North Sulawesi, Sangihe, Awu volcano

North Sulawesi, Sangihe, Awu volcano

http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0607-04=

Awu

Country: Indonesia
Subregion Name: Sangihe Islands (Indonesia)
Volcano Number: 0607-04=
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 2004 
Summit Elevation: 1320 m 4,331 feet
Latitude: 3.67°N 3°40’0″N
Longitude: 125.50°E 125°30’0″E
The massive Gunung Awu stratovolcano occupies the northern end of Great Sangihe Island, the largest of the Sangihe arc. Deep valleys that form passageways for lahars dissect the flanks of the 1320-m-high volcano, which was constructed within a 4.5-km-wide caldera. Awu is one of Indonesia’s deadliest volcanoes; powerful explosive eruptions in 1711, 1812, 1856, 1892, and 1966 produced devastating pyroclastic flows and lahars that caused more than 8000 cumulative fatalities. Awu contained a summit crater lake that was 1 km wide and 172 m deep in 1922, but was largely ejected during the 1966 eruption.

North Sulawesi, Sangihe, Karangetang [Api Siau] volcano

North Sulawesi, Sangihe, Karangetang [Api Siau] volcano

http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0607-02=

Karangetang-Api-Siau
Country: Indonesia
Subregion Name: Sangihe Islands (Indonesia)
Volcano Number: 0607-02=
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 2011
Summit Elevation: 1784 m 5,853 feet
Latitude: 2.78°N 2°47’0″N
Longitude: 125.40°E 125°24’0″E
Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, north of Sulawesi. The 1784-m-high stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. Karangetang is one of Indonesia’s most active volcanoes, with more than 40 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts has also produced pyroclastic flows.

North Sulawesi, Sangihe, Ruang volcano

North Sulawesi, Sangihe, Ruang volcano

http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0607-01=

Ruang

Country: Indonesia
Subregion Name: Sangihe Islands (Indonesia)
Volcano Number: 0607-01=
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 2002 
Summit Elevation: 725 m 2,379 feet
Latitude: 2.30°N 2°18’0″N
Longitude: 125.37°E 125°22’0″E
Ruang volcano, not to be confused with the better known Raung volcano on Java, is the southernmost volcano in the Sangihe Island arc, north of Sulawesi Island. The 4 x 5 km island volcano rises to 725 m across a narrow strait SW of the larger Tagulandang Island. The summit of Ruang volcano contains a crater partially filled by a lava dome initially emplaced in 1904. Explosive eruptions recorded since 1808 have often been accompanied by lava dome formation and pyroclastic flows that have damaged inhabited areas.

North Sulawesi, Tongkoko volcano

North Sulawesi, Tongkoko volcano

http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0606-13=

Tongkoko

Country: Indonesia
Subregion Name: Sulawesi (Indonesia)
Volcano Number: 0606-13=
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 1880 
Summit Elevation: 1149 m 3,770 feet
Latitude: 1.52°N 1°31’0″N
Longitude: 125.20°E 125°12’0″E
The NE-most volcano on the island of Sulawesi, Tongkoko (also known as Tangkoko) has a summit that is elongated in a NW-SE direction with a large deep crater that in 1801 contained a cone surrounded by lake water. The slightly higher Dua Saudara stratovolcano is located only 3 km to the SW of Tongkoko, and along with Tongkoko, forms the most prominent features of Gunung Dua Saudara National Park, a noted wildlife preserve. Eruptions occurred from the summit crater of Tongkoko in the 17th century and in 1801. The prominent, flat-topped lava dome Batu Angus formed on the east flank of Tongkoko in 1801, and, along with an adjacent east flank vent, has been the source of all subsequent eruptions.

North Sulawesi, Klabat volcano

North Sulawesi, Klabat volcano

http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0606-12=

Klabat

Country: Indonesia
Subregion Name: Sulawesi (Indonesia)
Volcano Number: 0606-12=
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Fumarolic
Last Known Eruption: Unknown
Summit Elevation: 1995 m 6,545 feet
Latitude: 1.47°N 1°28’0″N
Longitude: 125.03°E 125°2’0″E
Klabat is an isolated symmetrical stratovolcano that rises to 1995 m near the eastern tip of the elongated northern arm of Sulawesi Island. The volcano lies east of the city of Manado (also spelled Menado) and is the highest in Sulawesi. Klabat has a shallow lake in its 170 x 250 m summit crater. No verified historical eruptions have occurred from this volcano, but fumarolic activity has occurred within historical time. A report of an eruption in 1683 probably was from nearby Tongkoko volcano.

North Sulawesi, Mahawu volcano

North Sulawesi, Mahawu volcano

http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0606-11=

Mahawu

Mahawu is the northernmost of a string of “young” volcanoes along the spine of North Sulawesi. Less active than it’s neighbors, Mahawu is just a few minutes’ drive from the center of Tomohon. A small road leads to a visitors center about halfway up the side of the crater. From the small parking lot, you have to hike up to the rim. There is no paved path or stairs, just a rough cut trail through small brush and thickets of elephant grass that took me about 20 to 30 minutes.

