South Sulawesi, Samalona island, Straits of Makassar

South Sulawesi, Samalona island, Straits of Makassar

Samalona-island-01

Samalona is a small island in the Straits of Makassar, precisely on the southwest coast of South Sulawesi . Administratively, this island including the city of Makassar, South Sulawesi. Position more precisely located on the west district Wajo, Makassar, a distance of approximately 2 km and can be seen clearly from these districts. To reach this island could use fishing boats (boats with outboard engines) and required travel time not more than 0.5 hours. On this island stands a lighthouse that is used as a sign of land boundary for big ships.

Samalona is an archipelago that could be seen clearly from the Citadel Fort Rotterdam in the area Keling – Makassar. Mandalika is only 500 meters from the edge of the cliff fortress Fort Rotterdam.  Samalona Island is a cluster of circular coral island with an area of 2.34 hectares. This small island is one nautical tourist destination visited by many local and foreign tourists. White sand and crystal clear water make this island perfect for sunbathing. In addition, this island is very good area for diving (diving), because there are around coral reefs inhabited by diverse marine tropical fish, colorful, and other marine biota.
The best time to tour the island Samalona is from February to October.

The island is saving a million mystery about his wreck of the ship-relics of World War II. There are about seven boats that sank in the area of this island, among them: Maru ship, owned by a Japanese warship sank at a depth of about 30 meters; ship Lancaster Bomber which also sank at a depth of about 30 meters; submarine hunter (gunboat) Japanese-owned ; Hakko Maru cargo ship made in the Netherlands, and Japan’s submarines. Wrecked ships have been transformed into a reef and became a “house” or “residence” for hundreds of diverse marine life forms, and type and color that is very admirable. The beauty of this is the major attraction for tourists to come swim in the carcasses of the shipwreck.

In addition to the mystery and beauty of the marine park, tourists can also watch the sunrise (sunrise) and sunset (sunset) at a similar position. In this island, tourists can also enjoy the delights of a variety of fresh seafood cooked in a way that is quite unique, that is placed on top of coconut shell and then covered with deciduous trees that grow around the island. In this way, the smell of charcoal smoke wafted immediately and could arouse appetite.

At this location is a simple lodging house-shaped stage that can accommodate about 20 people. In addition, several small dining is also available that provides a variety of fresh seafood. Samalona Island is about 6.8 km from the city of Makassar, and can be reached in about 20-30 minutes by speed boat with a capacity of maximum 12 people.

South Sulawesi Maros Leangleang Prehistoric Park

South Sulawesi Maros Leangleang Prehistoric Park

Leangleang-Prehistoric-Park-01

Leangleang-Prehistoric-Park-02
SIGNS of very old civilization stored in Leangleang Prehistoric Park. It is not ancient fossil, but the wall paintings in cave. Some archeologists estimate, the paintings made about 5,000 years ago. The paintings looks very beautiful. Leangleang located at Bantimurung District, Maros Regency, Sout Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Leangleang is a part of hundreds of prehistoric caves in the Maros-Pangkep rocky hills. Leang in Makassarese language means cave (Indonesian language: liang, which means hole). Tourism objects such as Leangleang Prehistoric Park rarely found in the world. Moreover slips in rocky hills. The caves are hidden between rocks enriched by vegetation and biota. Paintings and prehistory human inheritance give more clues about their civilization, the ancestors of humans. Archeologist defection tells many things. Dutch archeologists, Mr. Van Heekeren and Ms. Palm Heeren, are two pictures founder of Pettae and Petta Kere Cave, two caves in Leang-leang, in 1950. Red is dominant color there. They interested to the prehistoric monument and immediately reconstruct the story behind the making of pictures. Pettae Cave faces to west. Mouth of the cave is eight meters high and 12 meters wide. Heritage that was found in this cave are five hand palm picture, a jumping pig picture with a dart in it chest, splinter, knife blade, and a clamshell deposited at the mouth of the cave. To reach this cave you have to climb 26 stairs. Meanwhile, Petta Kere Cave is 300 meters beside the Pettae Cave. The mouth of the cave also faces to northwest. There is a terrace in front of the cave with one or two meters width that function as a front yard. Heritages that found in this cave are two pig pictures, 27 hand pictures, blade flake tools, and arrow. To reach this cave you have to climb 64 stairs. The pictures on cave walls and tools that they left told their social lives, including the activities of their beliefs at that time. One of the pictures is a hand stamp, a member tribe’s hand that had followed ritual cut finger. The ritual was done as a sign of sorrow over the death of his family. The archeologists estimate, the pictures had been created around 5000 years old. The caves were inhabited around 8000 to 3000 B.C. The red pictures made from natural materials that can strongly seeped into stone pores so that can not be erased and endure thousands of years. The existence of the caves also told about prehistoric human migration and it environment at that time. Sulawesi Island is a strategic area in the track of migration routes from the mainland of Asia to the south Pacific. The caves was ideal place for shelter, either as a residence or just transit. Meanwhile, skin-clamshell deposited at the mouth of the cave shows, when people live in the cave, high of the sea water surface was 80 meters from the mainland have now. The girth area of Leangleang is very beautiful. The most visible is the cliff-edge of high-pitched. Not far from that place, plantations unfold with seasonal plants. Shady trees become dominant scene. Fresh air blended with voice of flowing water in river. At this location there are four gazebos that can be used for rest. Leangleang Prehistoric Park located about 12 kilometers eastern Maros regency capital, or 32 kilometers north of Makassar. There are several ways to reach this tourism object. With rent car or public transport. With private cars or rent car, you can through to Reformasi highway or Port highway, and then follow the entrance to Sutami highway, next to Maros. From Maros take the direction to Bantimurung. Also can through Perintis Kemerdekaan Road or without going to the highway. With public transport, you can start the trip from Daya Regional Bus Station, take transportation to Maros. Get off at the Maros terminal and connect to Bantimurung. In addition four gazebos, there are no hotels in the area. Lodging is available only in Bantimurung. Similarly, shop sells several purposes.

