North Sulawesi Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve

North Sulawesi

Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve

alt
(Surat Keputusan) Mentan No. 1049/Kpts/Um/12/1981, 24 Desember 1981. Luas areal 3.196 hektar.
Wildlife in the area Tangkoko already widely known and visited by Alfred Russel Wallace in 1861. In Tangkoko, Wallace collected specimens and maleo babirusa that time was very easy to find. At that time, the black sand beach is a place nestled Tangkoko and maleo eggs. As a result of exploitation by local people, the colony on the coast Tangkoko maleo no longer found in 1915, and left only a small number of colonies in the interior. Tangkoko area was first established as the Dutch East Indies Government protected forest in the year 1919 based on 21.2.1919 stbl GB. 90, and expanded in 1978 with the stipulation Duasudara Nature Reserve (4299 hectares) under the Ministry of Agriculture Decree No. 700/Kpts/Um/11/78.

On December 24, 1981, Agriculture Minister Decree No. 1049/Kpts/Um/12/81 establish this area as a nature reserve of Mount Tangkoko Batuangus.  The letter set the same decision area of 615 hectares of nature reserve and the Sub-District Tangkoko Batuputih  as Batuputih Park,  and the area of 635 hectares of nature reserve, and Village Tangkoko Pinangunian as Batuangus Nature Park.
Topography

This area has a gentle slope to the hilly topography of coastal forest, lowland forest, montane forests, and forests of moss. In this area there are two peaks: Mount Tangkoko (1109 m) and Mount Two Brothers (1109 m) and Mount Batuangus (450 m) in the southeast. In the northeast there Pata Highlands.

Flora

In this area there are rain forests dominated by roach (Ficus septica Burm.f.), Ares (Duabanga moluccana), forest gora (Phaleria capitata Jack.), Mango forests (Buchanania arborescens Bl.) Lengki (Leea angulata Korth.), bintangar (Kleinchofia hospita L.), and encouragement (Bignoniaceae), and nantu (Palaquim obtusifolium).  In the forest of moss can be found edelweis (Anaphalis javanica) and IN PLANTS (Nepenthes gymnamphora)

In the area of White Rock Park there are plants such as beach ketapan, Bitung, pandanus, teak, and mahang (Macaranga).
Fauna
Mammals

Sulawesi black monkeys (Macaca tongkeana), tarsier (Tarsius spectrum), polecat (Ailurops ursinus), pygmy possum (Strigocuscus celebensis), anoa, squirrels (Tupaia sp), ferrets sulawesi (Macrogalidia musschenbroekii).
Birds

In 1980 recorded some 140 species of birds, including birds year (Rhythitceras cassidix) and maleo (Macrocephalon maleo) is endemic.  Other species of Green Imperial-pigeon (Ducula aenea), thrush, hair tufts (Dicrurus hottentottus), starlings tunggir-red (Scissirostrum dubium), king-prawn-purple cheeks (Cittura cyanotis), red shrimp sulawesi (Ceyx fallax), plop sulawesi (Otus manadensis), rangkok sulawesi (Penelopides exarhatus).
Reptiles

Types of reptiles and snakes that were found are developing python (Python reticulatus), cobra (Naja naja), King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), Tropidolaemus wagleri, soa-soa (Hydrosaurus amboinensis), indicus monitor lizard (Varanus indicus), and lizard flying wing red (Draco sp.) [1] Creatures of the sea green turtle (Chelonia mydas), star fruit turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata).
Location

This nature reserve about 60 km from Manado or 20 km from Kota Bitung. In Bitung hotels and inns are for travelers. At Deer Horn of District adjacent to a nature reserve where there is also an inn.

 

North Sulawesi Tangkoko National Park Birding

North Sulawesi  Tangkoko National Park Birding

http://www.vacationindonesiatours.com/tours/sulawesi

Click to Enlarge !

Bird-01-800

http://korindo-network.com/tours-in-indonesia/north-sulawesi/bird-watching-trips.htm

Tangkoko National Park – Bird Watching

The Tangkoko National Park is a flora and fauna conservation area on Mount Tangkoko, Bitung in the province of North Sulawesi. To visit this park, you will pass Batuputih Natural Park located between Batuputih Bawah subdistrict and the Tangkoko National Park itself at Batuangus.

