Osing Tribe 524,000

Osing Tribe 524,000

East Java, east and northeast coast. Alternate names: Banyuwangi. Dialects: Related to East Javanese.
The Jawa Osing reside in the Banyuwangi district in East Jawa Province and seem to be the original occupants of this eastern-most area of Jawa (Java). The Jawa Osing are part of the Jawa cluster of peoples, but they have their own cultural variations which differ from other Jawa peoples. Banosingyuwangi is a transit city for tourists who are en-route to Bali. It seems Banyuwangi was the capital city of the Hindu Blambangan Kingdom that was the last kingdom in Jawa.The Osing speak Ngoko Osing (Osing language). For other Jawa, this language is considered old fashioned and corrupted because of influence from the Madura language.
Family, housing, food, as well as social and health patterns of the Jawa Osing are very characteristic of the Jawa culture, but the Bali culture has also influenced them. An example is seen in the Janger dance. This dance has the theme of love, and is performed to the rhythm of the two-sided drum (kendang kempul). Their clothing is Jawa in style, but the wigs (sanggul) used resemble that of the Bali people. Many of the Jawa Osing people make their living by farming, raising livestock, and trade. In addition, there are also some who work as local government officials or private employees. They never experience water shortages because they live on the slopes of the Ijen-Merapi volcano.The Jawa Osing take great care and highly value preserving their relationships with relatives, whether they are near or far. Good relationships with others are also maintained through mutual sharing and giving, as well as trying to understand other people’s feelings and abilities. This practice is summarized as tepo seliro, which means not doing something one would not want done to one’s self. The Jawa Osing are known as hospitable and well mannered people. Their culture, which is under governmental protection, has become popular and interesting to tourists. The government wishes to preserve and utilize the unique beliefs and culture of the people. This has added to the pride of the Jawa Osing in their culture.
Islam became the dominant religion of the Jawa Osing after Hinduism was pushed from their area to Bali. The Kiai (Islamic teacher) has the ultimate authority in matters of religion. The Jawa Osing have many selametan (ritual meals) specific to each occasion, such as: the death of a family member; the cleaning of the village, tilling and harvesting the land, birth, marriage, and moving to a new house. Selametan combine a mixture of Jawa and Islamic culture ceremonies and are thus also done for Islamic holidays. A few of these days are: Suran, Muludan, Ruahan, Punggahan, Rejabatan, and Sekaten. The traditional dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) is famous for his ability to apply his black magic from far distances. Through his magical powers he can heal or destroy whoever or whatever is a cause of problems.

Pesisir Kulon Tribe 3,092,000

Pesisir Kulon Tribe 3,092,000

The Jawa Pesisir Kulon (West Coast Java) people group is also called the Jawa Cirebonan or the Cerbon people. The center of the Jawa Pesisir Kulon people group is in the regencies of Cirebon and IndramaPesisir-Kulonyu in West Jawa Province. They live in small cities like Patrol, Anjatan, and Haurgeulis. There are also some who live to the east around the vicinity of the Sanggarung River, and across the river there are also several Cirebonan villages located in Central Jawa Province. The Ceremai mountain marks the southern border of their area while the Jawa Sea coastline marks the northern border.Geographically speaking, the Jawa Pesisir Kulon people group live in Sunda districts, yet they use the Jawa Ngoko Cerbon (Jawa Cerbon language). Their language is apparently a mixture of the Jawa, Sunda, Arab, and Melayu languages, and possibly some others as well. The Cerbon Ngoko language is taught to every Cerbon child from first through tenth grades.
The Jawa Pesisir Kulon people tend to be open and spontaneous in their social interactions. This is visible in their vibrant, colorful, and artistic clothing. Their culture leans more toward Islamic culture than towards their own historical Jawa culture. For them, Islam is looked at as the national cultural foundation that takes precedence over the traditional Jawa cultural values, which are still predominant in Central and East Jawa.The word cirebon is a combination of two words, ci which means water and rebon which means shrimp. Cirebon has always been famous for its salted fish, fresh shrimp, as well as petis and terasi (shrimp pastes used as spices). Most Jawa Pesisir Kulon are fishers or farmers. Their land is very fertile and has acres of plantations that produce export crops of coffee, sugar, tobacco, citrus fruits, and the well-known Dermayu mango. There is also a local government-owned oil refinery. There are many among them who work in government and private institutions. Craftsmen make various products from the world-famous batik cloth, as well as clay, wood and rattan. The city of Cirebon is also considered a tourist destination because of the many historical and sacred landmarks. These historical sites include the palaces of Kasepuhan, Kanoman, Kacirebonan, and Kaprabonan, as well as Mesjid Panjunan (a mosque), Gua Sunyaragi (a cave), and Panjang Jimat (a place of worship).
The large majority of the Jawa Pesisir Kulon people are Sunni Muslims although there is a Sufi Muslim minority. Despite this fact, the practice of occultism is very evident. Dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) are still heavily relied upon. Various ceremonies that include meals are done to obtain happiness, safety, and peace

