West Java, Gunung Patuha

Gunung Patuha

Patuha_ton

Gunung Patuha is just over 40km from Bandung city, near Sugih village in the district of Pasir Jambu. It is the highest peak in the large highland area between the Gede-Pangrango massif and the mountains of Garut. The word ‘patuha’ apparently comes from the words “Pak Tua” (old man). It’s actually a twin volcano – with two summit craters of very different character. The forest-covered north crater is the highest of the two and has been dormant for many centuries. The south crater, known as Kawah Putih (white crater), is a leading local tourist attraction. It is very popular with visitors at weekends and was first written about by Dr. Franz Wihelm Junghuhn (1809-1864), a Dutch botanist from Germany. He found that the high density of sulphur was making birds reluctant to fly over the crater. Locals still regard the area as haunted and the atmosphere is definitely one of eerie calm. During the 20th century, the Dutch built a sulfur mine which was later controlled by the Japanese military. Sulphur mine tunnels and the remanants of old buildings still exist to this day. There are also several ancient graves in the area. The car park is at an elevation of 2,200m so it’s a very easy climb to the top – there and back in less than two hours!

From Bandung, there are plenty of angkots serving the main road south-west to Soreang and Ciwidey and it is an easy day-trip from Bandung. However, you will have to change vehicle at least once so it is much better to avoid the waiting around and hire a taxi/private car. It takes approximately 90 minutes from the centre of Bandung to the top of the road at Kawah Putih. Beyond Ciwidey, the road is lined with strawberry fields, plants for sale and related produce. From this point, Kawah Putih is well signposted and it is very hard to miss the entrance gates. Since 1987 Kawah Putih has been an official tourist site and has an information centre and cafe. Entrance tickets are a very reasonable Rp. 12,000 and it is open from 7am until 5pm. Beyond the entrance gates, the road climbs up over 5km through delightful eucalyptus plantation to the crater car park. There are several places worth stopping at briefly to admire the view of other forested peaks in the distance.

When you reach the top of the road, there is a large area for vehicles and small warungs (shops), and some excellent places for having a picnic. Kawah Putih itself is very impressive – a misty turquoise crater lake surrounded by white rocks and sand. There is a smell of sulphur but it is not overpowering. To reach the summit of Gunung Patuha, leave the car park at the stone tree trunk and continue up through the forest on a well-defined path to the right of Kawah Putih. The trail is very clear although not many Kawah Putih visitors hike this way. After less than 30 minutes of ascent through the forest the edge of the old forested crater is reached. There is a flat area occasionally used for camping. From this point you can look down over the edge to the swampy, dormant northern crater floor. Apparently there were eruptions here several hundred years ago. From the camping spot, follow the less well-defined path leading left (west) through the forest along the edge of the crater. The trail ascends and descends and ascends again before you reach another flat, open area suitable for camping. This is the true summit and there is a small collection of rocks which could well be a grave of some sort. Sadly, views are very limited due to the density of the forest. According to local people, this summit area was used in the past as a meeting place of the ancestors of South Bandung and it is certainly a great place for quiet contemplation.

It is less than an hour back down the same way to the car park.

Bagging information by Daniel Quinn

http://www.gunungbagging.com/patuha/

Iyang-Argapura Mountain

Iyang-Argapura Mountain

Iyang-Argapura_t

Iyang-Argapura is a massive volcanic complex that dominates the landscape between Mount Raung and Mount Lamongan in East Java, Indonesia. Valleys up to 1,000 m deep dissect the strongly eroded Iyang volcano. No historical eruptions have been recorded within the last 500 years, but there is an unverified report about an eruption in AD 1597.[1]

West Java, Mount Galunggung

Mount Galunggung

Mount-Galunggung_to

Mount Galunggung (Indonesian: Gunung Galunggung, formerly spelled Galoen-gong) is an active stratovolcano in West Java, Indonesia, around 80 km (50 mi) southeast of the West Java provincial capital, Bandung (or around 25 km (16 mi) to the east of the West Java town of Garut). Mount Galunggung is part of the Sunda Arc extending through Sumatra, Java and Bali, which has resulted from the subduction of the Australian plate beneath the Eurasian plate.

