Oriolus chinensis, Black-naped Oriole, Kepudang kuduk hitam

Oriolus chinensis, Black-naped Oriole, Kepudang kuduk hitam

Black-naped Oriolus chinensis,   Black-naped Oriole, Kepudang kuduk hitamOrioles enjoy a wide menu of plants and animals. They are fond of fruit and berries, particularly figs. Besides large insects, they also take small animals, including nestlings. For this reason, during the breeding season of other birds, Black-naped Orioles are often chased away by other birds.

Black-naped Orioles rarely descend to the ground. They forage high in trees and usually say within the canopy. Nevertheless, they are not birds of the deep forest. Originally from coastal woodlands and mangroves, they have adapted to cultivated areas and parks and gardens.

Black-naped Orioles usually forage alone or in pairs. They are most active in the morning and evenings, making their melodious calls as they forage.

Breeding: Black-naped Orioles breed in Singapore. They build a cup-shaped nest at a fork at the end of a slender branch high in a tree. The nest is made from bark, small twigs, grass and roots. 2-3 bluish-white eggs with brown spots are laid. They hatch in about 2 weeks.


Myiophoneus-caeruleus, Blue Whistling-thrush

Myiophoneus-caeruleus, Blue Whistling-thrush, Ciung-batu Siul

The Myiophoneus-caeruleus, Blue Whistling-thrush Blue Whistling-thrush (Myophonus caeruleus) is a species of chat. This thrush-like Old World flycatcher is nowadays placed in the family Turdidae. At 178 grams (6.3 oz) and 33 cm (13 inches), it is believed to be the world’s largest species of thrush.

It is found in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, and Vietnam. Its natural habitats are temperate forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.

Merops-leschenaulti, chestnut-headed Bee-eater

Merops-leschenaulti, chestnut-headed Bee-eater, Kirik-kirikSenja

The ChestnuMerops-leschenaulti, chestnut-headed Bee-eatert-headed Bee-eater, Merops leschenaulti is a near passerine bird in the bee-eater family Meropidae. It is a resident breeder in southern Asia from India east to southeast Asia and Indonesia.

This species, like other bee-eaters, is a richly coloured, slender bird. It is predominantly green, with blue on the rump and lower belly. Its face and throat are yellow with a black eye stripe, and the crown and nape are rich chestnut. The thin curved bill is black. Sexes are alike, but young birds are duller.

This species is 18?20 cm long; it lacks the two elongated central tail feathers possessed by most of its relatives.

Forehead, crown, nape, upper back and ear-coverts bright chestnut ; lores black, continued as a band under the eye and ear-coverts ; wing-coverts, lower back and tertiaries green, the latter tipped with bluish; rump and upper tail-coverts pale shining blue; primaries and secondaries green, rufous on the inner webs, and all tipped dusky ; central tail-feathers bluish on the outer, and green on the inner webs ; the others green, margined on the inner web with brown and all tipped dusky ; sides of face, chin and throat yellow ; below this a broad band of chestnut extending to the sides of the neck and meeting the chestnut of the upper plumage ; below this again a short distinct band of black and then an ill-defined band of yellow ; remainder of lower plumage green, tipped with blue, especially on the vent and under tail-coverts.

The Javan sub-species, M. l. quinticolor, differs in having the whole space from the bill down to the black pectoral band pure yellow without any chestnut, and in having the tail blue.

Race andamanensis found in the Andamans is slightly larger than the Indian race.Iris crimson ; bill black ; legs dusky black ; claws dark horn-colour.

in Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary, Andhra Pradesh, India.

This is a bird which breeds in sub-tropical open woodland, often near water. It is most common in highland areas. As the name suggests, bee-eaters predominantly eat insects, especially bees, wasps and hornets, which are caught in the air by sorties from an open perch.

These bee-eaters are gregarious, nesting colonially in sandy banks. They make a relatively long tunnel in which the 5 to 6 spherical white eggs are laid. Both the male and the female take care of the eggs. These birds also feed and roost communally. The call is similar to that of the European Bee-eater.

