South East Sulawesi Tanjung Amelengo Game Reserve

South East Sulawesi

Tanjung Amelengo Game Reserve

A. Legal base, location, and space

The Amolengo Forest of 850 ha is located Amolengu Village, Lainea Sub-district,  ....  read more

South East Sulawesi Tanjung Batikolo Wildlife Reserve

South East Sulawesi

Tanjung Batikolo Wildlife Reserve

Latitude : 4 27 0 S Logitude : 122 46 12 EAltitude : 0 to 100 metresGeneral Tanjung Batikolo is a small (5,500 ha) peninsular near Kendari in SE Sulawesi province. The area is forested and includes a small area of beach forest.Access Visit Kendari and ask at the local KSDA office or contact PT PEI.Accommodation * Kendario Several possibilities AddressesKSDA, Jl.Laute 7, Kendari. Local Touroperator PT PEI (Pengembangan Ekowisata Indonesia)Jalan Bunga Kamboja No. 6093121 KendariSouth East Sulawesi, IndonesiaTel : (+62) 0401 27995E-mail :

 ....  read more

South East Sulawesi Buton Utara, Buton Utara Wildlife Reserve

South East Sulawesi

Buton Utara Wildlife Reserve


Labundo village

North Buton Wildlife Reserve was established in 1979 by the Decree of Minister of Forestry No. 782/Kpts-II/Um/12/1979 dated 17 December 1979 following the Recommendation of Governor of south East Sulawesi No: Pta. 4/1/11 dated 16 January 1973. The underlying consideration of establishment of this reserve is potency of flora and fauna contained therein which has to be preserved in the interest of science, education and culture. Since then, management and control of the area has been taken over by the Department of forestry.
North Buton Wildlife Reserve lies in the north of the island Buton and covers 82,000 ha. It is the largest tropical forest amongst conservation areas in South East Sulawesi .
North Buton Wildlife Reserve is situated at 0 – 600 m above sea level with plain, sloping and rolling topography. The reserve consists of lowland forests partly on alluvial and partly on ultra basic rocks. There is also area of mangrove forest particularly on the eastern part of the reserve. With climate type C, dry season in July – December and rainy season is usually in January – June with annual rainfall 2,286 mm (average rainy day is 106 days per annum). The hottest weather is 34ºC, coolest weather is 22 ºC with dampness rate of 80%.
It would, therefore, not be too much if symbolizing this area as house of tropical flora and fauna. 40 indigenous sacred sites so-called “Sangia” are inside the area.
This area has a richness of vegetation like leguminosae – Papilionoideae (Pericopsis sp.), dolipo (Terminalia copelandii), soni (Dillepia megalantha), gito-gito (Diospyros pilosenthera), cendrana (Pterocarpus indicus) kenari (Canarium vulgaris), bintagur (Dillenia serrata), dao (Dracontomelon dao), and several kinds of anggrek (Acanthepipium sp, Bulbophyllum sp, and Eria floribunda).
Some endemic fauna founded in the area of North Buton Wildlife Reserve are: Booted macaque (Macaca ochreata), Lowland anoa (Bubalus depressicornis), deer (Cervus timorensis), etc.
There are also many species of bird found in the reserve e.g. Maleo (Macrocephalon maleo), Indonesian Teal (Anas gibberifrons), Barred Rail (Gallirallus torquatus), Buff-banded Rail (Gallirallus philippensis), White-breasted Waterhen (Amaurornis phoenicurus), Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), Common Greenshank (Tringa nebularia), Wood Sandpiper (Tringa glareola), Common Sandpiper (Tringa hypoleucos), Pacific Golden-Plover (Pluvialis fulva), Little Ringed Plover (Charadrius dubius) Greater Sand Plover (Charadrius leschenaultia), Oriental Plover (Charadrius veredus), Australian Pratincole (Stiltia Isabella), Pacific Reef-Egret (Egretta sacra), Great-billed Heron (Ardea sumatrana), Striated Heron (Butorides striatus), Woolly-necked Stork (Ciconia episcopus).