You reach the rim of the 180 meter wide crater on the south side. From the rim, it’s a 140 meter drop almost straight down to the floor of the crater, where there are a couple of muddy lakes and a few smoking fumeroles. If you hike around the rim, through more thickets of elephant grass, to the north side, you will get a good view of Manado city and the Bunaken Marine Park islands, if the weather permits of course.

There is no set fee to visit Mahawu, but a small donation to the visitors center will get a tree planted in your name in the growing forest around the base of the volcano. Manado-based Safari Tours can arrange a tours to Mahawu Volcano.

Country: Indonesia
Subregion Name: Sulawesi (Indonesia)
Volcano Number: 0606-11=
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 1977 
Summit Elevation: 1324 m 4,344 feet
Latitude: 1.358°N 1°21’30″N
Longitude: 124.858°E 124°51’30″E
The elongated Mahawu volcano immediately east of Lokon-Empung volcano is the northernmost of a series of young volcanoes along a SSW-NNE line near the margin of the Quaternary Tondano caldera. Mahawu is capped by a 180-m-wide, 140-m-deep crater that sometimes contains a small crater lake, and has two pyroclastic cones on its northern flank. Less active than its neighbor, Lokon-Empung, Mahawu’s historical activity has been restricted to occasional small explosive eruptions recorded since 1789. In 1994 fumaroles, mudpots, and small geysers were observed along the shores of a greenish-colored crater lake.

North Sulawesi, Lokon-Empung volcano

North Sulawesi, Lokon-Empung volcano

http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0606-10=

Lokon-Empung

Country: Indonesia
Subregion Name: Sulawesi (Indonesia)
Volcano Number: 0606-10=
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 2011
Summit Elevation: 1580 m 5,184 feet
Latitude: 1.358°N 1°21’30″N
Longitude: 124.792°E 124°47’30″E
The twin volcanoes Lokon and Empung, rising about 800 m above the plain of Tondano, are among the most active volcanoes of Sulawesi. Lokon, the higher of the two peaks ( whose summits are only 2.2 km apart), has a flat, craterless top. The morphologically younger Empung volcano has a 400-m-wide, 150-m-deep crater that erupted last in the 18th century, but all subsequent eruptions have originated from Tompaluan, a 150 x 250 m wide double crater situated in the saddle between the two peaks. Historical eruptions have primarily produced small-to-moderate ash plumes that have occasionally damaged croplands and houses, but lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows have also occurred.

North Sulawesi, Tondano Caldera volcano

North Sulawesi, Tondano Caldera volcano

http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0606-07-

Tondano-Caldera

Country: Indonesia
Subregion Name: Sulawesi (Indonesia)
Volcano Number: 0606-07-
Volcano Type: Caldera
Volcano Status: Fumarolic
Last Known Eruption: Unknown
Summit Elevation: 1202 m 3,944 feet
Latitude: 1.23°N 1°14’0″N
Longitude: 124.83°E 124°50’0″E
Tondano is an approximately 20 x 30 km Quaternary caldera in north Sulawesi containing post-caldera pyroclastic cones, obsidian flows, and thermal areas. Lake Tondano lies against the well-defined eastern caldera rim. The historically active andesitic-to-basaltic stratovolcanoes Soputan, Sempu, Lokon-Empung and Mahawu (described elsewhere in this compilation) lie astride the poorly defined southern and northern rims of the caldera. The age of the latest eruptions within the caldera is not known, although thermal areas occur at Batu Kolok and Sarangson, and at the Tampusu cinder cone and Lahendong maar.

North Sulawesi, Sempu volcano

North Sulawesi, Sempu volcano

http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0606-04=

Sempu

Country: Indonesia
Subregion Name: Sulawesi (Indonesia)
Volcano Number: 0606-04=
Volcano Type: Caldera
Volcano Status: Fumarolic
Last Known Eruption: Unknown
Summit Elevation: 1549 m 5,082 feet
Latitude: 1.13°N 1°8’0″N
Longitude: 124.758°E 124°45’30″E
The 1549-m-high Sempu stratovolcano was constructed within the 3-km-wide Sempu caldera. Kawah Masem maar was formed in the SW part of the caldera and contains a crater lake. No historical eruptions are known from Sempu. Sulfur has been extracted from fumarolic areas in the maar since 1938.

North Sulawesi, Soputan volcano

North Sulawesi, Soputan volcano

http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0606-03=

Soputan

Country: Indonesia
Subregion Name: Sulawesi (Indonesia)
Volcano Number: 0606-03=
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 2011
Summit Elevation: 1784 m 5,853 feet
Latitude: 1.108°N 1°6’30″N
Longitude: 124.73°E 124°44’0″E
The small Soputan stratovolcano on the southern rim of the Quaternary Tondano caldera on the northern arm of Sulawesi Island is one of Sulawesi’s most active volcanoes. The youthful, largely unvegetated volcano rises to 1784 m and is located SW of Sempu volcano. It was constructed at the southern end of a SSW-NNE trending line of vents. During historical time the locus of eruptions has included both the summit crater and Aeseput, a prominent NE-flank vent that formed in 1906 and was the source of intermittent major lava flows until 1924.