South Sulawesi Maros Prehistoric Cave

South Sulawesi Maros Prehistoric Cave

Click to Enlarge !

Petta-kere-01-800

Click to Enlarge !

Petta-kere-02-800

Date of Submission: 19/10/1995

Criteria:
Category: Cultural
Submission prepared by:
Directorate General for Culture
Coordinates:
South Sulawesi
Ref.: 288

Sesarmoides microphthalmus, a new species cave crab from Maros, Sulawesi

Sesarmoides microphthalmus

Sesarmoides microphthalmus Naruse & Ng, 2007 – Male and female individuals collected from underground river in Barru (South Sulawesi). Collected in 2002 by me on riverbank with muds substrat. (Foto. C.Rahmadi)

The trip to MAros karst in 2002 under the grant of ARCBC, was succesfully added a new species of cave crab from underground water of MAros Karst. The species has been named and published in the journal of Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 2007, Vol. 55. No. 1. The species name is Sesarmoides microphthalmus Naruse and Ng, 2007 belong to family Sesarmidae.

The species closely related to Sesarmoides jacobsoni from cave in Gunung Sewu Karst. The species is only known from type locality.

Note by: Cahyo Rahmadi

Published on The Brunei Times (http://www.bt.com.bn/en)
Sulawesi cave of hands
Liz Price
UJUNG PANDANG, INDONESIA

Sunday, January 20, 2008

THE wall was covered with hand prints surrounded by a red blood-like colour. It looked like some gristly murder had taken place, the victim having placed his bloodied hands against the wall as some macabre event took place. Luckily this scene only took place in my imagination. In reality the hand prints are art. Ancient art.

The real scene is quite peaceful. A cave featuring prehistoric art, surrounded by rice paddies. This cave is part of the Leang Leang prehistory park in the Maros karst in southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia. The Leang Leang caves are noted for their rock paintings, thought to date back 5000 years.

The paintings are stencils of human hands, made by placing the hand up against the wall and then blowing a mixture of red ochre and water around them, leaving a negative image on the rock. The effect is quite dramatic. Is this prehistoric Inkjet? I can imagine the artists having great fun as they created their handiwork — no pun intended!

Some hands face left, others face right. Apart from hands, the only other paintings are of a pig deer. This is the babirusa, an endemic wild deer-like pig, with long legs and tusks that curve upwards like horns.

We were staying in the capital of Sulawesi, Ujung Pandang. For centuries Sulawesi was a major transit point between the spice islands of Maluku and the trading ports of Java and the Malay peninsula. Many Makassarese live in Ujung Pandang, these are the Muslims who settled in the area.

I learnt that the name Leang Leang means “many caves” in the Makassarese dialect. The village of Leang Leang lies at the southern end of the limestone massif which houses all these caves and rock shelters. Although there are other rock paintings in Indonesia, these are some of the most easily accessible.

From our hotel, we had a half hour walk to reach the bemo station, where we got on a bus to Maros. I was very surprised to see a double decker bus driving past, as I don’t think I’d ever seen one before in southeast Asia. The bus ride to Maros took about 40 minutes. Here we had to negotiate a fare with a bemo driver, and once we were all happy he took us to Taman Prasejarah Leang Leang.

There are two caves of archaeological significance in the Leang Leang Park, the Pettae Cave and the Pettakere Cave. The Pettae cave was first studied in 1950. During the archaeological excavations, several stone artifacts were found, such as flakes, blades, arrow heads, neolithic axes etc., as well as animal bones. In the same year the cave paintings were also found.

The Pettakere Cave was only studied in 1973, by a British archaeologist. Again cultural artifacts were found, as well as a human skeleton. The cave walls have hand paintings, as well as the babirusa. In 1979 archaeologists from South Sulawesi continued the excavations.

We climbed up the steps to Gua Pettae, which is basically just a chamber, containing the handprints. We then walked around to Gua Pettakere, and had to climb a steel ladder up 20m of cliff face to a higher entrance. Here we saw about half a dozen hand stencils and a babirusa. There were a couple more chambers to the cave and a vertical rift passage. There were good views down over the valley and I could imagine prehistoric man living here in such beautiful surroundings.

Leang Leang dates back to the prehistoric culture of hunting and gathering. The people were from the Toalan culture, which existed from 5000-1000 BC. In Malaysia at the same time, people were also practising a hunting gathering culture, especially in the Lenggong Valley in northern Perak. This was part of the Holocene period which was marked by the development of human culture. These Neolithic assemblages show Man was using tools and the babirusa paintings suggest evidence of pig domestication.

