Yogyakarta, Map, Info

Yogyakarta Map and Info

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Central Java Map, java, jawa, tengah, mining, yogyakarta,natural recources, nature reserves, plantations

Yogyakarta, or short Yogya is one of the two still excisting traditional royal cities of Central Jawa; the other is Solo. The city is in the centre of a wide belt of fertile ricefields, which are dominated in the north by the smouldering Gunung Merapi, and in the south is limited because of the rough Indian Ocean.
The 3,169 sq.km. province of Yogyakarta counts 3,2 milion residents, on average more than one thousand per square kilometre. Yogya is among the most densely populated and most productive traditional agricultural areas in the world. The fact that low housing dominates, and most people still live in relatively small, selfsufficient village communities, this is even more remarkable. In the city itself live less than 500,000 people.
City of education and culture
Yogya is a city with many faces. Proud at it’s century-old Jawanese heir it attracts numerous painters, dancers and writers from all over the planet. The city where the Taman Siswa-schools and the Islamic Muhammadiyah-schools were founded, nowadays is a real student city. Besides the Gajad Mada University, which originates from the time of the revolution and is one of the most important Universities of the country, Yogya counts over fourty academies and institutes for higher education.
Besides a traditional Jawanese city, Yogya is also a place of refreshing ideas. On just a few paces from the serene kraton is the market where batik painters show their designs, influenced by foreigners. In the main streets computer stores pop up everywhere while satellite dishes and trendy residencial quarters dominate the city. During a celebration of Independence day, no one look if after a traditional golek-dance a group of trendy pop-dancers appear on the stage. In the tolerant cultural climate in Yogya traditions and modern things go hand in hand.
The kraton of Yogya was built between 1756 and 1790 by the founder of the city, sultan Hamengku Buwono I. It’s a beautiful example of traditional Jawanese royal architecture. As a royal residence, but most of all the centre of the principalty, the kraton was to be a miniature model of the Jawanese universe. All elements – pavilions, courts, gates and trees – have a symbolic meaning. The thought behind this constructions was to bring the royal court and the principalty together with the divine universe. With that, success for the ruler would be assured.
The northern pavilions
Arrivind from the city the first building that the visitor sees is the beautiful meeting hall, which has a view over the lawn of the northern square ( alun-alun lor ). This is the Pagelaran, where ministers and kratontroups will gather. The 64 pilars which carry the roof, are representing the perfection ( 8 times 8, the age at which the representative Muhamad died ). Now the hall serves at room for gamelan concerts and dancing shows during the Sekaten-festivities and the birthday of the sultan. Left and right of the meeting hall there are smaller pavilions where the royal officials were seated during audiences. Now the royal costumes are displayed.
Behind these pavilions some steps lead to a higher floor, the Siti Hinggil or ‘High Ground’. At this place the official inaugurations still take place, On a step in the centre is the throne of the sultan, or Bangsal Manguntur Tangkul, decorated with woodcarvings and gold leaf. In the building behind it are the royal jewelry, but only when the sultan is near.
Al these buildings can be visited. Entry cards can be optained at Pracimasono, just west of Pagelaran.
On the central court, which also was a sleeping place for Dutch soldiers once, is now the office of the palace guard and the Habiranda, the school for wayang-players. Opened on weekdays from 8 o’clock in the morning to 1 in the afternoon, at Fridays until 11 in the morning. Included with the – low – entry price is a guided tour.
The palace
The real kraton is accessable from the west side. At the big clock, hardly ever running on time, you can entere the shadowfull court, the northern Kemandungan or Keben ( because of the Keben-trees ). Once inside the heat and noise disappear, and you get a peacefull rest. The wide court exsist from black sand from the southern coast, and is overshadowed with leaves from big trees. The feeling of serenety is encouraged by the elegant game of lines through the buildings, painted with soft green and yellow, and by the friendly servants. In the centre of the court is a small pendopo, a stone throne, on which the sultan used to convict law violators.
Directly after the main gate is an enourmous wall, the baturana Just like on Bali, this barrier serves to protect the building from bad spirits. Since this bad spirits can only move in straight lines, they will never get in the building. Behind the wall is a smaller court with two pavilions and fruit trees. The western Bangsal Sri Manganti, where the sultan meets his guests, is empty. In the eastern Bangsal Trajumas are the carriages, used at weddings, and stuff for worship.
Right around the corner, on the central court Gedung Purworetno, is the private office of the sultan. Behind this is the Gedung Kuning with the private areas of the sultan. The open gallery contains 19th century European furniture, baroc mirrors, marble tables and crystal lights. The kantil-tree in the corner of the square is a holy tree.
Left of the gate is a music pavilion, built in European style. It has painted windows of trumpets, drums and other instruments. Once the palace musicians played European music in here, for example national anthems at special occasions.
The ‘Golden throne room’
