures.
Prambanan is the largest Hindu temple compound in Central Java in Indonesia, located approximately 18 km east of Yogyakarta.
The temple is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the largest Hindu temples in south-east Asia. It is characterised by its tall and pointed architecture, typical of Hindu temple architecture, and by the 47m high central building inside a large complex of individual temples.
Sangiran represents one of the most important early human fossil sites in Indonesia. Excavated in the late 1930’s, and again after the completion of World War II by G.H.R. von Koenigswald, the remains of over forty individuals have been found there. Von Koenigswald, followed Dubois in placing most of the fossils species Pithecanthropus erectus. It was reassigned to Homo erectus along with the rest of the Javanese material.
Criteria Requirements – Heritage Uniqueness and characteristics of heritage The Dieng is situated in the north-west of Central Java. It is a plateau or valley, about 2000 metres above sea-level, well-known both as an archaeological and a natural landmark. Its famous sulphurous springs and lake will at an Early date have marked the barren plateau, surrounded by mountain, as a sacred spot, to be dedicated to a god of the mountains. Therefore the name of Dieng (Dang Hyang) is the name of the mountain of God. The Panoramic view and the diversities of culture in Dieng temples has encourage the government of the Republic of Indonesia in collaboration with the local government and all stakeholders to prepare the site of Dieng as the priority site to be nominated list in the Asean Tourism Heritage Standard Site Protection and Conservation
* Management of Cultural Property in Indonesia is under the Law number 5, 1992 concerning Item of Cultural Property. * Governmental Decree Number 10, 1993 concerning the Implementation of Law Number 5, 1992 * Ministry of Education and Culture Decree Number 062,063,064/U/1995 * The partners in the protection and conservation of the heritage not only by the government but also in collaboration with the stakeholders especially the local community, privat organisation
Tourism and site Management Wide variety of stakeholder from the central, regional and local government participated in research, conservation, and restoration and promote of the cultural properties of Dieng Plateau namely:
* The Office of Archaeologlical Heritage Conservation in Prambanan,Central Java * The Directorate of Archaeological Heritage * The Centre of Archaeological Research and Development * Archaeological Research Office in Yogyakarta * Board of Education and Culture of the Central Java Province * Board of Tourism of the Wonosobo Regency * Etc * In all the site there are sign and notice-board plans showing the layout of the heritage so the visitor can chose his self to the most important treasures. * There also some souvenir vendors which lies not far from the sites so they should not to distract and confused visitors.
Environmental Management Nowadays, the archaeological site of Dieng plateau is protected under the National Law and Governmental Decree. Each sites within this area has been protected by zoning system in which divided into the core zone, buffer zone and development zone.Conservation management is controlled by the Office of Archaeological Heritage Conservation in Prambanan, Central Java. In addition to protect the natural environment there are also the Office of Forestry for preserve the Wonosobo National park. Accessibility The location of Dieng Temples compound and each of their site can be access in many ways both from Jogyakarta and semarang by bus or motor cycle Support Facilities Some facilities for the traveller already support on site such as hotel, motel, souvenir vendor, etc.
The Dieng people they have attitude very familiar to the visitor and each visitor will be welcomed as personally as possible so their visit to the heritage can enjoynable. In the meantime, sign and notice-board be placed in the strategic point with the result the visitor can be easily to find their location.
Ratu Boko Temple Complex Central Java
Date of Submission: 19/10/1995 Criteria: Category: Cultural Submission prepared by: Directorate General for Culture Coordinates: Yogyakarta Special Region Ref.: 287
King Boko Palace, the Glory on a Peaceful Hill
King Boko Palace was a glorious building that was constructed during the reign of Rakai Panangkaran, descendant of Sailendra dynasty. The palace that initially was named Abhayagiri Vihara (that means a monastery on a peaceful hill) was built for seclusion purpose and to focus on spiritual life. From this palace, you will feel peace and will be able to see Yogyakarta city and Prambanan temple with Merapi Mountain as the background.
