Ok Tedi River

Ok Tedi River

Ok-Tedi-River

The Ok Tedi is a river in New Guinea. The Ok Tedi Mine is located near the headwaters of the river, which is sourced in the Star Mountains. Nearly the entirety of the river runs through the North Fly District of the Western Province of Papua New Guinea, but the river crosses the international boundary with Indonesia for less than one kilometre. The largest settlement of the Western Province, Tabubil is located near its banks.

Known as the Ok Tedi River by the Yonggom people who live on its western bank, it was renamed the Alice River by the Italian explorer Luigi d’Albertis. Ok is the word for water or river in the Ok languages family. It is a tributary of the Fly River. Tributaries of the Ok Tedi include the Birim.

The Kiunga-Tabubil Highway runs parallel with the river for the majority of its course, until just south of Ningerum where the highway veers southeast towards Kiunga, a port town on the Fly River.

The river is extremely fast-moving and has a massive capacity. It is situated on a sand bank, which allows for the river to change course quickly without warning. The sand conditions underneath the river and the extremely high rainfall of the catchment area make it one of the fastest moving rivers in the world. The roar from the river can be heard for many kilometres through the dense jungle of the district.

The river was in the world spotlight for a short period of time during the late 20th century, due to litigation from villagers on the Ok Tedi and Fly rivers downstream from the Ok Tedi Mine. These villagers claimed tailings waste from the mine introduced to the river system was affecting their livelihood. The case was settled out of court. Negotiations have continued on the cleanup of pollution from the mine, which is scheduled to close in 2013.[1]

Fly River

Fly River

Fly-River_to

The Fly at 1,050 kilometres (650 mi), is the second longest river in Papua New Guinea, after the Sepik. The Fly is the largest river in Oceania, the largest in the world without a single dam in its catchment, and overall ranks as the 25th-largest river in the world by volume of discharge.[2] It rises in the Victor Emanuel Range arm of the Star Mountains, and crosses the south-western lowlands before flowing into the Gulf of Papua in a large delta.

The Fly flows mostly through the Western Province, though for a small stretch it forms the boundary between PNG and the Indonesia province of Papua. This section protrudes slightly to the west of the 141°E longitude line.[3] To compensate for this slight gain in territory for PNG, the border south of the Fly River is slightly east of the 141°E longitude line. As part of this deal, Indonesia has the right to use the Fly River to its mouth for navigation.

The principal tributaries of the Fly are the Strickland and the Ok Tedi.

Close to its mouth, the flow of the Fly River encounters a tidal bore, where an incoming high tide pushes water upstream until the changing of the tide. The range of this tidal bore is still undocumented.[4]

Delta

The estuary of the Fly River is 56 km wide at its entrance, but only 11 km wide abreast Kiwai Island, which may be considered as being the river mouth. Above this island, the river gradually contracts to a width of 1.6 km or less.

The river delta is studded with low and swampy islands covered with mangrove and nipa palm, with villages and cultivated areas on these islands. The land on both sides of the estuary is of the same character. The islands in the estuary are flat and covered with thick, fertile alluvial soil. The largest islands are Kiwai Island, Purutu Island, Wabuda Island, Aibinio Island, Mibu Island, and Domori Island. Kiwai, Wabuda and Domori are inhabited.

A list of the river delta islands is:

  • Kiwai Island
  • Purutu Island
  • Wabuda Island
  • Aibinio Island
  • Mibu Island
  • Magabu Island
  • Invitato Island
  • Sisiabu Island
  • Nikira Island
  • Badu Island
  • Baiabe Island
  • Moroge Island
  • Gebaro Island
  • Dawari Island
  • Wariura Island
  • War Island
  • Kesuguruguru Island
  • Abaura Island
  • Abo Island
  • Boromura Island
  • Ura Island
  • Dogope Island
  • Sumogi Island
  • Sobowada Island
  • Abaurai Island
  • Samari
  • Reginimi Island
  • Dibiri Island
  • Sobuwabuda Island
  • Orope Island
  • Aeginimi Islands
  • Umuda Island
  • Midima Island
  • Domori Island
  • Dubuwaro Island
  • Kuragimini Island
  • Daura Island
  • Kunagimini Islands

The inhabitants of the Fly River delta engage in agriculture and hunting. Coconut palm, breadfruit, plantain, sago palm, and sugar cane are grown.