South East Sulawesi Dataran Lambale, Dataran Lambale Laangkumbe Wildlife Reserve

South East Sulawesi

Dataran Lambale Laangkumbe Wildlife Reserve

Dataran Lambale Laangkumbe Wildlife Reserve, also known as Buton Utara, lies in the north of the island Buton and covers 82,000 ha. The reserve consists of lowland forests partly on alluvial and partly on ultra basic rocks. There is also a small area of mangrove forest.
Visit Kendari and ask at the local KSDA office or contact PT PEI.
No data available.
Local Touroperator PT PEI (Pengembangan Ekowisata Indonesia)
Jalan Bunga Kamboja No. 60
93121 Kendari
South East Sulawesi, Indonesia
Tel : (+62) 0401 27995
E-mail : PEI@Kendari.Wasantara.Net.Id
* Leguminosae – Papilionoideae
o Pericopsis sp.

* Booted macaque – Macaca ochreata
* Lowland anoa – Bubalus depressicornis

* Maleo – Macrocephalon maleo
* Indonesian Teal – Anas gibberifrons
* Barred Rail – Gallirallus torquatus
* Buff-banded Rail – Gallirallus philippensis
* White-breasted Waterhen – Amaurornis phoenicurus
* Whimbrel – Numenius phaeopus
* Common Greenshank – Tringa nebularia
* Wood Sandpiper – Tringa glareola
* Common Sandpiper – Tringa hypoleucos
* Pacific Golden-Plover – Pluvialis fulva
* Little Ringed Plover – Charadrius dubius
* Greater Sand Plover – Charadrius leschenaultii
* Oriental Plover – Charadrius veredus
* Australian Pratincole – Stiltia isabella
* Pacific Reef-Egret – Egretta sacra
* Great-billed Heron – Ardea sumatrana
* Striated Heron – Butorides striatus
* Woolly-necked Stork – Ciconia episcopus


South East Sulawesi Dataran Sampara Kendari Nature Reserve

South East Sulawesi

Dataran Sampara Kendari Nature Reserve


Latitude : 3 46 48 S Logitude : 122 19 12 E
Altitude : 0 to 0 metres
Area : 13000 ha Wetlands: 6300 ha
Tenure : Government of Indonesia
Site Description
The Konoweha River which drains Wasotoby and Rawa Opa-opa emerges from a gorge and reaches the sea via the Sungai Sampora. The coastal plain of this river includes: 3,500 ha freshwater swamp, 1,500 ha mangroves, 1,300 ha beach deposits, the remainder being river flood plain. The swamps are believed to be perennial. Principal vegetation: Freshwater swamp forest and open swamp vegetation.
Site Location
Dataran Sampara is located 12km NW of Kendari, S.E. Sulawesi.


South East Sulawesi Kakinawe Game Reserve

South East Sulawesi

Kakinawe Game Reserve

A. Legal base, location, and space
Kakinauwe Forest of 810 ha has been established as a nature reserve on September 1, 1982 by decree of Minister of Agriculture no. 639/Kpts/Um/9/1982 on the basis of its potency of flora and fauna.
The Kakinauwe is geographically positioned between 05°08′ -05°12′ southern latitude and 122°53′ -122°57′ eastern longitude which is administratively included in Kakinauwe Village, Lasalimu Sub-district, Buton District. Management of this reserve is under the authority of RPH Lasalimu, BKPH Buton Timur, KPH Buton.
B. Potency
The Kakinauwe ecosystem is consisted of low land forest and low mountain forest with rich potency of flora e.g. ‘wola’ (Vitex copassus reinw), ‘bayam’ (Intsia bijuga), ‘kayu lawang’, and rattan. Some wild animals found in the area are high land anoa (Bubalus quarlesi), low land anoa (Bubalus depressicornis), deer (Cervus timorensis), Sulawesi black monkey (Macaca ochreata), Sulawesi civet cat (Macrogalidia musschenbroekl), cuscus (Phalanger celebensis), hornbill, jungle fowl (Gallus gallus), white pigeon, and Sulawesi ornate lory (Tanignathus sumatranus).
C. Accessibility
Kakinauwe Nature Reserve is easily accessible both by car and motorbike. It is only ± 67 km or 3 hour from Bau-Bau, the capital of Buton District.
D. Problems
Legal status as a nature reserve from Minister of Forestry is not yet issued. Survey of its potency is not yet held, therefore, many flora and fauna are still unknown.