These two Maros caves were probably used as shelters by these early people. A kitchen midden was found in one of the caves. Associated with this were shells, animal bones and skins, all leftovers of these prehistoric people’s meals. Freshwater shells in particular, seem to have formed an important part of their diet.

These Neolithic paintings were the oldest known Indonesia, until French cavers found more ancient rock drawings in Kalimantan in the 1990s. Leang Leang is quite young in archaeological terms, being only some 5000 years old, as other caves in Sulawesi show evidence of human occupation from 31,000 years ago. However the oldest rock paintings in Malaysia are only about 2000 years old.

The significance of these paintings to that early society is not known. We are not even sure how the artists reached some of the high level passages. It is likely that the more inaccessible caves were used as burial sites, as in the case of the famous Tana Toraja area, some 200km to the north.

We asked the guide if there were other caves in the area, and he said no. The surrounding hills are obviously riddled with caves, but maybe the guide meant there are no more caves open to the public. Or maybe we had just exhausted our welcome. We knew there were caves at Bantimurung, and would be going there the next day, so we paid the guide and thanked him for his kindness, and set off back to our hotel in Ujung Pandang.

The Brunei Times

 

— South Sulawesi Nature Reserves, Minerals and Mining, Plantations,Tribes Map

South Sulawesi

 Nature Reserves, Minerals, Mining, Plantations, Tribes Map

Minerals, Mining,, gold, copper, Iron, Zinc, Sulawesi, sulawesi south, sulawesi selatan, Nature Reserves, Minerals and Mining, Plantations

One of factors that support the high of PDRB South Sulawesi Province is mining sector. Its production includes gold, selatan space, iron, iron sand, granite, lead, nickel rock as its excellent product. Nickel production reach 73,283,138 kg per year, is in Luwu Timur and Luwu Utara Regency.

Mine Companies

P.T. International Nickel Mine, Soroako
Soroako Mine (Soroaka Mine; Sorowako Mine), Soroako

Golf Clubs

Makassar

Makasar Golf Club, Lapangan Golf Badoka

http://www.baddokagolfmakassar.com/club-house/facilities

Address:Jl Bira
Makassar – South Sulawesi
The only sports facility in makassar gMakasar Golf Club, Lapangan Golf Badoka , golf courses in indonesia, i indonesian, aceh, bali, nusa tenggara, batam, bintan, irian jaya, java,jakarta, kalimantan, krakatoa, sulawesi,sumatra, surabaya, bogor, bandung, surakarta, yogyakarta, far east, golf, golf clubs, golf club, golf courses, golf course database, golf course, golf course guide, golf course directory, golf,course information, address, places to play, where can I play, visitor, visitorsolf in the area of road districts Batara Bulurokeng Bira, northeast of the city of Makassar. Golf Baddoka founded by Admiral Sudomo in 1969 with the name of Makassar Golf Club. Hole 18 has a difficulty level different in the left and right side of road Batara Makassar Bira, has an area of 466,983 M2.
From Hasanuddin Airport, the distance to the Padang Golf Baddoka only about 5 Km.
Makassar city center via the Toll road (road Prof. Ir. Sutami) only 11 km, while from the city center via the shaft makassar – Maros only 15 Km.

Soroako Golf Club

Address:Makassar – South Sulawesi
Telephone +62-21-378374
Fax +62-21-3842413

Proposed World Heritages

Maros Prehistoric Cave South Sulawesi

http://cavernicoles.wordpress.com/2007/05/08/sesarmoides-microphthalmus-a-new-species-cave-crab-from-maros-sulawesi/

nature reserve, proposed world heritage, maros

Date of Submission: 19/10/1995
Criteria:
Category: Cultural
Submission prepared by:
Directorate General for Culture
Coordinates:
South Sulawesi
Ref.: 288

Sesarmoides microphthalmus, a new species cave crab from Maros, Sulawesi

Sesarmoides microphthalmus

Sesarmoides microphthalmus Naruse & Ng, 2007 – Male and female individuals collected from underground river in Barru (South Sulawesi). Collected in 2002 by me on riverbank with muds substrat. (Foto. C.Rahmadi)

The trip to Maros karst in 2002 under the grant of ARCBC, was succesfully added a new species of cave crab from underground water of Maros Karst. The species has been named and published in the journal of Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 2007, Vol. 55. No. 1. The species name is Sesarmoides microphthalmus Naruse and Ng, 2007 belong to family Sesarmidae.

The species closely related to Sesarmoides jacobsoni from cave in Gunung Sewu Karst. The species is only known from type locality.

Note by: Cahyo Rahmadi

Published on The Brunei Times (http://www.bt.com.bn/en)
Sulawesi cave of hands
Liz Price
UJUNG PANDANG, INDONESIA

Sunday, January 20, 2008

THE wall was covered with hand prints surrounded by a red blood-like colour. It looked like some gristly murder had taken place, the victim having placed his bloodied hands against the wall as some macabre event took place. Luckily this scene only took place in my imagination. In reality the hand prints are art. Ancient art.

The real scene is quite peaceful. A cave featuring prehistoric art, surrounded by rice paddies. This cave is part of the Leang Leang prehistory park in the Maros karst in southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia. The Leang Leang caves are noted for their rock paintings, thought to date back 5000 years.