Pesisir Lor Tribe 22,389,000

Pesisir Lor Tribe 22,389,000

Geographically, there are two groups of Jawa Pesisir Lor (North Coast Java) people. The first group lives to the west of the city of Semarang, with its center in Pekalongan-Tegal. The second group lives to the east of Semarang, with its center in Demak-Kudus. The western portion of Pesisir-Lorthe Jawa Pesisir Lor people live on the slopes of the mountain range of Slamet-Dieng facing north towards the Jawa Sea from Kendal to Brebes. The eastern portion of the Jawa Pesisir Lor people live on the slopes of the Kapur Utara mountain range from Demak to Tuban. Most of the Jawa people who live in Semarang are transplants from other Jawa subgroups, such as Negarigung, Banyumasan, or Mancanegari.
Jawa Pesisir Lor people mainly make their living from agriculture. They use the land effectively and are equipped with (relatively) modern tools. The industrial sector is also experiencing rapid growth, both in heavy industry and small industry.The Jawa people in general are known as being more reserved and concerned about politeness than most Indonesian people groups. While this is also true for the Jawa Pesisir Lor, they are generally more open, straightforward, and spontaneous when contrasted with other Jawa subgroups. They are bolder to speak their mind even when they differ from their elders. They also describe situations more straightforwardly and they speak more openly, even to sensitive issues. The Jawa Pesisir Lor are known to express their convictions with action and emotion, not just words.Many Jawa Pesisir Lor view traditional Jawa culture as backward and are proud of what they consider to be their more modern worldview and stronger Islamic commitment. Unlike other Jawa subgroups, they tend to prefer Islamic music to Jawa music (gamelan). They prefer Qur’an (Islamic Holy Book) readings to watching wayang (shadow puppet plays). In spite of this, they still love the Jawa drama forms of ludruk and ketoprak.
Almost all Jawa Pesisir Lor people are Sunni Muslims, although some are Sufi Muslims. Most Jawa Pesisir Lor people consider sacred the graves of two holy men, Sunan Kalijaga and Sunan Ja’far Shodiq. People come to both of these graves to worship and to seek blessing. They hold to nine aspects of religious knowledge that were taught by these two holy men. The first aspects are the five Islamic pillars of syahadat (the Muslim creed), sholat (Muslim prayer ritual), zakat (giving to the poor), puasa (fasting during the month of Ramadan), and haj (pilgrimage to Mecca). To these five aspects are added the four aspects of syari’at (Islamic law), hakekat (essence), tarekat (mysticism, especially Sufism), and marifat (the highest knowledge in mysticism). Occultism is still practiced, along with syncretistic elements of Hinduism and animism. .