The court is dominated by the wonderfull Bangsal Kencono or ‘Golden throne room’, of which the high joglo-roof represents the mountain Meru as the centre of the universe. From the bottum and upwards the decoration is a clear example of the Jawanese power of absorption: gold leafed lotus flowers from the Bhuddhism, a red with gold Hinduist motif, and the Arabic calligraphy represents the first line from the Koran: ‘There is no God than Allah’.
Behind the throne room is the bangsal Proboyekso, the place where the royal jewelry is kept behind glass. The Bangsal Kencono and the Bangsal proboyekso together form the heart of the kraton. These are the only buildings aimed towards the east – the direction of the rising sun, the source of all power.
Two small pavilions besides the Bangsal Kencono contain Sekaten-gamelans, which should origin from the 14th century, and are played once a year. Due south a long dinner room was built, complete with big windows and a marble floor. A head of a monster, surrounded by two snake-heads, shows the date of the restauration: 1853 ( A.D.1925 )
The rooms besides the southern and eastern side of the square are used for several purposes. In one of them, a daily tea is made for the sultan at 7 and 11 in the morning and 4 in the afternoon. Half way the morning tea is brought to the sultan, under sunshades and by older female servants. In another room, with the good nickname’Sarangboyo or ‘nest full of dangers’, liquors are prepared. Other rooms are used for storage of gamelan instruments and the treasury room.
Next is a crossing with some colonial buildings: the main post office (built in 1910), the Bank Negara Indonesia 1946 (built in 1923 at the Javasche Bank/Nillmij) and the former society (built in 1912, but partially bombarded in 1946), which nowadays serves as a theathre and gallery (Gedung Senisono); on Saturdays open-air concerts are given here.
Behind the monument for remembering the guerrilla-attack on the Dutch (1 March 1949), is the old fortress ‘Vredenburg’ which was built by Hamengku Buwono I for the same Dutch between 1756 and 1787. Once, 500 soldiers were stationed in this fortress which contained a hospital, prisons and a magasine. After a renovation a museum was placed in the old fortress, known as Benteng Budaya or ‘Culture Fortress’. in the spaceous airconditioned rooms, diorama’s show the climaxes of the battle for independence.
Across the fortress is one of the few remained colonial houses of Yogya. Built in 1823 as a residence, and rebuilt after the earthquake of 1869, it temporarily served as Presidential house during the revolution. Nowadays it is used to receive heads of state. In the beautiful garden are a few Indo-Jawanese statues. Just a little ahead is the Margo-Mulyo-church of the Reformed Parish. The church, sarced in 1830, is the oldest in the city.
The Beringharjo market
The central market of Yogya is north of Benteng Budoyo
The busy half-dark market whith its astonishing variety of goods is a small world on it’s own. Towers with tropical fruits, protected by sunscreens are varied by knife sellers and clothes, who work in half-dark stalls. In the narrow paths are many sorts of clothes, old and new batik, colorfull and bright or just not. The deparment of food is not hard to find after all, just follow the smell: meat and fish are sold between all kinds of vegetables and fruits. Somewhere else are the bamboo buckets and other things for daily use.
Who loves to look around in piles, lighted by no more than a few beams of sunlight, really should be here, but wathc out for muddy holes, pickpockets and ‘guides’, who will walk with you and try to get a commision whenever you buy someting. Some batik sellers will try to impress you with fixed prices, just bargain on them too, it’s normal.
Jalan Malioboro
The real Jalan Malioboro runs from the first major crossing to the railroad crossing. The main street from Yogya can’t handle the daily flood of traffic anymore. Bikes and becak’s already have their own lanes, separted by traffic islands, but crossing is a combination of luck, courage and timing.
The street is decorated with many shops which sell all kinds of goods: shirts and cloths, electronics, antiques and much more. The wide pavements are taken by local sellers which offer a big variety of goods. Many shops and some stalls have fixed prices, but here too, the law of the jungle, neotiating until the end.
Around nine o’clock in the evening the shops are closed and the street sellers will also shut down their businesses. The stalls are closed, and more food stalls open around that time. Fried chicken, pigeon and rice are common food in the area, they are prepared in ramshackle food stalls, but taste very good actually. During eating many people lesehan ‘sitting relaxed on the ground.
The next building is the Hotel Garuda, the former Grand Hotel. Across the streat, south of the train station is the quarter of Pasar Kembang, Flower Market. This former area of prostitutes now is the place of cheap hotels and restaurants, populair among cheap travellers.
Jalan P. Mangkubumi
‘The old Tugu train station, built by the Dutch in 1936 to break the two-day-trip from Batavia to Surabaya, is still used. Past the railroads, the street surrounded by hotels, shops, restaurants and offices is no longer called Jalan Malioboro, but Jalan P. Mangkubumi.
Kota Gede
Kota Gede, sticking to Yogyakarta at the southeastern edge,
The reason to bring a visit to Kota Gede is because of the hundreds of silver shops each selling an unique collection of fine silver, handmade by one of the many skilled workers here. Almost every little factory (home workshop that usually is) has it’s own little shop at the front of the house, along one of the small streets of the village. There are some well-known brands like HS Silver, but others do just as good without that famous name. Generally prices here are reasonably fixed for retail buyers. Prices are stated on tags. Unlike in for example Bali, prices here are in Indonesian Rupiah instead of US dollars. The products sold here are to be found in Bali’s tourist area’s as well, they are exported to there from Kota Gede (among others of course).