The Batuputih Natural Park covers an area of 615 hectares and is a savanna suitable for camping, outbound activities and relaxation by the beach. Since the Batuputih park is most visited by tourists, it is therefore also the best known, although it is only one of four conservation areas at Tangkoko.

In addition to the Batuputih Park, Tangkoko also comprises the Tangkoko-Batuangus National Park with a total area of 3,196 hectares – covering Mount Tangkoko-Batuangus and its surrounding areas – which are the Duasaudara National Park with a total area of 4,299 hectares (covering Mount Duasaudara and its surrounding areas), and the Batuangus National Park with 635 hectares (located between the Tangkoko National Park and Pinangunian village.

5 Days / 4 Nights
Bird Watching Trips – Tangkoko National Park
Start / Finish: Samratulangi Airport Manado
Tour Code: KNLR-BWT-5D
Departure: Daily

Itinerary
Day 01: Transfer to National Park
From Airport or Manado city, guest will pick up than drive to Tangkoko national park. Check in at losmen mama ros or similar, Dinner and overnight at losmen. (D)

Day 02: Black Macaque Tour and Birding Explorer
Early morning get tour to see the groups of black macaque nigra (black monkey) and the endemic of tropicl birds along Tangkoko national Park. On the day back to losmen for lunch, and afternoon get birding tour near the beach. Dinner and overnight at losmen. (B/L/D)

Day 03: Full Day Birding Explorer
Early morning get birding explore at the near the beach in another side. On the day back to mama ross..and afternoon to explore in the side of Tangkoko national park for afternoon birding…dinner and overnight at mama ros losmen or similar. (B/L/D)

Day 04: Top Mountain Birding
After having breakfast at at losmen, get full day explore and trekking at tangkoko national park mountain.. get birding tour whole day ( lunch will Be serve at lunch box at forest) and afternoon to see the smallest monkey in the world where as just 250 grams weight with, 15 cm length, Than back to mama ros losmen..dinner and overnight at Mama Ros Losmen. (B/L/D)

Day 05: Tangkoko Manado
After having breakfast back to Manado, fly back to Jakarta or continue with Halmahera birding program.

North Sulawesi Tangkoko National Park Introduction

North Sulawesi

Tangkoko  National Park Introduction

alt

Tangkoko National ParkThe Tangkoko-Duasudara nature preserve lies on the northernmost tip of the northern peninsula of Sulawesi, within the administrative province of Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi) at about 40km, or two hours driving from Manado.
Although named as one the Tangkoko-Duasudara nature preserve is actually two adjoining preserves. The Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve (4,446ha) was established in 1919 Total land area of both preserves, including the Batuputih and Batuangus tourism areas is 8,745 ha.
Physical Features
The topography is dominated by the two volcanic cones of Gunung Duasudara (1,351m) and Gunung Tangkoko (1,109m), which are linked by a ridge. A further volcanic cone, the active 450m Gunung Batuangus, lies to the south-east, while to the north-west lies the extensive Pata plateau. To the north-east the steep topography attenuates towards a coast characterized by alternating bays and rocky headlands.