The paintings are stencils of human hands, made by placing the hand up against the wall and then blowing a mixture of red ochre and water around them, leaving a negative image on the rock. The effect is quite dramatic. Is this prehistoric Inkjet? I can imagine the artists having great fun as they created their handiwork — no pun intended!

Some hands face left, others face right. Apart from hands, the only other paintings are of a pig deer. This is the babirusa, an endemic wild deer-like pig, with long legs and tusks that curve upwards like horns.

We were staying in the capital of Sulawesi, Ujung Pandang. For centuries Sulawesi was a major transit point between the spice islands of Maluku and the trading ports of Java and the Malay peninsula. Many Makassarese live in Ujung Pandang, these are the Muslims who settled in the area.

I learnt that the name Leang Leang means “many caves” in the Makassarese dialect. The village of Leang Leang lies at the southern end of the limestone massif which houses all these caves and rock shelters. Although there are other rock paintings in Indonesia, these are some of the most easily accessible.

From our hotel, we had a half hour walk to reach the bemo station, where we got on a bus to Maros. I was very surprised to see a double decker bus driving past, as I don’t think I’d ever seen one before in southeast Asia. The bus ride to Maros took about 40 minutes. Here we had to negotiate a fare with a bemo driver, and once we were all happy he took us to Taman Prasejarah Leang Leang.

There are two caves of archaeological significance in the Leang Leang Park, the Pettae Cave and the Pettakere Cave. The Pettae cave was first studied in 1950. During the archaeological excavations, several stone artifacts were found, such as flakes, blades, arrow heads, neolithic axes etc., as well as animal bones. In the same year the cave paintings were also found.

The Pettakere Cave was only studied in 1973, by a British archaeologist. Again cultural artifacts were found, as well as a human skeleton. The cave walls have hand paintings, as well as the babirusa. In 1979 archaeologists from South Sulawesi continued the excavations.

We climbed up the steps to Gua Pettae, w

hich is basically just a chamber, containing the handprints. We then walked around to Gua Pettakere, and had to climb a steel ladder up 20m of cliff face to a higher entrance. Here we saw about half a dozen hand stencils and a babirusa. There were a couple more chambers to the cave and a vertical rift passage. There were good views down over the valley and I could imagine prehistoric man living here in such beautiful surroundings.

Leang Leang dates back to the prehistoric culture of hunting and gathering. The people were from the Toalan culture, which existed from 5000-1000 BC. In Malaysia at the same time, people were also practising a hunting gathering culture, especially in the Lenggong Valley in northern Perak. This was part of the Holocene period which was marked by the development of human culture. These Neolithic assemblages show Man was using tools and the babirusa paintings suggest evidence of pig domestication.

These two Maros caves were probably used as shelters by these early people. A kitchen midden was found in one of the caves. Associated with this were shells, animal bones and skins, all leftovers of these prehistoric people’s meals. Freshwater shells in particular, seem to have formed an important part of their diet.

These Neolithic paintings were the oldest known Indonesia, until French cavers found more ancient rock drawings in Kalimantan in the 1990s. Leang Leang is quite young in archaeological terms, being only some 5000 years old, as other caves in Sulawesi show evidence of human occupation from 31,000 years ago. However the oldest rock paintings in Malaysia are only about 2000 years old.

The significance of these paintings to that early society is not known. We are not even sure how the artists reached some of the high level passages. It is likely that the more inaccessible caves were used as burial sites, as in the case of the famous Tana Toraja area, some 200km to the north.

We asked the guide if there were other caves in the area, and he said no. The surrounding hills are obviously riddled with caves, but maybe the guide meant there are no more caves open to the public. Or maybe we had just exhausted our welcome. We knew there were caves at Bantimurung, and would be going there the next day, so we paid the guide and thanked him for his kindness, and set off back to our hotel in Ujung Pandang.

