Watubela

Watubela

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watubela_archipelago

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Watubela--800

Watubela is an archipelago in the Maluku Islands, east of Ceram and north of Kai Islands, southeast of the Gorong archipelago, and southwest of the Bomberai Peninsula of Papua, Indonesia. It includes the islands of Kasiui and Teor (also called Tio’or).[1]

The English naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace described the islands, which he called the Matabello Islands, in chapter 25 of his 1869 book The Malay Archipelago.

Tayandu

Tayandu

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tayandu_Islands

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The Tayandu Islands (or Tayando Islands, Pulau² Tayando) are a group of low-lying islands just west of the larger Kai Islands of Maluku, Indonesia. The main group consists of Tayando (with villages Yamru and Ohoiel), Walir, Heniar (with village Tayando Yamtel) and several smaller isle-lets. Between Walir and Taam (further south) is Pulau Nusreen (5°42’14″S, 132°16’5″E) featuring a large sandy lagoon. Manggur is further west with Kur and Kaimeer islands north of that.

Manipa

Manipa

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manipa

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Manipa Island is an island in Central Maluku Regency, Maluku Province, Indonesia. It is located 8 km off the western coast of Kelang at the western end of Seram Island and 25 km off the western coast of Buru. The inhabitants speak the Manipa language, as well as Indonesian and Ambonese Malay.[1]

Manipa has a number of small islands close to its shores: Masawi and Asamamonuke on a reef on its northeastern coast, Suanggi off its western tip, Tuban in the south and Luhu in the north.[2]

This island gives its name to the Manipa Strait between Buru and Seram.

Kelang

Kelang

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelang

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Kelang Island is an island in Central Maluku Regency, Maluku Province, Indonesia. It is a mountainous island located off the western tip of Seram Island, just east of Manipa. Kampung Sole, located on the northeastern side, is the largest village. Tono, the highest point in the island, is an old volcano.

Babi Island is a 6 km long island located between Kelang and Seram. It is a relatively low island close off Kelang’s northeastern side, separated from Kelang and Seram by narrow straits.[1]

The inhabitants of Kelang speak the Luhu language, as well as Indonesian and Ambonese Malay.

Boano

Boano

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boano

Boano

Boano Island is an island in Central Maluku Regency, Maluku Province, Indonesia. It is located off the northern coast of the Hoamoal Peninsula at the western end of Seram Island. The inhabitants speak the Boano language, Luhu, as well as Indonesian and Ambonese Malay.[1]

Pua Island, highest point 403 m, is located close off Boano’s northwestern tip

Ambelau

Ambelau

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambelau

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Ambelau or Ambalau is a volcanic island in the Banda Sea within Maluku Islands of Indonesia. The island forms an administrative unit (Indonesian: Kecamatan Ambelau) which belongs to the South Buru Regency (Indonesian: Kabupaten Buru Selatan) of Maluku province (Indonesian: Provinsi Maluku), Indonesia. The administrative center is Wailua, a settlement located at the south of the island . About half of the island’s population is composed of indigenous Ambelau people who speak Ambelau language; the other half are mostly immigrants from the nearby Maluku Islands and Java.

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Geography and geology

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Location

The island is located in the Banda Sea at the southern entrance to the strait Manipa, about 20 km south-east of the larger island of Buru. It has a relatively smooth oval shape with a minor extension in the south-eastern part and the maximum diameter of about 10 km.[1]

The island is of volcanic origin, and is composed of Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. The relief is mostly mountainous, with the highest points at 608 m (Mt. Baula) and 559 m (Mt. Nona) in the western area.[2] The island rises vertically from the sea, and flat parts are found only on the southern and eastern coasts. Much of the territory, especially in mountainous areas, is covered with wet tropical forests.[3] The island is located in a seismically active zone with frequent earthquakes; a significant recent earthquake occurred in August 2006.[4] Flora and fauna of the island are diverse and are similar to that of Buru. There are abundant coral reefs off the coast of Ambelau.[3]

Administration

The island belongs to the Indonesian province of Maluku. Until 1999 the island belonged to the Central Maluku Regency (Indonesian: Kabupaten Maluku Tengah), then to the Buru Regency (Indonesian: Kabupaten Buru), in which it was isolated into a separate administrative unit (Kechamatan Ambelau).[5] In 2008, when the South Buru Regency split up from the Buru Regency, the island became part of it, maintaining its kechamatan status.[6] The island is divided into seven administrative units of lower rank, called village (Indonesian: desa) or settlement (Indonesian: kelurahan), namely Kampung Baru, Lumoy, Masawoy, Selasi, Siwar, Ulima and Elara.[1][3]

Phonetics of the local languages reduces the vowel in the second syllable of the island name. As a result, Western sources refer to it as Ambelau, whereas modern Indonesian sources spell the name as Ambalau, particularly in official documents and on the official website of the Buru and South Buru regencies.[1]