Flora:Tangkoko Rain ForestPredominant vegetation type is primary lowland rain forest which occurs around the three main peaks and on the Pata plateau up to 600m. Above 600m, sub-mountain rain forest displays physical changes in both structure and species composition. Canopy height and mean leaf size are smaller and bryophytes and ferns predominate in the under storey and on trees.
At higher elevations, around the crater rim and peaks of Gunung Tangkoko and Gunung Duasudara, a stunted bryophyte and epiphyte encrusted mountain forest occurs.Fig Tree – Tangkoko National Park In areas disturbed by landslides numerous ferns are present along with pitcher plants Nepenthes sp. and some genera such as Vaccinium spp. This forest type is particularly noteworthy for orchids.
Other notable vegetation types include coastal beach forest which predominates on sandy coastal ridges and is dominated by Calophyllum soulattri and Barringtonia asiatica. A Casuarina equisetifolia dominated secondary forest occurs on newly-exposed Palm Woka – Tangkoko National Parksandy and rocky parts of the reserve, such as on the Tangkoko crater walls and floor, on the slopes of the Batuangus ash cone and on the beach close to Batuangus cone.
Other vegetation types include secondary forest on the lower south-eastern slopes of Gunung Duasudara and areas of alang-alang Imperata cylindrica grassland in areas of both volcanic and anthropogenic disturbance (WWF, 1980).
Fauna:The unusually high productivity of the lowland forest has resulted in a faunal composition with large numbers of relatively few species.
This is exemplified by the frugivores (fruit-eaters), particularly the endemic Celebes black macaque Macaca nigra, for which population densities of about 300 per sq. km have been recorded, although this may have declined over recent years (MacKinnon, 1991). Other endemic species include tarsiers Tarsius spectrum and phalangers; bear cuscus Phalanger ursinus and Celebes cuscus P. celebensis.
Avifauna is well represented with some 140 species recorded from the reserve by 1980. Of particular interest are the Sulawesi endemic rhinoceros hornbill Rhyticeros cassidix, which occurs in extremely high numbers, and maleo Macrocephalon maleo , for which two main nesting areas have been identified at Rumesung and Tiwo, as well as several smaller sites at Lagunde and on the slopes of Gunung Tangkoko.
The proposed marine component of the reserve includes a variety of habitats including well-developed coral reefs. Notable species include turtles; green turtle Chelonia mydas , leatherback Dermochelys coriacea and hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata , although these nest only occasionally .
Mammals
* Bear cuscus – Ailurops ursinus
* Sulawesi dwarf cuscus – Strigocuscus celebensis
* Lesser dog-faced fruit bat – Cynopterus brachyotis
* Celebes black macaque – Macaca nigra
* Sulawesi tarsier – Tarsius spectrum
* Sulawesi palm civet – Macrogalidia musschenbroekii
* Malay civet – Viverra tangalunga
* Lowland anoa – Bubalus depressicornis
* Rusa deer – Cervus timorensis
* Celebes warty pig – Sus celebensis
* Northern long-nosed squirrel – Hyosciurus ileile
* Pale tree squirrel – Prosciurillus leucomus
* Sulawesi tree squirrel – Prosciurillus murinus