Southern beaches of Yogyakarta
A trip to the deserted beaches of Baron, Kukup and Krakal, sixty kilometres southeast of Yogya, not only offers a fresh ocean wind, but also the wilderness of the Southern Mountains, or Gunung Kidul. The road to Baron lingers through one of the most dry and poor areas of central Jawa. The friendly green sawah’s have been replaced by bald limestone rock formations, which were pushed up from the sea thousands of years ago. A few strange trees are the only sign of something living in the area, besides some corn. Water is hard to get, and is brought there from kilometres away.
The fierce waves at the coast offer a stark difference between the dry plateau. Kukup and Krakal are one and six kilometres east of Baron. Take the minivan to Wonosari from the busstation Rejowinangun in Yogya. Change to another minivan or andong in Wonosari. Best is to return to Yogya before 4 in the afternoon, because staying a night can be a problem. A taxi back to Yogya is somewhat expensive here too.
Samas
Thirty kilometres south of Yogya is Samas, a tremendous hot black beach with fierce waves breaking on it. Swimming is a very dangerous sport here too. There are some food stalls, but there is no place to stay for the night. The beach can be reached with busses with destination Samas (via Bantul). You can go here with own transport, there is no parking service in Samas, but since it’s a small fishing village, there is nothing more than some polluted beaches and wilderness. It is for sure a lot more quiet than the beach of Parangtritis, especially during weekends.
Glagah
Glagah is a big black sandbeach southwest of Yogya, where a recreational park is to be built. Along the small inlets, shadow rich places form an ideal place for picknicking and just resting, while the fog over the low waves guarantees a very good sunset. The bamboo structures in the sea are fish-traps. Swimming is not allowed here too. There are some foodstalls, but there is no place to stay for the night. Glagah too, can be reached by busses with destination Glagah-Congot. It leaves from downtown Yogya.
Parangtritis
The notched rock formations and the fierce seas meet eachother on the black beach of Parangtritis, 28 kilometers south of Yogyakarta. It’s slamming waves, salty sea winds, humid nights and continuously changing black sand dunes make Parangtritis into a place of myths, mystics and meditation. Everywhere, beaches, lakes, paths, caves and burial sites tell their own stories. Watching over the fierce waves, the steep hills in the back, it looks like if the beach whispers stories to you about royal meetings, meditating hermits and lost lives.
On the beach, improvised sunshades give some protection against the burning hot sun. Strong sucking and pushing currents make swimming a life-treathening event on this beach. This is the domain of Ratu Kidul, the Queen of the Southern Sea, which doesn’t hesitate to make new victims for serving her underwater court. Ratu Kidul is attracted by green-yellow colors (gadung melati). On the beach Jawanese will never wear these clothes, it is strongly suggested that you don’t do that either when you visit these beaches.
The beach itself isn’t much to be proud of for the locals here. The beach has beautiful black sand, but it’s not cleaned at all. Paper, plastic and other junk lies scattered over the lower sand dunes. The waves regularly bring in new wood and bamboo, washing ashore from another nearby beach probably. Some wood is picked and taken away by locals to be used for their own house, but the remaining debris is never cleaned. People here just wait for another layer of sand to close it off again, or until a next freak wind takes it to a next beach again. This doesn’t make it a nice beach to walk around barefoot.
The story goes that Panembahan Senopati stayed with Ratu Kidul in the underwater palace, and she tought him about politics and the art of love. The unresistable goddess became his wife, just as she became with descendants of Senopati. She is still seen as the thriving force behind the royal families of Yogyakarta and Solo.
In Parangkusomo, one kilometer southwest of Parangtritis, is the place where Senopati rose from the sea again, it’s surrounded by a stone wall. The sultan of Yogyakarta brings his ritual sacrifices to Ratu Kidul at this place. Many Jawanese visit this place for help, good advice and to pray for mercy. The best moment for a visit is a Thursday evening, especially the one before Friday Kliwon; but you can go there always.
In many travel guides you will find a short description of the ‘Black Sand Dunes’ of Parangtritis. If you buy a map of Java, you will probabl find a star marking the spot as being a nice tourist attraction or a viewpoint. Both is much to high of a proper rating for this containerload of sand. These naturally formed dunes are not too large and are directly along the main road from Yogyakarta to Parangtritis.
Kaliurang
An ideal place to escape the tremendous heat of the plateau, is the mountain village of Kaliurang, located higher in the mountains, 24 kilometers north of the city of Yogyakarta, or about half an hour by car. At an altitude of about 900 metres on the southern side of the Merapi, it’s remarkably cool. When the weather is clear, hard to predict any way, the view is astonishing and the area is good for walking too.
The first, short route, leads to the Pronojiwo hill. The second ends after 2.5 kilometres at the seismologic station of Plawangan, which precisely looks at the activity of Merapi. The third route is the most serious one, it will take you to the crater of the vulcano, whenever it’s safe enough to go there.