Sunda Banten Tribe 537,000

Sunda Banten Tribe 537,000

Java, western third of the island. Alternate names: Priangan, Sundanese. Dialects: Bogor (Krawang), Pringan, Cirebon.
The Banten people live in the province of BantenIndonesia, tribes, sunda, suku, located at the northwestern end of the island of Jawa. Currently, most Banten people live in the regencies of Pandeglang, Labak, and Serang. In the year 2000, Banten officially became an Indonesian province independent of West Jawa Province. The Banten border area has often been unclear. This can obviously be seen in the differing languages spoken by the northern portion (Jawa-Banten language) and the southern portions including the areas of Pandeglang and Lebak district (Sunda language).
The Banten people grow rice and other crops, such as coffee, cloves, jengkol and petai (beans eaten raw), bananas, and durian (“stinky” fruit with a thick, spiky shell). Working the land is done in cooperative groups. One type of cooperative work is royongan. In royongan, workers are not paid directly; rather, wages are collected and stored by a community elder (kokolot) to be used for repair of mosques and smaller prayer houses. Another form of cooperative work is called liliuran, which is helping one another work the rice field without any expectation of payment. Cooperative work arrangements are also used for repairing roads, bridges, and other public facilities. Cooperation of this kind is expected of community members. For instance, in Tanjung Sari village, a household head who does not participate is assessed a monetary fine. Local Banten leadership is composed of three elements: formal leaders (umaroh), religious leaders (ulama), and traditional leaders (jawara). These three groups play an important role in shaping the local political system. The village’s kinship relationships are cultivated and developed by the village leaders, who are very respected and honored. Other village matters are handled by the carik (secretarial), ulu-ulu (irrigation), kabayan (logistics), and amil (religious affairs). Ancient Banten is still of great interest, especially for historians and archeologists. Banten is one of the famous kingdoms of the past. In the Banten area there are many tourist attractions, beginning with the nature preserve, the Great Mosque of Banten, with the tombs of the Banten Sultans placed at the south and north ends of this mosque. It is said that there is a “nine-story rock” 15 meters high, which is a remnant of the megalithic era. As a tourism area, Banten is open to the outside world, but their traditions and culture are still maintained.
From the 15th century establishment of the Sultanate of Banten until today, the majority of Banten people have been Muslims. They are obedient Muslims, but they still have deep involvement in black magic and occultic power. This can be seen in the famous art of Banten known as debus: through the use of certain mantras, the body of a practitioner can be made invulnerable to physical blows, fire, and sharp objects.

Tengger Tribe 636,000

Tengger Tribe 636,000

East Java, Tengger-Semeru massif and slopes of Mt. Bromo. Alternate names: Tenggerese. Dialects: May be marginally intelligible with Javanese [jav].
The Tenggerese live on the slopes of a large volcanic crater high Tenggerese, Tribes, Indonesia, java, suku, tenggerin the Tengger Mountains of eastern Java. Their origins are uncertain, but some consider them to be refugees from the ancient Hindu-Javanese kingdom of Madjapahit who retreated to the mountains at the fall of Madjapahit in the early sixteenth century. Others believe they occupied the area well before that period. The people speak an archaic Javanese dialect called Tengger.
The populous (and still growing) nation of Indonesia has one of the most ethnically diverse populations in the world-more than 300 distinct people groups. Located in Southeast Asia on an archipelago of more than 3,000 islands that command vital sea routes between Australia, Europe, and the Asian mainland, they are the principal link between the Pacific and Indian Oceans. With about sixty percent of the total population, Java is the most populated Indonesian island.
The Tenggerese are farmers who grow corn on dry permanent fields or, by using the “slash and burn” technique, they create temporary agricultural plots called swiddens. For more than a century many have also grown vegetables and potatoes as cash crops. Farms are very small-the average size is about one hectare (slightly over 2.4 acres). Because farms are so small and unable to sustain large families, the number of landless peasants has increased rapidly, causing a swelling immigration to the cities and coastal areas.
Tenggerese youth are free to do their own courting, although parental consent is required. The wedding ceremony takes place in the bride’s home. Ideally, the newlyweds set up their own household, but in many cases they are forced to live with their parents until they can afford their own dwelling. The average household may be an extended family composed of nephews and nieces or younger brothers, sisters, or cousins and may have between seven and ten members.
A village consist of clusters of smaller villages, or hamlets. The village headman is elected for life by the adult (male and female) citizens of the village. He is assisted by village administrators and controls the headmen of the various hamlets.
vMost Tenggerese are Hindus who mix their beliefs with animism (belief that non-living objects have spirits).
Each temple congregation holds periodic rituals to placate and please various gods and protect the group’s peace and prosperity. They also make offerings to the spirits of their deceased ancestors and to spirits connected with certain places. Brahman priests conduct the major religious ceremonies; lower caste priests care for the temples and perform local ceremonies. Rituals are performed in several cycles, with the most important being a six-month cycle. Families arrange “life cycle rituals,” an especially important task when planning the cremation of a family member. Rituals often include music and dance.