Birds
* Maleo – Macrocephalon maleo
* Philippine Scrubfowl – Megapodius cumingii
* Blue-breasted Quail – Coturnix chinensis
* Red Junglefowl – Gallus gallus
* Barred Buttonquail – Turnix suscitator
* Sulawesi Woodpecker – Dendrocopos temminckii
* Ashy Woodpecker – Mulleripicus fulvus
* Sulawesi Hornbill – Penelopides exarhatus
* Knobbed Hornbill – Aceros cassidix
* Purple-winged Roller – Coracias temminckii
* Dollarbird – Eurystomus orientalis
* Common Kingfisher – Alcedo atthis
* Blue-eared Kingfisher – Alcedo meninting
* Sulawesi Kingfisher – Ceyx fallax
* Lilac-cheeked Kingfisher – Cittura cyanotis
* Black-billed Kingfisher – Pelargopsis melanorhyncha
* Ruddy Kingfisher – Halcyon coromanda
* Collared Kingfisher – Todirhamphus chloris
* Sacred Kingfisher – Todirhamphus sanctus
* Green-backed Kingfisher – Actenoides monachus
* Scaly Kingfisher – Actenoides princeps
* Purple-bearded Bee-eater – Meropogon forsteni
* Blue-tailed Bee-eater – Merops philippinus
* Rainbow Bee-eater – Merops ornatus
* Large Hawk-Cuckoo – Cuculus sparverioides
* Plaintive Cuckoo – Cacomantis merulinus
* Rusty-breasted Cuckoo – Cacomantis sepulcralis
* Asian Koel – Eudynamys scolopacea
* Black-billed Koel – Eudynamys melanorhyncha
* Channel-billed Cuckoo – Scythrops novaehollandiae
* Yellow-billed Malkoha – Phaenicophaeus calyorhynchus
* Lesser Coucal – Centropus bengalensis
* Bay Coucal – Centropus celebensis
* Ornate Lorikeet – Trichoglossus ornatus
* Yellow-and-green Lorikeet – Trichoglossus flavoviridis
* Yellowish-breasted Racquet-tail – Prioniturus flavicans
* Golden-mantled Racquet-tail – Prioniturus platurus
* Blue-backed Parrot – Tanygnathus sumatranus
* Sulawesi Hanging-parrot – Loriculus stigmatus
* Red-billed Hanging-parrot – Loriculus exilis
* Glossy Swiftlet – Collocalia esculenta
* Moluccan Swiftlet – Aerodramus infuscata
* Fork-tailed Swift – Apus pacificus
* House Swift – Apus nipalensis
* Grey-rumped Treeswift – Hemiprocne longipennis
* Minahassa Masked-Owl – Tyto inexspectata
* Sulawesi Owl – Tyto rosenbergii
* Sulawesi Scops-Owl – Otus manadensis
* Brown Hawk-Owl – Ninox scutulata
* Ochre-bellied Hawk-Owl – Ninox ochracea
* Speckled Hawk-Owl – Ninox punctulata
* Satanic Eared-Nightjar – Eurostopodus diabolicus
* Great Eared-Nightjar – Eurostopodus macrotis
* Sulawesi Nightjar – Caprimulgus celebensis
* Spotted Dove – Streptopelia chinensis
* Slender-billed Cuckoo-Dove – Macropygia amboinensis
* White-faced Cuckoo-Dove – Turacoena manadensis
* Emerald Dove – Chalcophaps indica
* Stephan’s Dove – Chalcophaps stephani
* Pink-necked Green-Pigeon – Treron vernans
* Grey-cheeked Green-Pigeon – Treron griseicauda
* Maroon-chinned Fruit-Dove – Ptilinopus subgularis
* Superb Fruit-Dove – Ptilinopus superbus
* Black-naped Fruit-Dove – Ptilinopus melanospila
* White-bellied Imperial-Pigeon – Ducula forsteni
* Grey-headed Imperial-Pigeon – Ducula radiata
* Green Imperial-Pigeon – Ducula aenea
* Pied Imperial – Ducula bicolor
* White Imperial-Pigeon – Ducula luctuosa
* Sombre Pigeon – Cryptophaps poecilorrhoa
* Barred Rail – Gallirallus torquatus
* Buff-banded Rail – Gallirallus philippensis
* Bald-faced Rail – Gymnocrex rosenbergii
* Isabelline Waterhen – Amaurornis isabellinus
* White-breasted Waterhen – Amaurornis phoenicurus
* White-browed Crake – Porzana cinerea
* Whimbrel – Numenius phaeopus
* Common Redshank – Tringa totanus
* Common Sandpiper – Tringa hypoleucos
* Red-necked Phalarope – Phalaropus lobatus
* Little Ringed Plover – Charadrius dubius
* Great Crested-Tern – Sterna bergii
* Little Tern – Sterna albifrons
* Brown Noddy – Anous stolidus