For the first time since 1921 after eruptions finished and conditions seemed normal, on February 12, 2012, the status was upgraded to Alert based on changes in conditions.[1] [2] On 28 May 2012, it was lowered from 7 back to 6 (On a scale of 1-4)

Hazardous eruption of 1982

The last major eruption on Galunggung was in 1982, which had a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 4 and killed 72 people. This eruption also brought the dangers of volcanic ash to aviation to worldwide attention, after two Boeing 747 passenger jets flying downwind of the eruption suffered temporary engine failures and damage to exterior surfaces, both planes being forced to make emergency landings at Jakarta airport.

One, a British Airways aircraft carrying 240 passengers, accidentally entered the ash cloud during night in June 1982 150 km (93 mi) downwind of the volcano. All four engines failed due to the buildup of volcanic ash, and the aircraft descended for 16 minutes, losing 7,500 m (24,606 ft) of its 11,500 m (37,730 ft) altitude, until the crew managed to restart the engines.

The following month, a Singapore Airlines aeroplane with approximately 230 passengers aboard also inadvertently entered the cloud at night, and three of its four engines stopped. The crew succeeded in restarting one of the engines after descending 2,400 m (7,874 ft). Both aircraft suffered serious damage to their engines and exterior surfaces.

Historical avalanche deposits

A hummocky deposit known as the Ten Thousand Hills of Tasikmalaya attracted the attention of early-20th-century geologists. Houses were built on the hummocks since they provided good defence against hostile people, and being above the paddy fields were free of mosquitoes and rats.

Originally, it was thought that either it had been formed by a lahar caused by the release of the waters of the crater lake, or that it was man-made; composed of rocks and boulders dumped there after being cleared from paddy fields.

However, in the light of the Mount St. Helens eruption of 1980 and from examination of the Mount Shasta deposits, it has become clear that the hummocks are a debris-avalanche deposit. Like these mountains, Galunggung has a horseshoe-shaped crater indicating a massive landslide, and examination of shattered lava blocks revealed them to be similar to deposits on the other two volcanoes. According to radiocarbon dating of samples taken from a lava flow, the landslide happened within the last 23,000 years.

East Java, Raung volcano

East Java, Raung volcano

http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0603-34=

Raung

Country: Indonesia
Subregion Name: Java (Indonesia)
Volcano Number: 0603-34=
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 2008 
Summit Elevation: 3332 m 10,932 feet
Latitude: 8.125°S 8°7’30″S
Longitude: 114.042°E 114°2’30″E
Raung, one of Java’s most active volcanoes, is a massive stratovolcano in easternmost Java that was constructed SW of the rim of Ijen caldera. The 3332-m-high, unvegetated summit of Gunung Raung is truncated by a dramatic steep-walled, 2-km-wide caldera that has been the site of frequent historical eruptions. A prehistoric collapse of Gunung Gadung on the west flank produced a large debris avalanche that traveled 79 km from the volcano, reaching nearly to the Indian Ocean. Raung contains several centers constructed along a NE-SW line, with Gunung Suket and Gunung Gadung stratovolcanoes being located to the NE and west, respectively.

East Java, Iyang-Argapura volcano

East Java, Iyang-Argapura volcano

http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0603-33=

Iyang-Argapura

Country: Indonesia
Subregion Name: Java (Indonesia)
Volcano Number: 0603-33=
Volcano Type: Complex volcano
Volcano Status: Holocene
Last Known Eruption: Unknown
Summit Elevation: 3088 m 10,131 feet
Latitude: 7.97°S 7°58’0″S
Longitude: 113.57°E 113°34’0″E
The massive Iyang-Argapura volcanic complex dominates the landscape between Raung and Lamongan volcanoes in eastern Java. Valleys up to 1000 m deep dissect the strongly eroded basal Iyang volcano. Several Holocene volcanic cones have been constructed at the center of a N-S-trending central rift. No major eruptions have occurred within at least the last 500 years, although there was an unverified report of an eruption in 1597 AD. Fumaroles occur in some of the many explosion pits found in the summit crater complex.