Population

The majority of Ambelau population (about 9,600 as of 2009) resides at the coastal plains, in the settlements of Kampungbaru (1,442), Lumoy (about 950 people), Massawa (838), Selasi (1,174), Siwar (1,172), Ulimo (1,407) and Elara (2,610).[3] About half of the population are indigenous Ambelau people, and another half are immigrants from other Maluku Islands belonging to Sulawesi (mainly Bugis) and Javanese ethnicities. The latter moved to the island mainly through the large-scale transmigration programs supported by both the Dutch colonial administration in the 1900s and the Indonesian authorities in the 1950s–1990s. The individual ethnic groups speak different languages and dialects in everyday life, for example Ambelau language. However, most adults have knowledge of the national Indonesian language and use it in public or in communication with other tribes. By religion, most Ambelau residents are Sunni Muslims, with a small part of Christians and with some remnants of traditional local beliefs.[3]

Economy

Agriculture dominates the local economy. Cultivation of rice – the most common crop of the region – is hindered on Ambelau by the hilly terrain and abundance of the wild pig Buru babirusa damaging the crops (which is rarely hunted because of the Muslim traditions). The small terrains of fertile land on the coast are used to grow maize, sago sweet potato, cocoa, coconut, allspice and nutmeg. Tuna fishing is practiced by the villages of Masawoy and Ulimo. Some agricultural and fish products are exported to the nearby Buru islands, mainly on the markets of the town Namlea.

Obi Islands

Obi Islands

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obi_Islands

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The Obi Islands (also known as Ombirah,[1] Indonesian Kepulauan Obi) are a group of islands in the Indonesian province of North Maluku. They lie north of Buru and Ceram.

The largest in the group is Obi Island. Nearby are the islands of Bisa, Gomumu, Obilatu, Tapat, Tobalai.

Two languages are spoken on the islands, Galela and Tobelo, both Papuan.

Morotai

Morotai

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morotai

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Morotai Island (Indonesian: Pulau Morotai) is an island in the Halmahera group of eastern Indonesia’s Maluku Islands (Moluccas). It is one of Indonesia’s northernmost islands.

Morotai is a rugged, forested island lying to the north of Halmahera. It has an area of some 1,800 square kilometres (690 sq mi), stretching 80 kilometres (50 mi) north-south and no more than 42 kilometres (26 mi) wide. The island’s largest town is Daruba, on the islands south coast. Almost all of Morotai’s numerous villages are coastal settlements; a paved road linking those on the east coast starts from Daruba and will eventually reach Berebere, the principal town on Morotai’s east coast, 68 kilometres (42 mi) from Daruba.[citation needed] Between Halmahera and the islets and reefs of the west coast of Morotai is the Morotai Strait, which is about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) wide.[1]

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History

Morotai was part of the Ternate Sultanate, which was a vassal of the Dutch East India Company by the end of the 17th century.

Second World War

The Empire of Japan invaded Morotai early in 1942 as part of its Dutch East Indies Campaign. US forces and their allies counter-attacked by launching the Battle of Morotai in 1944; bombing the island in August and invading it in September. Imperial Japanese forces on Morotai held out until 1945 but failed to expel the Allied invaders. In the latter part of 1944, 61,000 personnel landed on Morotai.[2] Two thirds of them were engineers, who rapidly established facilities including harbours and two airstrips[2] plus extensive fuel stores.

The formal surrender of the Second Japanese Army took place at Morotai on 9 September 1945.

The last Japanese holdout from the war, Private Teruo Nakamura (Amis: Attun Palalin), was discovered by the Indonesian Air Force on Morotai, and surrendered to a search patrol on December 18, 1974.[3]

Permesta rebellion

The Dutch Empire withdrew in the Indonesian National Revolution in the late 1940s, after which the new Indonesian Air Force (AURI) kept one of the Allied-built airstrips in use.[2] During the Permesta rebellion in 1958, AURI North American B-25 Mitchell bomber aircraft used the airstrip in transit on their way to attack the rebel centre at Manado in North Sulawesi.[4] Permesta had its own “Revolutionary Air Force”, AUREV, whose aircraft, munitions and pilots were supplied by the CIA. AUREV aircraft attacked Morotai on April 21[4] and again early on April 26.[5] The second air raid was immediately followed by an amphibious Permesta landing force that quickly captured the island.[6] Within hours a Douglas C-47 Skytrain transport aircraft landed on the now captured airstrip, carrying senior Permesta representative and two Americans.[6] One was a USAF officer who inspected the runway and pronounced that Boeing B-29 Superfortress heavy bomber aircraft could use it.[6]