* Osprey – Pandion haliaetus
* Jerdon’s Baza – Aviceda jerdoni
* Brahminy Kite – Haliastur indus
* White-bellied Fish-Eagle – Haliaeetus leucogaster
* Lesser Fish-Eagle – Ichthyophaga humilis
* Sulawesi Serpent-Eagle – Spilornis rufipectus
* Spotted Harrier – Circus assimilis
* Sulawesi Goshawk – Accipiter griseiceps
* Spot-tailed Goshawk – Accipiter trinotatus
* Small Sparrowhawk – Accipiter nanus
* Vinous-breasted Sparrowhawk – Accipiter rhodogaster
* Black Eagle – Ictinaetus malayensis
* Rufous-bellied Eagle – Hieraaetus kienerii
* Sulawesi Hawk-Eagle – Spizaetus lanceolatus
* Spotted Kestrel – Falco moluccensis
* Oriental Hobby – Falco severus
* Peregrine Falcon – Falco peregrinus
* Red-footed Booby – Sula sula
* Brown Booby – Sula leucogaster
* Little Pied Cormorant – Phalacrocorax melanoleucos
* Cinnamon Bittern – Ixobrychus cinnamomeus
* Black Bittern – Ixobrychus flavicollis
* Black-crowned Night-Heron – Nycticorax nycticorax
* Japanese Night-Heron – Gorsachius goisagi
* Pacific Reef-Egret – Egretta sacra
* Great-billed Heron – Ardea sumatrana
* Purple Heron – Ardea purpurea
* Javan Pond-Heron – Ardeola speciosa
* Striated Heron – Butorides striatus
* Great Frigatebird – Fregata minor
* Lesser Frigatebird – Fregata ariel
* Hooded Pitta – Pitta sordida
* Red-bellied Pitta – Pitta erythrogaster
* Blue-winged Pitta – Pitta moluccensis
* Sulawesi Myzomela – Myzomela chloroptera
* White-eared Myza – Myza sarasinorum
* Golden-bellied Gerygone – Gerygone sulphurea
* Brown Shrike – Lanius cristatus
* Sulphur-bellied Whistler – Pachycephala sulfuriventer
* Slender-billed Crow – Corvus enca
* White-breasted Woodswallow – Artamus leucorynchus
* Ivory-backed Woodswallow – Artamus monachus
* Black-naped Oriole – Oriolus chinensis
* Cerulean Cuckooshrike – Coracina temminckii
* Pied Cuckooshrike – Coracina bicolor
* White-rumped Cuckooshrike – Coracina leucopygia
* Sulawesi Cicadabird – Coracina morio
* White-rumped Triller – Lalage leucopygialis
* Hair-crested Drongo – Dicrurus hottentottus
* Sulawesi Drongo – Dicrurus montanus
* Black-naped Monarch – Hypothymis azurea
* Blue Rock-Thrush – Monticola solitarius
* Red-backed Thrush – Zoothera erythronota
* Eyebrowed Thrush – Turdus obscurus
* Sulawesi Blue-Flycatcher – Cyornis omissus
* Citrine Canary-Flycatcher – Culicicapa helianthea
* Asian Glossy Starling – Aplonis panayensis
* Sulawesi Myna – Basilornis celebensis
* White-necked Myna – Streptocitta albicollis
* Finch-billed Myna – Scissirostrum dubium
* Fiery-browed Myna – Enodes erythrophris
* Barn Swallow – Hirundo rustica
* Pacific Swallow – Hirundo tahitica
* Sooty-headed Bulbul – Pycnonotus aurigaster
* Golden-headed Cisticola – Cisticola exilis
* Lemon-bellied White-eye – Zosterops chloris
* Black-crowned White-eye – Zosterops atrifrons
* Mountain Tailorbird – Orthotomus cuculatus
* Sulawesi Babbler – Trichastoma celebense
* Yellow-sided Flowerpecker – Dicaeum aureolimbatum
* Crimson-crowned Flowerpecker – Dicaeum nehrkorni
* Grey-sided Flowerpecker – Dicaeum celebicum
* Plain-throated Sunbird – Anthreptes malacensis
* Black Sunbird – Nectarinia aspasia
* Olive-backed Sunbird – Nectarinia jugularis
* Crimson Sunbird – Aethopyga siparaja
* Grey Wagtail – Motacilla cinerea
* Paddyfield Pipit – Anthus rufulus
* Pechora Pipit – Anthus gustavi
* Black-faced Munia – Lonchura molucca
* Scaly-breasted Munia – Lonchura punctulata
* Southern Black-headed Munia – Lonchura atricapilla