South East Sulawesi Kepulauan Padamarang Nature Recreation Park

South East Sulawesi

Kepulauan Padamarang Marine Reserve


A. Legal base, location, and space
The Padamarang waters of ± 36.000 ha has been proposed to be a marine reserve on June 10, 1997 by recommendation of Governor of South East Sulawesi Province no. 521.51/2221, following the decree of Head of Kolaka District no. 522.3/30/96.
The Padamarang is composed of Padamarang Island (± 80 ha), Lambasina Besar Island (± 280 ha), Lambasina Kecil Island (± 80 ha), Lemo Island (± 30 ha), Iju Island (± 5 ha), Lima Island (± 5 ha), Maniang Island (± 500 ha), Kukusan Island (± 110 ha), and Buaya Island (± 140 ha). The islands of Maniang, Buaya, Kukusan, and Lemo are now under mining consesion of PT. Aneka Tambang Pomalaa.
The Padamarang is geographically positined between 4°02’52” – 4°10’42” southern latitude and 121°19’02” – 121°32’33” eastern longitude, administratively in Wundulako Sub-district, Kolaka District. Management of the Padamarang is under authority of RPH Pomalaa, BKPH Mekongga, KPH Kolaka. The group of Padamarang Islands is located in Wapongga Bay in the west of South East Sulawesi Peninsula. This area is bounded by Pao-Pao Bay in the north, the land of South East Sulawesi in the east, and Bone Bay in the west.
B. Potency
The Padamarang is topographically flat and hilly, with slope between 8% 20%. Some islands such as Maniang Island (222 m), and Padamarang Island (325 m – 702 m) are at an altitude of 200 m. The waters area of these villages is covered by coral reef ecosystem whose is mostly fringing reef. The deepest site of Padamarang waters reaches 60 m.
The climate of Padamarang is type A, with rainfall 2.000 mm/year and temperature between 18°C – 24°C. Rainy season is October – March and dry season is April – September.
A survey by the Directorate of Nature Preservation in 1991 found 16 species of coral reef, 13 species of coral fish and ornamental fish, 17 species of consumable fish, 14 species of mollusk, and 8 species of sea grass:
a. Reef, e.g. Acropora spp., Porites spp., Seriatopora spp., Pocil/opora app., Stylopora spp., Acropora spp., Pavona spp., Fungia sp., and Heliopora sp.
b. Coral fish, e.g. Abudefduf sp., Acanthurus sp., Amphiprion sebal, Chaetodon spp., Chaetodonplus sp., Centropyge sp., Drephane sp., Labroides sp., Lethrinus spp., Pomachantus sp., Zebrasoma sp.,
c. Consumable fish, e.g. skipjack (Scomberomorus sp.), tuna (Tuna salbatoru), tongkol (Karsuwonus sp.), layang (Decapterus sp.), bambangan (Lutjanus sp.), kuwe (Caranx sp.), selar (Selar sp.), belanak (Mugil sp.), ekor kuning (Caesio sp.), lemuru (Sardinella sp.), manyung (Tachysurus sp.), lencam (Lethrinus sp.), kakap (Lates sp.), cumi-cumi (Eutherynus sp.), gurita (Octopus sp.) and ubur-ubur (Rhopilana sp.).
d. Mollusk, e.g. Gastropoda, Palecypoda, kima raksasa (Tridacna gigas), kima sisik (T. squamosa), kima kecil (T. maxima), kima tapak kuda (Hippopus hippopus), kepala kambing (Cassis cornuta), siput hijau (Turbo marmoratus), and troka (Trochus niloticus).
e. Seaweed, e.g. Caulerpa taxifolia, Eucheuma spp., Gelidium sp., Gracilaria spp., Halimeda sp., Hypnea sp., and Turbinaria sp.
f. Echinodermata, e.g. sea cucumber (Holothuria atra, H. argus impatiens, H. scaraba. H. vagabunda, Mueliria lecanora, Stichopus ananas), ‘bulu babi’ (Diadema setosum, Diadema sp.), ‘bintang laut putih’ and ‘bintang laut biru’, as well as ‘bintang bantal’.
g. Crustacea, e.g. Charybdis cruciata, Panulirus dasyprus, P. versicolor (udang barong), Portunus pelagius, Phodopthalmus sp., dan Thalamita danae.
h. Coast vegetation, e.g. ‘cemara laut’ (Casuarina equisetifolia), ‘waru’ (Hibiscus tiliaceus), ‘putat laut’ (Baringtonia asiatica), ‘nyamplung’ (Callophyllum inophyllum, ‘cantigi’ (Vaccinium sp.), ‘beringin laut’ (Ficus sp.), and ‘buta-buta’ tree.
i. Wild animals, e.g. green turtle (Chelonia midas), scaled turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata), and various species of water birds.
C. Accessibility
The Padamarang is easily accessible because of its location in the sea voyage line of Kolaka (South East Sulawesi) to Bajoe (South Sulawesi). It is about 4 hours from Kendari or 45 minutes from Kolaka.
D. Problems
The main problems identified are illegal fishing using bomb and cyanide, coral mining, and grabbing endangered marine biota.