The Brunei Times

Sulawesi Tribes

South Sulawesi 25 Tribes

Bajau 154.000 Islam
5,000 or more in North Maluku (Grimes 1982), 8,000 to 10,000 in South Sulawesi (Grimes 1987), 7,000 in North Sulawesi and Gorontalo, 36,000 in Central Sulawesi, 40,000 in Southeast Sulawesi (Mead and Lee 2007), and several thousand in Nusa Tenggara (Wurm and Hattori 1981, Verhiejen 1986). North Maluku on Bacan, Obi, Kayoa and Sula Islands; South Sulawesi, Selayar, Bone, and Sinjai districts; Gorontalo Province, Popayato and Tilamuta subdistricts; North Sulawesi, Wori, Tumpaan and Belang subdistricts. Widespread throughout Central and Southeast Sulawesi and islands of the East Sunda Sea. Alternate names: Badjaw, Badjo, Bajao, Bajo, Bayo, Gaj, Luaan, Lutaos, Lutayaos, Orang Laut, Sama, Turije’ne’. Dialects: Jampea, Same’, Matalaang, Sulamu, Kajoa, Roti, Jaya Bakti, Poso, Togian 1, Togian 2, Wallace.
The Bajau (also calledSulawesi, tribe, bajau, suku the Bayo, Gaj, Luaan, or Lutaos) are a highly mobile maritime people group that is found throughout the coastal areas of Sulawesi, Maluku, Kalimantan, Sumatera, and East Nusa Tenggara. Their high mobility led to outsiders calling them ‘sea gypsies.’ In eastern Indonesia, the largest numbers of Bajau are found on the islands and in the coastal districts of Sulawesi. Their everyday language is the Bajau language, which is a branch of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster.
While some Bajau have begun to live on land, many Bajau are still boat dwellers. Among the Bajau boat dwellers, local communities consist of scattered moorage groups made up of families whose members regularly return, between intervals of fishing, to a common anchorage site. Two to six families will group together in an alliance to regularly fish and anchor together, often sharing food and pooling labor, nets, and other gear. The boats that are used as family dwellings vary in size and construction. In Indonesia and Malaysia, boats average 10 meters in length with a beam of about 2 meters. They are plank constructed with solid keel and bow sections. All are equipped with a roofed living area made of poles and kajang matting and a portable earthenware hearth, usually carried near the stern, used for preparing family meals. The marine life exploited by the Bajau fishermen is diverse, including over 200 species of fish. Fishing activity varies with the tides, monsoonal and local winds, currents, migrations of pelagic fish, and the monthly lunar cycle. During moonless nights, fishing is often done with lanterns, using spears and handlines. Today, fishing is primarily for market sale. Most fish are preserved by salting or drying. The boat-dwelling Bajau see themselves (in contrast to their neighbors), as non-aggressive people who prefer flight to physical confrontation. As a consequence, the politically dominant groups of the region have historically viewed the Bajau with disdain as timid, unreliable subjects.
The Bajau are Sunni Muslims of the Shafi’i school.
Bentong 27.000 Islam
northwest corner of the southern tip of the peninsula; inland parts of Maros, Bone, Pangkep, and Barru districts. Alternate names: Dentong. Dialects: Most similar to Konzo.
The Bentong people are also known as the “To Bentong”. They are located inland to the east of the town of Pangkep in the province of South Sulawesi. Sulawesi is a large mountainous island often described as being shaped like an orchid or crab. It has a coastline of about 5,000 kilometers and consists mainly of four peninsulas separated by deep gulfs, with two of the peninsulas extending southward and two northeastward. According to the Bentong, they are the descendants of a marriage between the son of the King of Bone and the daughter of the King of Ternate. Other sources state the Bentong are the descendants of Bugis and Makasar intermarriage. This seems likely since Bentong culture is influenced by elements of both the Bugis and Makasar cultures. The Bentong are nomads and are still categorized by the government as an “isolated” society.
The Bentong live in a hilly area approximately 400-500 meters above sea level. This area is marked by dense forest underbrush, with limited land available for both irrigated and un-irrigated rice fields. Until 1975 there were no major roads, except for narrow footpaths, connecting the area with the outside world. A large portion of the Bentong people live as farmers and fishermen. Their primary production is copra, rice, and processing of forest products. The Bentong marriage system calls for marriages among people of the same group. A young man desiring to marry a woman outside his own group must remember that he has the duty to give preference to a woman within his own group. Traditionally, the groom offers a dowry. In the past, this dowry took the form of land or cloth. After marriage, the newlyweds can reside near either the husband’s or wife’s relatives.
The Bentong people are followers of Islam.
Bonerate 11.000 Islam
Bonerate, Madu, Kalaotoa, and Karompa islands. Dialects: Bonerate, Karompa. Lexical similarity: 79%–81% with Tukang Besi South [bhq], 31% with Kalao [kly], 25% with Laiyolo [lji]
The BoneratSulawesi, tribe, bonerate, sukue live on the islands of Bonerate, Madu, Lalaotoa, Karompa, and Selayar in South Sulawesi Province. These islands are part of the districts of Bonerate, Passimasungu (North Bonerate), and Passimarane in Selayar Regency. Sulawesi is a large mountainous island often described as being shaped like an orchid or crab. It has a coastline of about 5,000 kilometers and consists mainly of four peninsulas separated by deep gulfs, with two of the peninsulas extending southward and two northeastward. Bonerate Island is in a very remote location. To reach Bonerate from the South Sulawesi capital of Makassar takes 2-3 days. The first part of the trip is a ferry ride to Benteng on Selayar Island, and the second part involves renting a fishing boat since there is no public transportation to Bonerate. Their primary language is the Bonerate language, which is made up of two dialects, the Bonerate and Karompa.
There has been a steady population drain from Bonerate due to people moving to other parts of Sulawesi, such as Makassar, Kendari, and Toli-Toli. The Bonerate typically move to Makassar to seek a better education and employment. Quite a few Bonerate have become cloth and bread sellers in urban markets. Many have migrated to Toli-Toli and Kendari with the hope of receiving broader, more fertile farmland for a cheaper price. The primary ways Bonerate people make a living are through fishing and farming. The land’s primary produce are cassava, sweet potatoes, cloves, and sago palm, which grow naturally, without fertilizer. Bonerate farmers typically cannot grow other types of vegetables because the land is too dry. To fulfill their needs, vegetables are brought in from other islands. They also eat marine food such as seaweed, teripang, lola, and bole-bole. The main foods of the Bonerate are cassava, sago, and sweet potatoes. Houses are built on raised platforms with the vacant space underneath used for storage. Houses are neatly arranged in rows, with two rows of houses as long as the island. One row of houses is nicer than the houses in the second row, which is explained by the owners’ differing levels of income. Bathing and bathroom needs are carried out on the shoreline.
The majority of Bonerate people are Muslims but are also influenced by strong animistic beliefs. Primarily, they believe that a powerful spirit inhabits the sea. Therefore, when heavy winds and high waves occur, the people often believe that this ruler of the sea is angry. Various ceremonies and rituals are used to pacify the sea spirit.
Bugis 3.500.000 Islam
Western coast of southeast Sulawesi in Kolaka, Wundulako, Rumbia, and Poleang districts. Also in major towns of Sulawesi. Large enclaves also in other provinces of Sulawesi, Kalimantan, Maluku, Papua, and Sumatra; coastal swamp areas such as Bulukumba, Luwu, Polewali in Polmas, Pasangkayu in Mamuju districts. Also in Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Boegineesche, Boeginezen, Bugi, Buginese, De’, Rappang Buginese, Ugi. Dialects: Bone (Palakka, Dua Boccoe, Mare), Pangkep (Pangkajene), Camba, Sidrap (Sidenrang, Pinrang Utara, Alitta), Pasangkayu (Ugi Riawa), Sinjai (Enna, Palattae, Bulukumba), Soppeng (Kessi), Wajo, Barru (Pare-Pare, Nepo, Soppeng Riaja, Tompo, Tanete), Sawitto (Pinrang), Luwu (Luwu’, Bua Ponrang, Wara, Malangke-Ussu). Bone or Soppeng dialects are central.
The Bugis (sometimes called the Ugi) live in the province Sulawesi, tribe, bugis, sukuof South Sulawesi. The Bugis region is called Tellumponcoe, and it consists of the regencies of Bone, Wajo, and Soppeng. There are also Bugis people settled throughout the regencies of Luwu, Sidenneng, Polmas, Pinrang, Pare-pare, Barru, Pangkajene, Maros, Bulukumba, and Sinjai. The Bugis are a dynamic and highly mobile people, considered by many to be the dominant people group in South Sulawesi. Many Bugis have left their home area to seek success and wealth. In particular, they have migrated to Sumbawa, Jawa, Papua, and even Malaysia. Their Ugi language is divided into several dialects, namely Luwu, Wajo, Bira Selayar, Palaka, Sindenneng and Sawito.