History

The Fly was first ....  read more

Maro River

Maro River

Maro

Maro River flows in Merauke Regency, Papua Province, Indonesia. The Maro flows from north-east to south-west, into the Arafura Sea. The river is strongly tidal for most of its length and its lower reaches are affected by salt water. Associated with the river is a complex system of swamps and oxbow lakes which are of great importance for a large number of birds and reptiles. The Maro river borders the northern side of Wasur National Park.[1]

Kumbe River

Kumbe River

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Kumbe-River_ton-800

The Kumbe is a river of Merauke Regency, Papua Province, Indonesia. It has a distinct meandering course. The Bian River and the Maro River are part of the same basin.[1]

Digul River

Digul River

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Digul-800

The Digul (Dutch: Digoel) is a major river in southern Papua province, Indonesia, on the island of New Guinea.

The swamplands upstream were known by the name “Boven Digul” (Above the Digul, in Dutch) and hosted a penal colony at Tanahmerah (Red Earth) in the early 20th century, when Indonesia was a colony of Holland. As a result of the abortive 1926 revolt by the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI), the Dutch exiled 823 of the most troublesome revolutionaries here.[1]

Rising on the southern slopes of Maoke Mountains, the Digul flows first south and then west to empty into the Arafura Sea. For much of its length it travels across a low region of extensive swamps and creates a delta near Dolak (Frederik Hendrik) Island. The river has a length of 525 kilometres (326 mi) and is navigable as far as Tanahmerah.

Mapi River

Mapi River

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Mapi_to-800

Mapi River is a river in southern West Papua, Indonesia

Lorentz River

Lorentz River

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Lorentz-River_ton-800

The Lorentz River (also Unir or Undir) is located in Western New Guinea, Indonesia. It originates in the central east-west mountain range of New Guinea, and flows southwards into the Arafura Sea at Flamingo Bay. During the first two Dutch expeditions to Southern New Guinea (1907-10) it was called Northern River. In 1910 it was renamed after the Dutch explorer Hendrikus Albertus Lorentz. After it became part of Indonesia, it was renamed to Unir, as in the language of the local Asmat people, while the Lorenz name is still in use.

Taritatu River

Taritatu River

Taritatu-River_tone

The Taritatu River is a river in the northern part of the Indonesian province of Papua. During the Dutch colonial era it was known as the Idenburg River. The Taritatu River flows generally westward in the basin north of the island’s central mountainous cordillera. Eventually it meets the Tariku River, and at this confluence the two rivers become the Mamberamo River, one of the largest rivers on the island of New Guinea.

Mamberamo River

Mamberamo River

Mamberamo-River

The Mamberamo is a large river on the island of New Guinea, in the Indonesian province of Papua. It is the largest river in Indonesia by volume of discharge, and also the widest.[1]

The source of the river is formed from the confluences of its upper tributaries, the Tariku and Taritatu Rivers. From there it flows northwards in a great valley through the Van Rees Range (Pegunungan Van Rees), to reach the lowland marshes of its broad river delta. The Mamberamo discharges into the Pacific Ocean at the northern point of Point D’Urville (Tanjung D’Urville).

The river’s huge valley is home to various uncontacted peoples and incredible biodiversity. In the 1990s, the Indonesian Government had plans to construct a large hydroelectric dam on the Mamberamo that would have submerged much of the area. This plan was shelved after the Indonesian financial crisis from 1998–1999, but there are concerns by environmental groups that it could be resurrected sometime in the future. At present, the Mamberamo remains the second largest river in the world to be completely unfragmented by dams in its catchment, behind only the relatively nearby Fly.[1]

The Mamberamo area also broadly refers to several nearby mountain ranges, including the Van Rees and Foja Mountains (also known as Foya), which were the subject of a recent rapid biological assessment conducted by Conservation International, the Indonesian Institute of Sciences, and Cenderawasih University. The scientific team discovered the first new bird species from New Guinea in 60 years, and a wealth of other new plants and animals. The Foya Mountains appear to be a globally outstanding repository of biodiversity.

In 1545, the Spanish navigator Yñigo Ortiz de Retez sailed along the northern coast of the island as far as the mouth of this river. At this spot he claimed the territory for the Spanish Crown, and in the process bestowing the name to the island (Nueva Guinea) by which it is known today.

The first European to enter the mouth of the Mamberamo was Dutchman Dr D. F. van Braam Morris in 1883. The resident from the northern Moluccas (Ternate) rowed up the river to ascertain that it was navigable by steamer.[2] The following year in 1884 Van Braam Morris returned in the steamship Havik and travelled 60 mi (97 km) (as the crow flies) along its course.[3]

Mamberamo Bridge

The Mamberamo Bridge was the second longest cable stayed span in Indonesia after Kutai Kartanegara Bridge with 235 meters and 270 meters respectively until the latter bridge collapsed in November 2011.