llegal Mining Sulawesi

Illegal Mining Sulawesi

Illegal mining has reached unprecedented levels, harming legitimate
companies and putting the economy and environment at risk

Mercury Timebomb



An ecological disaster looms over North Sulawesi’s Minahasa Peninsula.

Rampant illegal gold mining is pouring hundreds of tonnes of mercury into
the environment. The deadly flow threatens to undermine the economy,
contaminate food crops and leave a horrifying health problem for future

Driven by populism and greed, local officials either turn a blind eye to
the problem or play an active part in its making. Researchers have
identified a police officer as the owner of one of hundreds of crude
mills, or trommels, that use mercury to separate gold from ore.

The head of the government’s North Sulawesi environmental bureau merely
distributes posters showing how to handle mercury, which attacks the
central nervous system and causes appalling genetic disorders. Preoccupied
with foreign mining firms, Walhi, the country’s largest environmental
group, pays scant attention to the issue. The one organization that does,
tiny Manado-based Yayasan Bina Cipta AquaTech, puts the number of illegal
miners in North Sulawesi at 22,000, spread over five or six different
sites. Among them are 1,500 working on Australian mining company Aurora
Gold’s Talawaan gold concession, where more than 100 trommels are in
operation. Samples from the Talawaan River–used by residents for domestic
purposes and fish-ponds–show mercury levels 70 times higher than the
internationally accepted limit for drinking water.

YBCA co-director Inneke Rumengan says miners complain of trembling and
stomach and head pains: “They know the mercury is bad for them, but they
don’t know how bad.” Robert Lee, of the overseas-based Wildlife
Conservation Society, says miners in parts of the Bone Dumogg National
Park are letting mercury-tainted water seep into the Gorantalo city
catchment area.

According to the Bureau of Statistics, mercury imports reached 62 tonnes
last year, up from five tonnes in 1996. But people familiar with mining
and environmental issues say illegal mining consumes as much as 200 tonnes
of mercury annually in Talawaan alone.

That compares with the 60 tonnes of methyl mercury dumped between 1920 and
the mid-1960s in Minamata, Japan, scene of the world’s worst case of
mercury contamination. Methyl mercury is more easily absorbed than
metallic mercury, but the effects are the same, particularly if trommel
operators breath in the toxic fumes during the final burn-off. Says a
metallurgist: “They simply have no idea how dangerous that is.”

Miners get little reward for their huge risks. They use mercury during
initial crushing to extract about 35% of the gold from each 20-kilogram
load of ore. When the miner has gone, the trommel owner draws out the

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South East Sulawesi Lambusango Wildlife Reserve