Most Bugis make their living by hunting, fishing, farming, raising livestock or making handicrafts. Typically, the Bugis who live in the mountain ranges gain their livelihood by working the soil, while those living in the coastal areas generally work as fishermen. The Bugis traditional dress is called Wajo Ponco, which is believed to have originated from Melayu (Malay) dress. Currently, the dress is only used for traditional ceremonies and dances. The BugiSulawesi, tribe, bugis, sukus believe very strongly that certain days are good days, with good fortune for events and activities held on the first Wednesday and last Thursday of each month. Conversely, they consider Saturday to be a bad day, with misfortune more likely to happen on this day. In Bugis tradition there are different levels of social status that are based upon one’s ancestors. These different levels include descendants of a king, descendants of nobles (La Patau), descendants of district administrators (Aru Lili) and descendants of various kinds of slaves. Two of the most important cultural values for the Bugis people are called siri (personal honor) and siri-pesse (communal honor). A Bugis person must defend, maintain, and build one’s own siri. The effort to obtain and maintain siri varies according to the context. For instance, in an economic context, siri means working hard and being faithful. In a personal context, if a person’s siri is offended serious forms of revenge will be considered. Islam reinforced the traditional Bugis concept of siri in such a way that today the typical Bugis person sees siri as the key to his or her self-identity as a Bugis Muslim. The Bugis line of descent is bilateral (traced through both parents). After marriage the newlyweds may choose to live near either the husband’s or wife’s family, although initially, they live at least briefly near the wife’s family.
The Bugis people are famous for their fervent adherence to Sunni Islam.

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KAJANG TRIBE” THE BLACK COMMUNITY “ Kajang situated about 58 km north-west from Bira beach, Kajang is a sub-district from Bulukumba regency, the interest point in Tana-Toa village where live the ....  read more

South Sulawesi Bangkala Wildlife Reserve

South Sulawesi

Bangkala Wildlife Reserve

sulawesi--Bangkala

(Surat Keputusan) Mentan No. 760/Kpts/Um/10/1982, 12 Oktober 1982. Luas areal 4.152,5 hektar.

South Sulawesi Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park

South Sulawesi

Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park

Click to Enlarge !

Bantimurung--01-800

http://conservation.bp.com/Projects/110607.asp

Conservation of Herpetofauna in Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Project Leader: Anisa Fitri
Contact Details:anisa_fitri@yahoo.com
Project Dates: 05.2007 – 04.2008
Project No: 110607

Sulawesi Island, the heart of wallacea, has around 110 species reptile with 41 endemic species (Kinnaird,1997). The project aim to collect baseline data of herpetofauna diversity and also bioecological data in Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park (BBNP) vicinity as a basis for further program of population monitoring and frog research especially for species less known.