Badui Tribe 6400

Badui Tribe 6400

Mount Kendeng, Kabupaten Rangkasbitung, Pandeglang, Sukabumi. Dialects: Sometimes considered a dialect of Sunda [sun]
The remote Kanekes village in Banten, is filled with steIndonesia, tribes, Badui, sukuep hills where sugar palm trees, bamboo and wild grass surround a small mountain trail. This is the path leading to the village of the Badui people, an indigenous tribe that lives a strictly traditional life. The area is surrounded by rough mountainous terrain that requires considerable physical effort to trek through.
“It can be rough if you’re not used to hiking though,” said Omin, a local guide to the Badui.
Omin makes his living mainly by taking tourists to the kampongs in Badui village while running a motorcycle taxi business in his spare time.
The Badui area covers more than 5,100 hectares of land and is separated into two parts, outer Badui and inner Badui with the closest inner Badui village of Cibeo 12 kilometers away from Ciboleger village. Both accept visitors cordially, but the outer area has more contact with outsiders and is thus more open to travelers.
The path to the Badui village starts in Ciboleger, a gateway to the Badui because of its proximity to Kadu Ketug, an outer Badui kampong. Ciboleger is a couple of hours’ drive away from the Rangkas Bitung turnpike exit.
On the way fromp Ciboleger to Kadu Ketug, stores selling souvenirs like songket (woven cloth), traditional bags made of tree bark, and grocery shops surround a steep but smooth path that leads to a big stone monument marked with a map of the Badui area. A nearby sign lists dos and don’ts for travelers and welcomes those entering Kadu Ketug, a relatively modern outer Badui kampong with 35 houses and shops that sell daily goods like coffee and cigarettes.
Some of their rules prohibit modern inventions likeIndonesia, tribes, Badui, suku guitars, video cameras and sound recorders. One rule prohibits the use of soap and toothpaste in rivers.
All traces of modernity disappear past the big stone monument and all the brick houses and neon lights turn into small rattan walled huts and oil-filled lanterns.
Not too far from the monument is the house of Badui village chief Jaro Dainah. He is the liaison between the outside world and the Badui people. All travelers who want to enter the Badui villages must pay homage to him.
His hut, like many other Badui huts, is a rumah panggung, a house built on wooden stilts placed on rocks or dug into the ground. Layers of thick bamboo shoots make up the floor that, according to Badui customs, must remain above the ground, while tiers of sugar palm leaves tied to the top of the wooden stilts act as the roof.
Further behind his house is a mountain trail leading into more Badui kampongs that can take a whole day to Indonesia, tribes, Baduitraverse. The Badui people live on a mountain in small homes surrounded by forests and small rice fields and they live independently from the outside world, although they occasionally venture out to other cities like Bandung and Jakarta to sell their handicrafts, brown sugar and honey. Even so, the Badui reject motorized vehicles as well as footwear and always move around barefoot while in the kampong.
Despite the challenging way of life, the Badui exude a tough but calm demeanor as portrayed by Jaro Saidi, chief of the Kadu Keteur kampong, who is also the leader of all kampong chiefs. The farmer — who claims to be 100 years old — looks like he is still in his 80s and is still going strong, something that he may have acquired from living the Badui lifestyle.
Bawean Tribe 65.000
The Bawean homeland is a 200 square kilometer island 120 kilometers north of Surabaya (East Java) in the middle of the Java Sea. Bawean has been known as the “island of women” because the majority of its inhabitants are women. This is because the men tend to look for employment in other lands. A man from Tanjung Ori village who worked for 20 years in Malaysia said, “A Bawean male is not considered an adult until he has stepped on foreign soil.” Merantau (going to distant lands to seek success) is a major aspect of Baweanese culture, and it influences most every other facet of their society. A significant number of the Baweanese reside in Malaysia. In fact, the Baweanese population there far exceeds that found on the island itself, which numbers 60,000 inhabitants. Other areas of Baweanese migration include Singapore, where they are known as the Boyanese people, and Perth, Australia.
The culture of merantau creates some interesting dynamics for the Baweanese people. On one hand, their homeland is isolated and cut off from modern Indonesian life. On the other hand, they are very exposed to the world through their family members who migrate and then return to Bawean Although early settlers came from the island of Madura (as seen in the similarity of their lan-guages), over the centuries the Baweanese have developed their own unique culture. Influences are evident from Madura, Java, S. Sulawesi, Su-matra and Kalimantan. Because of this, a Kompas reporter Emmanuel Subangun wrote in 1976 that the Baweanese people are a “crystallization of In-donesian ethnic variety.”The main sources of income for those living and working on the island are farming and fishing. Apart from this, some residents make grass mats from palm leaf fiber as a local handicraft, own small shops, or harvest the high quality onyx which is found on the island, and ship it to Java or elsewhere in the world. Most of the income on the island however comes from the family members who live and work overseas and who send money back to their families on Bawean.
Originally the Baweanese embraced animistic beliefs. Then Hindu and Buddhist influences entered the island until the 1600’s when the Baweanese people converted to Islam. Their religious devotion is extremely strong and they pride themselves in the fact that 100% of the island’s inhabitants follow Islam. There are many mosques (mesjid), small Islamic prayer houses (musholla) and traditional Islamic schools (pesantrans) in every village. Boys and girls from six or seven years of age receive religious instruction including lessons in reciting the Qur’an, and sometimes live in the house of a kiai (Islamic teacher). Kiais are greatly respected by the Baweanese.