South East Sulawesi

Lambusango Wildlife  Reserve



A. Legal base, location, and space
A forest area of 28.510 ha of Lambusango which is situated in Buton District has been established as a wildlife reserve by the Decree of Minister of Agriculture dated September 1, 1982 no. 639/Kpts/9/Um/1982.
The Lambusango is geographically positioned between 05°13′ -05°24′ southern latitude and 122°47 ‘ -122°56’ eastern longitude. This area is administratively the part of Kapontori, Lasalimu and Pasarwajo Subdistricts and under control of RPH Pasarwajo (BKPH West Buton), RPH Lasalimu and RPH Kapontori (BKPH East Buton), KPH Buton.
B. Potency
The Lambusango is an altitude of 5 -300 m (above sea level), with plain and hilly topography. Its slope ranging 5 – 30 %, with mediterranean soil. Climate type D, with annual rainfall of 1.980 mm in average. The dry season is Agustus until November. The temperature is between 20° – 34° C, with humidity of 80%.The potency of flora and fauna is highly various. Some trees are founded in the area such as iron wood (Mitocideros petiolata), kuma (Palaquium obovatum), wola (Vitex copassus), bayam (Intsia bijuga), cendrana (Pterocarpus indicus), bangkali (Anthocephallus macrophyllus), kayu angin (Casuarina rumpiana), sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria), and rattan (Calamus spp.).
Some wild animal are also founded in the area such as anoa (dwarf buffalo), black monkey, deer, cuscus, wild cow, white forest dove, grey forest dove, civet cat Sulawesi, serindit Sulawesi, etc.
Management of this area has been under the authority of KSDA Lambusango (1 personnel) since 1984. There are some villages closed to the border of the Lambusango; they are Barangka, Wakalambe, Lambusango, Wakangka, Lawele dan Kapontori. Most of population of these villages are farmer, fisher and small trader.
C. Accessibility
The Lambusango can be reached by land transportation from Bau-Bau. It is about 30 km, or about 1 hours from Bau-Bau, the capital of Buton District. The road condition is relatively smooth with asphalt. Alternatively, going by speed boat takes about 2 hours. The nearest accommodation is in Bau-Bau.
Permission for going into the Lambusango can be obtained from the Office of KSDA Buton in Bau-Bau, or KSDA Sultra in Kendari.
D. Problems
The Lambusango status is not yet definitive (it has been proposed the Government of Buton) as well as no facilities available. Other problems are hunting, illegal logging, and non-timber logging like rattan.


– South East Sulawesi Nature Reserves, Minerals and Mining, Plantations,Tribes Map

South East Sulawesi Nature Reserves, Minerals and Mining, Plantations,Tribes Map

Click to Enlarge !

Minerals, Mining,, gold, copper, Iron, Zinc, Sulawesi, Nature Reserves, Minerals and Mining, Plantations , south east sulawesi,

Natural resource which also potential is mining sector like asphalt, marmar, and nickel ore. Location of asphalt spreading is in Biton Regency and Muna Regency. The area’s widths of asphalt mining in both regencies are 13,003.67 ha with potential/ deposit reserve amount reach 680,747,000 tons. In marmar store mine type, the location of its spreading is in Buton Regency, Muna Regency, Kolaka Regency with area’s width entirely 189.082 ha with the potency amount / deposit reach m³. While nickel seed’s production that is according to year data 2005 is reaching 1,426,672 ton

Mine Companies

Tomata (Tomate)

Golf Courses


Sanggoleo Golf Club

Address:Jl Drs H Abdulah Silondai No 8
Kendari – South-East Sulawesi
Golf Courses with 18 poles, about 40 hectares width has different level. This Golf Course is the only sport facility in Southeast Sulawesi and become the cheapest Golf arena in the world with its good and interesting condition. This Golf Course is located about 10 km from the downtown to the airlines and can reach by public transportation or personal vehicle.

Proposed World Heritage

Wakatobi National Park South East Sulawesi

nature reserve, proposed world heritage, wakatobi

Date of Submission: 07/02/2005
Criteria: (vii)(viii)(ix)(x)
Category: Natural
Submission prepared by:
Ministry of Emvironment
S 5o12′ – 6o10′ E 123o20′ – 124o39′
Ref.: 2006

Wakatobi National Park has very high marine resource potential, in terms of both species and uniqueness, with enchanting submarine landscapes. In terms of configuration, the marine waters of the park generally start flat and then slope seawards, with sheer precipices in some parts. The water depth varies, the deepest parts reaching 1,044 metres with sand and coral at the bottom. This Park has 25 chains of coral reefs, and the total circumference of the coral islands is 600 km. The National Park includes an area of 1,390,000 hectares.

South East Sulawesi 24 Tribes

Central Sulawesi, Tribes, bunku, waru, wawoni, tolaki, rahambuu, kodeoha, tomadino, moronene, bajau, kulisusu, muna, cia cia, kioko, kamaru, lasalimu, panasuan, liabuku, wolio, busoa, tukang besi,