We will conduct a combination of several methods to survey herpetofauna: Visual Encounter Survey (VES) with noctural and diurnal searches. And also for reptile survey use trapping methods such as hooptrap, sticky trap, slingshot and hook and bait. We willl take note of all species found: sex, snout vent length, and mass. The project will also highlight effort to promote frog conservation to general public, especially to school children who lives in BBNP vicinity

General
The Bantimurung Nature Reserve is 1,000 ha and lies 42 km north-east of Ujung Pandang in South Sulawesi province. The area is most famous for its butterflies.
The reserve consists of a beautiful limestone valley with lush tropical rainforest. In the valley are two waterfalls and two caves: Goa Mimpie and Goa Istana Toakala. Both caves hold a large bat population. The reserve tends to be very crowded during the weekends when locals visit the reserve.
Access
Take the bus to Maros from Sentral station in Ujung Pandang (1 hr). From Maros take a minibus to Bantimurung (0.5 hr.).
Accommodation
* Ujung Pandang
o Many possibilities
* Bantimurung
o One simple losmen
Mammals
* Moor macaque – Macaca maura

Butterflies
* – Graphium androcles

Living in a Cave: Pangkajene, South Sulawesi

http://www.planetmole.org/indonesian-news/living-in-a-cave-pangkajene-south-sulawesi.html

Many caves were used as dwellings in prehistoric times but these days it is only really those who have chosen a monastic life who inhabit caves because of the natural isolation and protection they provide.

Not so in Pangkajene and Kepulauan regency, South Sulawesi, however, where a family of four lives in a cave and still has a social life.

Hamdan Syaidan, 45, his wife Sinta Hatta, 25, and their daughters, Nur Kamsiah, 5, and Nur Aisyah, 3, have lived for the past year in a home hewn out of a limestone cliff face in Bantimurung village, Tondong Tallasa district.

I’m very happy staying here even if we do get wet when it rains. Our children are doing fine, they haven’t been sick since we moved in,-÷ Sinta said.

Her husband has grand plans for the cave, hoping to make it as fancy as some of the big homes in town.

Before moving to the cave, Hamdan, who married Sinta in 2000, was staying with his in-laws in Bantimala, a village neighboring Bantimurung. But the house was crowded and Sinta and her siblings were constantly at each other’s throats.

The bickering finally got too much for me. But I had no idea where else we could go. I had neither land nor the money to build a house. One day, on my way home from work, I looked up and saw the cliffs. It suddenly struck me that it wouldn’t be a bad place to live,-÷ he said.

Hamdan, who used to make furniture from tree roots, surveyed the cliff face, finding a cave that was just the right size at about eight meters high.

It (the cave) was quite roomy and I only needed to put up some walls to make it livable,-÷ he said.

In reality it took Hamdan seven months to make the cave fit to live in. Scrub bushes obstructed the entrance and a large banyan tree also grew there. Locals, who had been using the area as a dump, believed the cave was haunted and did not dare venture there after dark. Some claimed they had seen ghosts.

When Hamdan announced he was moving in, his friends thought he was crazy. How can you live in a dirty and haunted stone cave,-÷ a former neighbor, Rudi, said.

Hamdan ignored the comments and his cave dwelling is now a peaceful and pleasant place to live.

The family has visitors almost every night. It is more comfortable here. It’s like stepping back in time,-÷ said Syahriati, who also lives nearby.

The single living room Hamdan built inside the cave measures about five by seven meters. It contains a bamboo bed, which doubles as a couch. The rest of the room is filled with cooking equipment. There are holes in the ceiling, which have been patched up with plastic sheeting; the floor is made of clay.

Hamdan erected a door frame and pinned a piece of material from it as a door.

Hamdan gets electricity and clean water from the house of one of his cousins, which is about 50 meters away.

Hamdan, a mason and a carpenter by trade, never stops making home improvements.

Currently, he is working on a loft, where the family can sleep away from the kitchen area.

Using a chisel and a large hammer, he has broken up the limestone slabs that he does not need.

I can’t rest until the loft is ready,-÷ Hamdan said.

Due to financial constraints, however, it could be some time before the family has a new place to sleep. Hamdan earns Rp 25,000 a day, spending half on the family’s basic needs and the rest on building materials like cement.

To make his home more beautiful, Hamdan has leveled out the yard and planted flowers and vegetables there. He has also dug out ponds for fish. He has a good eye for design and says he was always good at painting and drawing as a child.

Hamdan’s cave home is now a place that outsiders greatly admire. Even Pangkep Regent Syafruddin Nur commented on the attractiveness of the cave during a recent visit.

Indeed, Pangkep regency is home to a great many cliffs and caves that were inhabited by humans thousands of years ago.

The cliffs extend from Maros regency to Pangkep, an area of 20,000 hectares. The limestone cliffs of the area are said to be the second most beautiful in the world after those in China because they take the form of a spectacular tower at a height of between 40 and 420 meters above sea level. This cliff area is now part of the Bantimurung-Bulusaraung National Park.