Bawean Tribe, Bawean Island

Bawean Tribe
The Bawean homeland is a 200 square kilometer island 120 kilometers north of Surabaya (East Java) in the middle of baweanthe Java Sea. Bawean has been known as the “island of women” because the majority of its inhabitants are women. This is because the men tend to look for employment in other lands. A man from Tanjung Ori village who worked for 20 years in Malaysia said, “A Bawean male is not considered an adult until he has stepped on foreign soil.” Merantau (going to distant lands to seek success) is a major aspect of Baweanese culture, and it influences most every other facet of their society. A significant number of the Baweanese reside in Malaysia. In fact, the Baweanese population there far exceeds that found on the island itself, which numbers 60,000 inhabitants. Other areas of Baweanese migration include Singapore, where they are known as the Boyanese people, and Perth, Australia.
The culture of merantau creates some interesting dynamics for the Baweanese people. On one hand, their homeland is isolated and cut off from modern Indonesian life. On the other hand, they are very exposed to the world through their family members who migrate and then return to Bawean Although early settlers came from the island of Madura (as seen in the similarity of their lan-guages), over the centuries the Baweanese have developed their own unique culture. Influences are evident from Madura, Java, S. Sulawesi, Su-matra and Kalimantan. Because of this, a Kompas reporter Emmanuel Subangun wrote in 1976 that the Baweanese people are a “crystallization of In-donesian ethnic variety.”The main sources of income for those living and working on the island are farming and fishing. Apart from this, some residents make grass mats from palm leaf fiber as a local handicraft, own small shops, or harvest the high quality onyx which is found on the island, and ship it to Java or elsewhere in the world. Most of the income on the island however comes from the family members who live and work overseas and who send money back to their families on Bawean.
Originally the Baweanese embraced animistic beliefs. Then Hindu and Buddhist influences entered the island until the 1600’s when the Baweanese people converted to Islam. Their religious devotion is extremely strong and they pride themselves in the fact that 100% of the island’s inhabitants follow Islam. There are many mosques (mesjid), small Islamic prayer houses (musholla) and traditional Islamic schools (pesantrans) in every village. Boys and girls from six or seven years of age receive religious instruction including lessons in reciting the Qur’an, and sometimes live in the house of a kiai (Islamic teacher). Kiais are greatly respected by the Baweanese.