Its scientific name commemorates the French botanist Jean Baptiste Leschenault de la Tour.



Megalaima-javensis, Black-banded Barbet

Megalaima-javensis, Black-banded Barbet, Takur Tulung-tumpuk

The Black-baMegalaima-javensis, Black-banded Barbetnded Barbet (Megalaima javensis) is a species of bird in the Ramphastidae family. It is endemic to Indonesia.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montanes. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Lacedo-pulchella, Banded Kingfisher

Lacedo-pulchella, Banded Kingfisher, Cekakak batu

The BandLacedo-pulchella, Banded Kingfishered Kingfisher, Lacedo pulchella, is a tree kingfisher found in the lowland tropical forests of Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos. Malaysia, Sumatra, Java and Brunei. It is extinct in Singapore. It is the only member of the genus Lacedo.
The Banded Kingfisher is a 20 cm long kingfisher with a sturdy red bill and a short crest which is slowly raised and lowered. It shows striking sexual dimorphism compared to most of its relatives. The adult male has a chestnut forehead, cheeks and nape, and a bright blue cap. The rest of the upperparts, wings and tail are black with blue bands. The breast, flanks and undertail are rufous, and the central belly is white.

The adult female is equally striking, with black-and-rufous-banded upperparts, and white underparts with some black bars on the chest and flanks. Young birds are duller than the adult of the same sex, have a brown and orange bill, and dusky barring on the underparts.

The call is a long whistled wheeeoo followed by 15 repetitions of chiwiu in 17 seconds, the second syllable gradually fading away. The Banded Kingfisher will respond to imitations of its call.

There are three subspecies:

* L. p. pulchella, the nominate race, breeds in Malaysia south of 7oN, Sumatra and Java.
* L. p. amabilis breeds from northern Malaysia northwards. It is slightly larger than the nominate form. The male has a blue nape, and the female is more rufous than pulchella.
* L. p. melanops breeds in Brunei. The male has a black forehead, cheeks and nape.


This is a bird of lowland rainforest found up to 1700 m in Brunei, but normally below 1100 m altitude in the rest of its range. Unlike most kingfishers, it does not need pools or streams in its territory.

The nest is a hole in a rotting tree trunk, or sometimes in the spherical nest of tree termites. Two to five white eggs are laid.

The Banded Kingfisher hunts large insects and occasionally small lizards, usually taken in the trees, but sometimes from the ground.


This species is uncommon but widespread in much of its range. It is rare in Java, very rare in Sumatra and extinct in Singapore.

Hemiprocne-longipennis, Grey-rumped Treeswift

Hemiprocne-longipennis, Grey-rumped Treeswift, Tepekong Jambul

TheHemiprocne-longipennis, Grey-rumped Treeswift Grey-rumped Treeswift (Hemiprocne longipennis) is a species of bird in the Hemiprocnidae family. It is found in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical mangrove forests, and subtropical or tropical moist montanes.

Halcyon chloris,Collared Kingfisher, Cekakak suci

Halcyon chloris,Collared Kingfisher, Cekakak suci

They take fish, crabs and prawns, to lizards, small snakes, insects, tadpoles and earthworms. Those hunting along the coast eat mainly small crabs and crustacea, and some fish, mostly mudskippers.

They whack larger prey against the perch. They have also been seen hammering shells against stones to get at the mollusc or hermit crab. They may even snatch prey caught by oHalcyon chloris,Collared Kingfisher, Cekakak sucithers (one was seen snatching a prawn caught by a Little Heron).

Collared Kingfishers are particularly aggressive. Not only towards their own kind, but also towards other Kingfisher species. This could be another reason for the widespread presence. The decline in the White-throated Kingfishers might also be due to the spread of the Collared.