Reptiles
* Green Turtle – Chelonia mydas
* Hawksbill Turtle – Eretmochelys imbricata
* Leatherback Turtle – Dermochelys coriacea
* Draco lineatus
* Common Flying Lizard – Draco volans
* Cyrtodactylus jellesmae
* House Gecko – Hemidactylus frenatus
* Common Sun Skink – Mabuya multifasciata
* Water Monitor – Varanus salvator
* Green Whip Snake – Ahaetulla prasina
* Brown Cat Snake – Boiga irregularis
* Rhabdophis chrysargoides
* Wagler’s Pit-Viper – Tropidolaemus wagleri
* Red-tailed Pipe Snake – Cylindrophis ruffus
* Indonesian Spitting Cobra – Naja sputatrix
* Yellow-lipped Sea Snake – Laticauda colubrina
* Reticulated Python – Python reticulatus

 

North Sulawesi Tangkoko Mama roos Guesthouse

North Sulawesi Tangkoko Mama roos Guesthouse

http://www.aktun.com/mamaroos/

mama-roos-91
Mama Roos Welcomes You To The Tangkoko-Dua Saudara Reserve, Located In Batu Putih, North Sulawesi, Indonesia Mama Roos Homestay Beach near Tangkoko We offer 8 simple, clean, and quiet double occupancy bungalows, each with its own fan and private bathroom. Due to the remote and undeveloped nature of the area, we have no telephone services available as of yet, so feel free to just drop in! If we are full, additional accommodation arrangements can be made nearby. If you are planning on visiting the area contact us by e-mail at: mamaroos@eudoramail.com Since we are only able to check our e-mail every 3 or 4 days, please allow us time to reply. Your stay with us includes 3 meals per day. Breakfast, lunch and dinner are served family style in our outdoor, covered dining room. We serve large portions of fresh, delicious, nutritious local Indonesian cuisine including fish, vegetables and fruits. Vegetarian dishes also served. Coffee and tea are included, while soft drinks and beer are available for an extra charge. The best way to get here is by vehicle. From the city of Manado, or Sam Ratulangi International Airport, located outside Manado, you can use your bargaining skills to charter a vehicle. Or by public bus, depart Manado to the city of Bitung. From Bitung take the bus going to the village of Girian. From Girian take the bus going to the village of Batu Putih / Tangkoko Reserve. We are located across the road leading to the main entrance to the Reserve. It is best to leave in the morning as it takes about 3 hours to get here from Manado and several stretches of the road are in bad shape due to the remoteness of the area. Sit back and enjoy the scenic but bumpy ride. As of January 2006 our rates per person are 100,000 Rupiah, or $10 U.S. per night. (based on an approximate exchange rate of 10,000 Rupiah = $1 U.S.). Three meals are included and check-out time is 12 noon. Tangkoko Reserve admission fee and guide fee are not included. To help you get the most out of your time spent in the reserve, we have several friendly and knowledgeable resident guides available. English, Dutch, German, Italian and Japanese speaking guides are available and we highly recommend using a guide since they know the reserve and the habits of the wildlife. We are open year round. Remember that May through October are the driest months in this part of Indonesia. We look forward to seeing you…… Mama Roos, other happy homestayers and the Staff.

– North Sulawesi Tangkoko National Park Map

North Sulawesi

Tangkoko National Park

Tangkoko National Park,  Map, Tangkoko, Park Nasional, bitung, batuangus, dauadare, duasudara, danowudi,
 Tangkoko National Park is in the Sulawesi region of Indonesia. Located at the foot of Dua Saudara Mountain, the area is comprised of rolling hills and valleys with a variety of hardwood trees and unusual plant life. The animal life is also quite varied, and one can often view Tarsius tarsier(world’s smallest primate), black tailless monkeys, Maleo Birds, wild pigs and kuskus (marsupial family). Tangkoko Batuangus Reserve offers a suitable protective environment to help prevent these animals from becoming extinct. Please note that visitors are recommended to visit with a local tour operators to ensure an enjoyable journey and to take advantage of an experienced guide who can assist in spotting the wildlife. Losmen (simple guesthouses) are available for overnight stays.

 

North Sulawesi Tangkoko National Park Tours

North Sulawesi

Tangkoko  National Park Tours

 alt

http://www.manadosafaris.com/tours_tangkoko.php

Exciting overnight trip for nature lovers, trekkers, and anyone who likes the outdoors

DAY 01 (1-2 PM) Transfer by Safari Tours bus or AC 4 pax vehicle to Nature Reserve. The 2-hour drive to the 9000-hectare National Park is quite scenic as we pass through small villages. Upon arrival, immediately check in to Mama Roos Homestay or equivalent. You will then be guided by local forest rangers (and Safari staff) in search of the Black Crested Macaque (Black Monkey indigenous to North Sulawesi), hornbills, and couscous as well as other fauna specific to the reserve. Depending on what time it gets dark, we will head into the denser part of the jungle as the sun is setting, where you will (most likely) be able to get photographs of the Tarsier Spectrum (the world’s smallest primate). After it is completely dark and the Tarsier have departed for their nightly foraging, we head back to the homestay for a basic traditional dinner. Overnight – dinner

DAY 02 Rising early, you will again hike into the forest with local rangers where you will have the best opportunity to view more birds and certainly the Black Crested Macaque as these monkeys are earlier risers and are searching out food along the coastline at Tangkoko. After several hours it’s back to the homestay for a traditional breakfast and prepare to go back to Manado. Arrive in Manado between 9 -11 AM. – Breakfast