This palace is located 196 meters above the sea level. The area of the palace as wide as 250,000 m2 is divided into four, namely center, west, southeast, and east parts. The center part consists of the main gateway, square, Combustion Temple, pond, square terrace and assembly hall. Meanwhile, the southeast part includes hall, platform, three temples, pond, and a complex for princess. The caves, Buddha effigy, and a pond are in east part while the west part consists of hills only.
If you enter from the palace gateway, you will directly be guided to the center part. Two high gates will welcome you. The first gate has three entrances while the second one has five. If you look it in detail, you will read ‘Panabwara’ writing on the first gate. Based on Wanua Tengah III inscription, the word was written by Rakai Panabwara (the descendant of Rakai Panangkaran) who took over the palace. The intention of carving his name on the gate was to legitimate his authority, to give ‘power’ to the gate in order to look more glorious and to give sign that the building was the main building.
About 45 meters away from the second gate, you will see a temple made of white stones so that it was named Candi Batu Putih or Temple of White Stones.
Close to the place, you will also find Combustion Temple. The temple is of square form (measuring 26 meter x 26 meter) with two terraces. The function of the temple is to burn dead body as the name suggests. Around 10 meters away from the Combustion Temple, there are sacred terrace and a pond.
A mysterious well will be seen if you walk southeastward of the Combustion Temple. As the legend tells, the well was named Amerta Mantana that means sacred water treated with charms. At present time, the water of Amerta well is still used. The legend tells that the water brings luck for anyone who uses it. Hindu people use it in Tawur Agung ceremony, one day before the Nyepi day. Using water in the ceremony is believed to support the achievement of the objective, namely to self purify and to return the earth and its content to its initial harmony. YogYES suggests that you visit Prambanan temple one day before Nyepi day to see the ceremony process.
Moving to the eastern part of the palace, you will see two caves, big pond measuring 20 meters x 50 meters and Buddha effigy that sits quietly. Those two caves were formed of sediment stones. The upper cave is called Gua Lanang (Male Cave) and the lower cave is called Gua Wadon (Female Cave). Right in front of Gua Lanang, there is a pond and three effigies. Based on the research, the effigy is known as Aksobya, one of Buddha Pantheons.
Even though it was built by a Buddhist, there are Hindu elements in it. This can be seen from the presence of Lingga and Yoni, Ganesha statue, and golden plate with the writing “Om Rudra ya namah swaha” on it as form of worship to Rudra as the other name of Shiva. The Hindu elements proved religious tolerance that is reflected in architectural works. In fact, Rakai Panangkaran who embraced Buddhism lived side by side with Hindu people.
Not many people know that this palace is witness of the initial triumph in Sumatera land. Balaputradewa once fled to this palace before leaving for Sumatra when he was struck by Rakai Pikatan. Balaputradewa rebelled because he felt to be second person in the reign of Old Mataram Kingdom because of Rakai Pikatan’s marriage to Pramudhawardani (Balaputradewa’s sister). After his defeat and escape to Sumatra, he became the king of Sriwijaya Kingdom.
As a heritage building, King Boko Palace is different from other inheritances. Most of other buildings are in the forms of temple or shrine, while this place – as the name implies – shows characteristics of a dwelling place. This can be known from the wooden poles and roofs, even though we can only see remains of stone building. Investigate the palace in more details and you will know more. One of them is the beautiful scenery when the sun is setting in the west. An American tourist says, “This is the most beautiful sunset on earth.”
Sukuh Hindu Temple Central/East Java
Date of Submission: 19/10/1995 Criteria: Category: Cultural Submission prepared by: Directorate General for Culture Coordinates: Central Java Ref.: 295
Candi Sukuh , candi is the Indonesian word for temple) is a fifteenth century Javanese-Hindu temple that is located on the western slope of Mount Lawu (elev. 910 m or 3,000 feet (910 m) above sea level) on the border between Central and East Java provinces.