Bajau 154.000 Islam
5,000 or more in North Maluku (Grimes 1982), 8,000 to 10,000 in South Sulawesi (Grimes 1987), 7,000 in North Sulawesi and Gorontalo, 36,000 in Central Sulawesi, 40,000 in Southeast Sulawesi (Mead and Lee 2007), and several thousand in Nusa Tenggara (Wurm and Hattori 1981, Verhiejen 1986). North Maluku on Bacan, Obi, Kayoa and Sula Islands; South Sulawesi, Selayar, Bone, and Sinjai districts; Gorontalo Province, Popayato and Tilamuta subdistricts; North Sulawesi, Wori, Tumpaan and Belang subdistricts. Widespread throughout Central and Southeast Sulawesi and islands of the East Sunda Sea. Alternate names: Badjaw, Badjo, Bajao, Bajo, Bayo, Gaj, Luaan, Lutaos, Lutayaos, Orang Laut, Sama, Turije’ne’. Dialects: Jampea, Same’, Matalaang, Sulamu, Kajoa, Roti, Jaya Bakti, Poso, Togian 1, Togian 2, Wallace.
The BajaSulawesi, tribe, bajau, sukuu (also called the Bayo, Gaj, Luaan, or Lutaos) are a highly mobile maritime people group that is found throughout the coastal areas of Sulawesi, Maluku, Kalimantan, Sumatera, and East Nusa Tenggara. Their high mobility led to outsiders calling them ‘sea gypsies.’ In eastern Indonesia, the largest numbers of Bajau are found on the islands and in the coastal districts of Sulawesi. Their everyday language is the Bajau language, which is a branch of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster.
While some Bajau have begun to live on land, many Bajau are still boat dwellers. Among the Bajau boat dwellers, local communities consist of scattered moorage groups made up of families whose members regularly return, between intervals of fishing, to a common anchorage site. Two to six families will group together in an alliance to regularly fish and anchor together, often sharing food and pooling labor, nets, and other gear. The boats that are used as family dwellings vary in size and construction. In Indonesia and Malaysia, boats average 10 meters in length with a beam of about 2 meters. They are plank constructed with solid keel and bow sections. All are equipped with a roofed living area made of poles and kajang matting and a portable earthenware hearth, usually carried near the stern, used for preparing family meals. The marine life exploited by the Bajau fishermen is diverse, including over 200 species of fish. Fishing activity varies with the tides, monsoonal and local winds, currents, migrations of pelagic fish, and the monthly lunar cycle. During moonless nights, fishing is often done with lanterns, using spears and handlines. Today, fishing is primarily for market sale. Most fish are preserved by salting or drying. The boat-dwelling Bajau see themselves (in contrast to their neighbors), as non-aggressive people who prefer flight to physical confrontation. As a consequence, the politically dominant groups of the region have historically viewed the Bajau with disdain as timid, unreliable subjects.
The Bajau are Sunni Muslims of the Shafi’i school.
Bugis 3.500.000 Islam
Western coast of southeast Sulawesi in Kolaka, Wundulako, Rumbia, and Poleang districts. Also in major towns of Sulawesi. Large enclaves also in other provinces of Sulawesi, Kalimantan, Maluku, Papua, and Sumatra; coastal swamp areas such as Bulukumba, Luwu, Polewali in Polmas, Pasangkayu in Mamuju districts. Also in Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Boegineesche, Boeginezen, Bugi, Buginese, De’, Rappang Buginese, Ugi. Dialects: Bone (Palakka, Dua Boccoe, Mare), Pangkep (Pangkajene), Camba, Sidrap (Sidenrang, Pinrang Utara, Alitta), Pasangkayu (Ugi Riawa), Sinjai (Enna, Palattae, Bulukumba), Soppeng (Kessi), Wajo, Barru (Pare-Pare, Nepo, Soppeng Riaja, Tompo, Tanete), Sawitto (Pinrang), Luwu (Luwu’, Bua Ponrang, Wara, Malangke-Ussu). Bone or Soppeng dialects are central.
The Bugis (sometimes called the Ugi) live in the province of South Sulawesi. The Bugis region is called Tellumponcoe, and it consists of the regencies of Bone, Wajo, and Soppeng. There are also Bugis people settled throughout the regencies of Luwu, Sidenneng, Polmas, Pinrang, Pare-pare, Barru, Pangkajene, Maros, Bulukumba, and Sinjai. The Bugis are a dynamic and highly mobile people, considered by many to be the dominant people group in South Sulawesi. Many Bugis have left their home area to seek success and wealth. In particular, they have migrated to Sumbawa, Jawa, Papua, and even Malaysia. Their Ugi language is divided into several dialects, namely Luwu, Wajo, Bira Selayar, Palaka, Sindenneng and Sawito.