East Java, Lurus volcano

East Java, Lurus volcano

http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0603-321

Lurus

Country: Indonesia
Subregion Name: Java (Indonesia)
Volcano Number: 0603-321
Volcano Type: Complex volcano
Volcano Status: Holocene?
Last Known Eruption: Unknown
Summit Elevation: 539 m 1,768 feet
Latitude: 7.73°S 7°44’0″S
Longitude: 113.58°E 113°35’0″E
The small Lurus volcanic complex along the northern coast of eastern Java, north of the Iyang-Argapura massif, produced leucite-bearing rocks followed by later eruptions of andesitic and trachytic composition. This little known complex was mapped as subrecent-to-recent age by van Bemmelen (1949b).

East Java, Penanggungan volcano

East Java, Penanggungan volcano

http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0603-291

Penanggungan

Country: Indonesia
Subregion Name: Java (Indonesia)
Volcano Number: 0603-291
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Holocene
Last Known Eruption: Unknown
Summit Elevation: 1653 m 5,423 feet
Latitude: 7.62°S 7°37’0″S
Longitude: 112.63°E 112°38’0″E
Gunung Penanggungan, one of Java’s most revered mountains, is a small stratovolcano constructed immediately north of the Arjuno-Welirang massif. Numerous ruins of sanctuaries, monuments, and sacred bathing places dating from 977-1511 AD are found on the northern and western flanks of the volcano. Lava flows from flank vents descend all sides of the 1653-m-high volcano and pyroclastic-flow deposits form an apron around it. Penanggungan volcano was mapped as similar in age to Arjuno-Welirang and Semeru volcanoes by van Bemmelen (1937). Penanggungan was considered to be extinct for at least 1000 years. Its last eruption may have occurred about 200 AD.

East Java, Kawi-Butak volcano

East Java, Kawi-Butak volcano

http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0603-281

Kawi-Butak

Country: Indonesia
Subregion Name: Java (Indonesia)
Volcano Number: 0603-281
Volcano Type: Stratovolcanoes
Volcano Status: Holocene
Last Known Eruption: Unknown
Summit Elevation: 2651 m 8,697 feet
Latitude: 7.92°S 7°55’0″S
Longitude: 112.45°E 112°27’0″E
The broad Kawi-Butak volcanic massif lies immediately east of Kelut volcano and south of Arjuno-Welirang volcano. The 2551-m-high Gunung Kawi was constructed to the NW of 2868-m-high Gunung Butak. No historical eruptions are known from either volcano, but both are primarily of Holocene age.

East Java, Wilis volcano

East Java, Wilis volcano

http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0603-27=

Wilis

Country: Indonesia
Subregion Name: Java (Indonesia)
Volcano Number: 0603-27=
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Holocene
Last Known Eruption: Unknown
Summit Elevation: 2563 m 8,409 feet
Latitude: 7.808°S 7°48’30″S
Longitude: 111.758°E 111°45’30″E
Gunung Wilis is a solitary volcanic massif surrounded by low-elevation plains on all but its southern side. It was formed during three episodes dating back to the mid Pleistocene. Following destruction of the 2nd edifice, the most recent cone grew during the Holocene. No confirmed historical eruptions are known from Wilis volcano, although there was a report of an eruption in 1641 AD, the same year as a major eruption of nearby Kelut volcano. Fumaroles and mud pots occur near Lake Ngebel on the lower western flank of Gunung Wilis.

Central java, Telomoyo volcano

Central java, Telomoyo volcano

http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0603-231

Telomoyo

Country: Indonesia
Subregion Name: Java (Indonesia)
Volcano Number: 0603-231
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Holocene
Last Known Eruption: Unknown
Summit Elevation: 1894 m 6,214 feet
Latitude: 7.37°S 7°22’0″S
Longitude: 110.40°E 110°24’0″E
Telomoyo volcano, also spelled Telemojo, was constructed over the southern flank of the eroded Pleistocene Soropati volcano and is in part of Holocene age (van Bemmelen 1941). It lies along a NNW-SSE-trending line of volcanoes extending from Ungaran in the north to Merapi in the south. The eastern flank of Soropati volcano collapsed during the Pleistocene, leaving a U-shaped depression. Telomoyo subsequently filled much of the southern side of this depression and grew to a height of 600 m above its rim.