In May 1958 Indonesian National Armed Forces started to gather amphibious forces to retake both Morotai and the rebel-held town of Jailolo on the neighbouring island of Halmahera.[7] By May 16 the assault fleet started to gather in Ambon harbour and on May 20 its troops landed on Morotai while élite Pasukan Gerak Tjepat (PGT or “Quick Reaction Force”) troops parachuted onto the island.[8] The Permesta force’s surrender was as quick as its capture of the island less than a month before.[8] It alarmed the Permesta rebels who had captured Jailolo, many of whom promptly fled back to North Sulawesi.[8] Thereafter the rebellion was largely confined to the Minahassa Peninsula of Sulawesi, where Permesta remnants waged a guerilla campaign until the last unit surrendered in January 1962.[9]

Notable people

  • Melky Goeslaw, singer and father of Melly Goeslaw

Makian

Makian

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makian

Makian_tonemapped

Makian (also Machian and Pulau Makian, where pulau means ‘island’) is a volcanic island, one of the Maluku Islands (Maluku Utara administrative division) in Indonesia. It lies near the southern end of a chain of volcanic islands off the western coast of Halmaherato (Halmahera region), to the south of Tidore and to the north of Kayoa and Bacan.[1]

The island is 10 kilometers wide, and its 1357-meter high summit consists of a large 1.5-kilometer wide crater, with a small lake on its Northeast side.[2] There are four parasitic cones on the western slopes of Makian. Makian volcano is also known as Mount Kiebesi (or Kie Besi).

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Volcanic history

Makian volcano has had infrequent, but violent eruptions that destroyed villages on the island.

Its first recorded eruption was in the 1550s.[3] The eruptions of July 19, 1646, September 22, 1760 and December 28, 1861 are rated 4 in the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History Global Volcanism Program’s Large Volcano Explocivity Index.[4] Since the first known eruption in the 1550s, it has erupted seven times, four of which caused fatalities.[5]

The 1760 eruption of the volcano killed about three thousand inhabitants. It erupted in 1890, and was then dormant until July 1988, when a series of eruptions forced the temporary evacuation of the island’s entire population, then about fifteen thousand people

Kayoa

Kayoa

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kayoa

Kayoa

Kayoa (also Kaioa), or in the native language Pulau Urimatiti, is an island, one of the Maluku Islands. It is located in South Halmahera Regency, North Maluku administrative division of Indonesia.

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Geography

Kayoa island is near the southern end of a chain of volcanic islands off the western coast of Halmaherato (Halmahera region), to the south of Makian and to the north of Bacan.[1] The main island is about 10 miles (16 km) long, about 9 miles (14.5 km) south of Makian with a line of hills along most of its length.[2]

The islands were for centuries the only place in the world where cloves were produced. Kayoa lies on the equator and is subject to regular heavy rain in the two monsoon seasons, which are December to March and June to July.[3]

The stratovolcano Mount Tigalalu lies at the western end of Kayoa, partly flanked by coral limestones.[4] However, Kayoa island differs from its neighbours in being composed mainly of sedimentary rather than volcanic rock. Its western side consists of terraces of raised coral limestone with pumice and beach sand.[3]

Languages and archaeology

There are two native languages on Kayoa island, as well as Indonesian. The language named West Makian, spoken by 5,000 people in Kayoa and its outlying islands, is one of the North Halmahera languages, which appear to be members of the West Papuan family of languages.[5] The language named Taba or East Makian is one of the Austronesian languages.[6]

Archaeological evidence shows a foraging culture on Kayoa before around 3,500 years ago, changing at that time to an agricultural way of life with animals including pigs and dogs, red-slipped pottery, shell bracelets and beads, and polished stone tools such as adzes. This change shows the arrival on Kayoa of a new culture by 1500 BC.[7][8] From 2,000 years ago the islands started to trade spices to India and beyond.[7] Chinese copper money is found in jar burials of between 2,000 and 1,000 years ago in the Uattamdi cave shelter on Kayoa, implying that trade in cloves began early on the island. With the jars are glass beads, pieces of bronze and iron, and large shells from the coral reef. One of the burial vessels has rectangular and triangular patterns like those found at Leang Buidane but not on nearby islands.[3]

Natural history

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“Moluccan Beetles”

Naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace visited Kayoa, as described in his 1869 book The Malay Archipelago.[9] He records that

The next day (October 16th [1858]) I went beyond the swamp, and found a place where a new clearing was being made in the virgin forest… I have never in my life seen beetles so abundant as they were on this spot. Some dozen species of good-sized golden Buprestidae, green rose-chafers (Lomaptera), and long-horned weevils (Anthribidae) were so abundant that they rose up in swarms as I walked along, filling the air with a loud buzzing hum. Along with these, several fine Longicorns were almost equally common, forming such an assemblage as for once to realize that idea of tropical luxuriance which one obtains by looking over the drawers of a well-filled cabinet… It was a glorious spot, and one which will always live in my memory as exhibiting the insect-life of the tropics in unexampled luxuriance.

—Wallace