Most Bugis make their living by hunting, fishing, farming, raising livestock or making handicrafts. Typically, the Bugis who live in the mountain ranges gain their livelihood by working the soil, while those living in the coastal areas generally work as fishermen. The Bugis traditional dress is called Wajo Ponco, which is believed to have originated from Melayu (Malay) dress. Currently, the dress is only used for traditional ceremonies and dances. The Bugis believe very strongly that certain days are good days, with good fortune for events and activities held on the first Wednesday and last Thursday of each month. Conversely, they consider Saturday to be a bad day, with misfortune more likely to happen on this day. In Bugis tradition there are different levels of social status that are based upon one’s ancestors. These different levels include descendants of a king, descendants of nobles (La Patau), descendants of district administrators (Aru Lili) and descendants of various kinds of slaves. Two of the most important cultural values for the Bugis people are called siri (personal honor) and siri-pesse (communal honor). A Bugis person must defend, maintain, and build one’s own siri. The effort to obtain and maintain siri varies according to the context. For instance, in an economic context, siri means working hard and being faithful. In a personal context, if a person’s siri is offended serious forms of revenge will be considered. Islam reinforced the traditional Bugis concept of siri in such a way that today the typical Bugis person sees siri as the key to his or her self-identity as a Bugis Muslim. The Bugis line of descent is bilateral (traced through both parents). After marriage the newlyweds may choose to live near either the husband’s or wife’s family, although initially, they live at least briefly near the wife’s family.
The Bugis people are famous for their fervent adherence to Sunni Islam.

Bunku 24.000 Islam
100 Routa, 16,400 Bungku, 2,500 Torete, 1,000 Tulambatu, 800 Landawe, 650 Waia. Central Sulawesi, Bungku Utara, Bungku Tengah, and Bungku Selatan subdistricts, along east coast; 45 villages or parts of villages. Tulambatu in northern Southeast Sulawesi, Konawe District, Asera, Soropia, and Lasolo subdistricts, with difficult access. Alternate names: “Nahina”. Dialects: Bungku, Routa, Tulambatu, Torete (To Rete), Landawe, Waia. Lexical similarity: 81% with Torete, Waia, Tulambatu, and Landawe dialects, 38% with Pamona dialects [pmf], 88%, with Landawe dialect, 84% with Waia dialect, 82% with Torete dialect, 74% with Wawonii [wow], 66% with Taloki [tlk], Kulisusu [vkl], and Koroni [xkq], 65% with Moronene [mqn], 54% with the Mori and Tolaki groups, 82% with the Routa dialect.
The Bungku people (also called “To Bungku”) live in the districts of North Bungku, Central Bungku, South Bungku, and Merui, in the Poso Regency of Central Sulawesi Province. They are also found in several other areas of Sulawesi. The Bungku people are further divided into subgroups such as Lambatu, Epe, Rete, and Ro’Uta. The language used by the Bungku people is Bungku (often called Bungku Laki, or Male Bungku), which is of the same group with various Filipino languages. This language can be divided into several dialects, such as Taa, Merui and Lalaeo. The immigrant communities in this area use their own language, such as the Bugis, Bajo and Jawa languages. Many marriages take place between the Bungku people and the immigrant peoples, hence the relationship between the groups is relatively good in this region. In the past, Bungku people lived in remote inland areas and had little contact with outsiders. With the building of the Trans-Sulawesi highway, they have become more open to outsiders. Although they are inhabitants of Southeast Sulawesi, their culture is greatly influenced by the Bugis culture. According to history, some of the Bungku ancestors were a group of Bugis who migrated to the area.
The Bungku make their living as farmers. They grow rice, corn and sweet potatoes as their primary crops, and coconuts and sago palms as secondary crops. The Bungku also harvest resin and rattan that grow in the thick jungles that still exist in their area. Their land is typically less fertile than other areas of Southeast Sulawesi. Formerly, Bungku communities were segregated into three classes. The heads of the village formed the elite group. The common people formed the middle group. The slaves were the final and lowest group.
The majority of the Bungku people have embraced Islam.
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The Butonese, or Wolio, live in the area which was formerly known as the sultanate of Buton. Around the fifteenth century, immigrants from Johore established the kingdom of Buton, with a king, or ....  read more