Candi Sukuh has a distinctive thematic reliefs from other candi where life before birth and sexual education are its main theme. Its main monument is a simple pyramid structure with reliefs and statues in front of it, including three tortoises with flattened shells and a male figure grasping his penis. A giant 1.82 m (6 ft) high of lingga (phallus) with four balls, representing penile incisions,was one of the statues that has been relocated to the National Museum of Indonesia. History The founder of Candi Sukuh thought that the slope of Mount Lawe is a sacred place for worshiping the ancestors, nature spirits and the observance of the fertility cults. The monument was built around 1437, as written as a chronogram date on the western gate, meaning that the area was under the rule of the Majapahit Kingdom during its end (12931500). It is unknown whether the construction of the temple was related to the decline of the kingdom. Some archaeologists, however, believe the founder had cast the fall of Majapahit, based on the reliefs that displaying the feud between two aristrocratic houses symbolizing two internal conflicts in the kingdom. In 1815, Sir Thomas Raffles, the ruler of Java during 18111816, visited the temple and he found the temple in a bad condition. In his account, there were many statues that had been thrown down on the ground and most of the figures had been decapitated. Raffles also found the giant lingga statue broken into two pieces which was then glued together. The architecture of Candi Sukuh differs completely from other candi from the Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit periods. Unlike meticulous design and reliefs, Candi Sukuh has a simple truncated pyramid as its main monument, surrounded by monoliths and life-sized figures. At glance, the monument architecture reminds visitors of Maya architecture. Candi Sukuh contains a pervasive theme of spiritual liberation symbolized by reliefs and statues. There is an obvious depiction of sexual intercourse in a relief on the floor at the entrance where it shows a paired lingga (phallus) and yoni (vagina). On the wall of the main monument there is a relief portraying two men forging a weapon in a smithy with a dancing figure having a human body and the head of an elephant. There is no textual source for the iconography of the relief where its depiction is incongruous with traditional ancestor worship. In Hindu-Java mythology, the smith is thought to possess not only the skill to alter metals, but also the key to spiritual transcendence. Smiths drew their powers to forge a kris from the god of fire; and a smithy is considered as a shrine. Hindu-Javanese kingship was sometimes legitimated and empowered by the possession of a kris. The elephant head figure with a crown in the smithy relief depicts Ganesha, the god of obstacles in Hinduism. The Ganesha figure, however, differs completely with other usual depictions. Instead of sitting, the Ganesha figure in Candi Sukuh’s relief is shown dancing and it has distinctive features including the exposed genitals, the demonic physiognomy, the strangely awkward dancing posture, the rosary bones on its neck and holding a small animal probably a dog. The Ganesha relief in Candi Sukuh has a similarity with the Tantric ritual found in the history of Buddhism in Tibet written by Taranatha. The Tantric ritual is associated with several figures, one of whom is described as the “King of Dogs”, who taught his disciples by day, and by night performed Ganacakra (Gana means Ganesha and cakra means wheel/dance) in a burial ground. In front of the main monument there are a number of statues. A 1.82 m (6 ft) height of standing lingga with four balls placed below the tip was one of the statues (it is now in the National Museum of Indonesia). The lingga statue has a dedicated inscription carved from top to bottom representing a vein followed by a chronogram date equivalent to 1440. The inscription translates “Consecration of the Holy Ganga sudhi in … the sign of masculinity is the essence of the world.” Reliefs of a kris blade, an eight-pointed sun and a crescent moon decorate the statue. Other statues in Candi Sukuh include a life-sized male figure with his hand grasping his own penis and three flattened shells of tortoises. Two large tortoise statues guard the pyramid entrance and the third one lies at some distance in front of the monument. All of their heads point to the west and their flattened shells may provide altars for purification rituals and ancestor worship. In Hindu mythology, the tortoise symbolizes the base of the world.
Born in the Netherlands on 23-04-1940 and passed away in Bali on 25-05-2015. Farelli was the pseudonym of a remarkable man who was infused with an obsessive desire to create things that did not yet exist. Born in the Netherlands in 1940 Dolf Versteegh left his home country in 1990 in order to start a new life on the Island of Bali. Without any formal education he reinvented himself as an architect, as a designer of furniture, as a sculptor and as a writer.
As a teenager Dolf spent only three years in High School but he kept studying history and the natural world all his life and during his last 25 years on Bali he revealed himself not only as versatile artist but also as a formidable scholar of biology.
Farelli was a prolific creator of web content and what he has left behind will remain standing as a great monument to his creative spirit, his ingenuity and his never-ending search for knowledge.