They are also aggressive towards other birds such as mynas; vigorously driving off these birds from their feeding grounds, particularly during breeding season. They may even drive off landbound creatures.

a pair of collared kingfishersBreeding: Collared Kingfishers breed in Singapore. They perform courtship flights and the male may offer the female titbits. Both parents make the nest. They prefer to dig out a nest in dead trees or palms and sometimes take over woodpecker holes. Some even burrow into the active nests of ants and termite high in the trees. Or burrow among the roots of a fern growing in a tree. Only occasionally do they dig out tunnel nests in earth banks or a mud lobster mound. Good nest sites are often reused at the next breeding season. 2-4, usually 3, white eggs are laid. In a good season, two broods may be raised.


Birds of Indonesia

Glaucidium-castanopterum, Javan Owlet, Belukwatu Jawa

The Javan OGlaucidium-castanopterum-01-400wlet (Glaucidium castanopterum) is a species of owl in the Strigidae family. It is endemic to Indonesia.

Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.


Birds of Indonesia

Geopelia-striata, Zebra dove, Perkutut Jawa

The Zebra Dove Geopelia-striata-01-400Geopelia striata, also known as Barred Ground Dove, is a bird of the dove family Columbidae, native to South-east Asia. It is closely related to the Peaceful Dove of Australia and New Guinea and the Barred Dove of eastern Indonesia. These two were classified as subspecies of the Zebra Dove until recently and the names Peaceful Dove and Barred Dove were often applied to the whole species.

The native range of the species extends from Southern Thailand, Tenasserim and Peninsular Malaysia to the Indonesian islands of Sumatra, Java, Bali and Lombok. It may also be native in the Philippines.

The Zebra Dove is popular in captivity and many populations have appeared outside its native range due to birds escaping or being deliberately released. It can now be found in central Thailand, Laos, Borneo, Sulawesi, Hawaii (introduced in 1922), Tahiti (1950), New Caledonia, the Seychelles, the Chagos Archipelago (1960), Mauritius (before 1768), Réunion and Saint Helena.

It inhabits scrub, farmland and open country in lowland areas and is commonly seen in parks and gardens. Trapping for the cagebird industry has led to them becoming rare in parts of Indonesia but in most parts of its range it is common. Zebra Doves are among the most abundant birds in some places such as Hawaii and the Seychelles.


The birds are small and slender with a long, narrow tail. The upperparts are brownish-grey with black-and-white barring. The underparts are pinkish with black bars on the sides of the neck, breast and belly. The face is blue-grey with bare blue skin around the eyes. There are white tips to the tail feathers. Juveniles are duller and paler than the adults. Zebra Doves are 20-23 centimetres in length with a wingspan of 24-26 cm.

Their call is a series of soft, staccato cooing notes. In Thailand and Indonesia, the birds are popular as pets because of their calls and cooing competitions are held to find the bird with the best voice.


The Zebra Dove feeds on small grass and weed seeds. They will also eat insects and other small invertebrates. They prefer to forage on bare ground, short grass or on roads, scurrying about with rodent-like movement. Unlike other doves, they forage alone, or in pairs. Their coloration camouflages them wonderfully against the ground. In Hawaii and the Seychelles they come to hotels, restaurants, and even people’s houses to feed on crumbs and pieces of bread around outdoor tables.


In its native range the breeding season is from September to June. The males perform a courtship display where they bow while raising and spreading the tail. The nest is a simple platform of leaves and grass blades. It is built in a bush or tree or sometimes on the ground. One or two white eggs are laid and are incubated by both parents for 13 to 18 days. The young leave the nest within two weeks and can fly well after three weeks


Birds of Indonesia

Falco-moluccensis, Spotted Kestrel , Alap-alap Sapi

The Spotted Kestrel (Falco moluccensis) is also known as the MoluFalco-moluccensis-01-400ccan Kestrel.
Spread throughout Australasia, Indomalaya, and most of Wallacea, the Spotted Kestrel inhabits grasslands with scattered trees, lightly wooded cultivation, and the edges of primary and tall secondary forest. Along logging roads, it occasionally penetrates forests, and sometimes inhabits clearings within forested areas. It has also been known to live in areas of human habitation.


The Spotted Kestrel feeds primarily small mammals, birds, lizards, and insects.