Andi Hajramurni

South Sulawesi Barombong makassar Nature Reserve

South Sulawesi

Barombong makassar Nature Reserve

alt
Latitude : 5 14 42 S Logitude : 119 28 30 E
Altitude : 0 to 0 metres
Area : 1 ha Wetlands: 0 ha
Site Description
A coastal area consisting of a combination of mudflats, tidal pools and grassland, protected from the sea by various sand dunes and with sand-spit into sea at exit of main river channel. Tidal variation is small (suggesting that the site is slightly above sea level). Principal vegetation: Coarse grasses.
Site Location
Barombong is located on 10km south of Ujung Pandang, mouth of Sungai Sungguminasa, South Sulawesi.
List of Birds (33 species)

Actitis hypoleucos
Ardea purpurea
Ardeola speciosa
Bubulcus ibis
Calidris alba
Calidris ferruginea
Calidris ruficollis
Calidris subminuta
Calidris tenuirostris
Charadrius dubius
Charadrius leschenaultii
Charadrius mongolus
Charadrius peronii Lower Risk
Esacus magnirostris
Fregata andrewsi Vulnerable App I
Fregata ariel

Fregata minor
Gallinago megala
Heteroscelus brevipes
Ixobrychus cinnamomeus
Limosa lapponica
Numenius madagascariensis Lower Risk
Numenius minutus
Numenius phaeopus
Pluvialis fulva
Sterna albifrons
Sterna bengalensis
Sterna bergii
Tringa glareola
Tringa nebularia
Tringa stagnatilis
Tringa totanus
Xenus cinereus

South Sulawesi Bulukumba Nature Reserve

 South Sulawesi

Bulukumba Nature Reserve

Bulukumba
Latitude : 5 32 57 S Logitude : 120 12 56 E
Altitude : 0 to 0 metres
Area : 1 ha Wetlands: 0 ha
Tenure : Private
Site Description
Series of fishponds dyked in mangroves near coast.
Site Location
Bulu Kumba is located on 20 km East of Bulukumba, along coast, South Sulawesi.
List of Birds (28 species)

Species Red Data Book Cites
Actitis hypoleucos
Anas gracilis
Anas querquedula
Ardea purpurea
Ardeola speciosa
Bubulcus ibis
Butorides striatus
Calidris ruficollis
Calidris subminuta
Casmerodius albus
Ciconia episcopus
Egretta garzetta
Egretta intermedia

Egretta picata
Fregata minor
Gelochelidon nilotica
Ixobrychus sinensis
Numenius phaeopus
Nycticorax nycticorax
Phalacrocorax melanoleucos
Phalacrocorax sulcirostris
Pluvialis fulva
Sterna albifrons
Sterna bergii
Tringa glareola
Tringa nebularia
Tringa stagnatilis
Tringa totanus
 

 

South Sulawesi Bulurokeng Nature Reserve

 South Sulawesi

Bulurokeng Nature Reserve

Location:5°06’S, 119°26’E; 5 km northeast of Ujung Pandang, South Sulawesi.
Area:3 ha.
Altitude:Sea level.
Description of site:
A small area of under-utilized fish/shrimp ponds on the coast near Ujung Panjung, with adjacent tidal channels, mudflats and swampy pastureland. The tidal range in the channels is about one metre.
Climatic conditions:Humid tropical climate.
Principal vegetation:Marsh grasses, riverine scrub and palms. Mangroves are absent.
Land tenure:Privately owned.
Conservation measures taken:None.
Land use:
Aquaculture on a relatively small scale; livestock grazing on adjacent pastures.
Possible Changes in Land use:
Intensification of aquaculture.
Disturbances and threats:
The construction of a new airport highway along the east side of the site may have some adverse effects. Any intensification of aquaculture would reduce the suitablity of the area for waterbirds.
Economic and social values:
No information.
Fauna:
A very important feeding and roosting area for a wide variety of waterfowl, notably herons, egrets and shorebirds. The Milky Stork Mycteria cinerea has been recorded on several occasions, and the Chinese Egret Egretta eulophotes has occurred. Garganey Anas querquedula occur in good numbers during the northern winter. Twenty-four species of shorebirds have been recorded, including Limosa limosa (up to 60), Numenius madagascariensis, Calidris acuminata and Philomachus pugnax. Other species known to occur include Ixobrychus sinensis, I. cinnamomeus, Ardeola speciosa, Bubulcus ibis, Egretta garzetta, E. intermedia, E. alba, Ardea purpurea, Ciconia episcopus, Dendrocygna arcuata, Anas gibberifrons, Chlidonias hybrida, C. leucoptera, Gelochelidon nilotica and Sterna albifrons. Monitor lizards Varanus sp are present in the area.
List of Birds (41 species)

Species Red Data Book Cites
Actitis hypoleucos
Anas gracilis
Anas querquedula
Ardea purpurea
Ardeola speciosa
Arenaria interpres
Bubulcus ibis
Butorides striatus
Calidris acuminata
Calidris ferruginea
Calidris ruficollis
Calidris subminuta
Casmerodius albus
Charadrius dubius
Charadrius leschenaultii
Chlidonias hybridus
Ciconia episcopus
Dendrocygna arcuata
Egretta eulophotes Endengered

Egretta garzetta
Egretta intermedia
Fregata minor
Gallinago megala
Gallinago stenura
Gelochelidon nilotica
Heteroscelus brevipes
Ixobrychus cinnamomeus
Ixobrychus sinensis
Limicola falcinellus
Limosa limosa
Mycteria cinerea Vulnerable App I
Numenius phaeopus
Philomachus pugnax
Pluvialis fulva
Pluvialis squatarola
Sterna albifrons
Sterna bergii
Tringa glareola
Tringa nebularia
Tringa stagnatilis
Tringa totanus