Yogyakarta Palace Complex

nature reserve, proposed world heritage, yokjakarta, yokja, palace

nature reserve, proposed world heritage, yokjakarta, yokja, palace

Date of Submission: 19/10/1995
Criteria:
Category: Cultural
Submission prepared by:
Directorate General for Culture
Coordinates:
Yogyakarta Special Region
Ref.: 291

Karaton YOGYAKARTA

It is located in the center of the city of Yogyakarta or just Yogya as the local people call it. Karaton means a place where the Ratu-king lives, other word is Kedaton, with the same meaning. In the Javanese teachings, it has a deep philosophical meaning.

The architect designer of this palace was Sultan Hamengkubuwono I himself, who was also the founder of the kingdom of NGAYOGYAKARTA HADININGRAT. His skill in architecture was appreciated by the dutch scientist – DR. Pigeund and DR. Adam who adored him as ” the architect of his brother-Pakubuwono II of Surakarta”.

The first king moved to his huge and magnificent Karaton on October 7, 1756. Although there are some European style of some parts of the building, structurally this is the vivid example of Javanese palace architecture.

The 14.000 sq. m of the Karaton Yogya has deep philosophical meaning with all its building, courts, carving, trees, and location. This is a Karaton full of significant symbols of human life.

Usually visitors are coming from MALIOBORO STREET, southward through the Alun-alun (north square). In order to understand perfectly well the symbolic meaning of the Karaton, one should walk from south to north. Start from Krapyak, a village of about 3 km south of Karaton.

YOGYAKARTA TOUR

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Yogyakarta-02a-800

Walking on the Jalan Jenderal Sudriman crossing a bridge over a river or canal

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– Java Map and Trains

Java Map and Trains

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Car license numbers see Banten, West, Central and East Java.

Trains through Java

Java Map Trains

Java-Bali Overland

http://www.adventureindonesia.com/overland-java.htm

Duration: 15 Days/14 Nights
Starts/Ends: Jakarta/Bali
DAY 01 : JAKARTA – BANDUNG
Today, our guide will pick you up in the meeting point and start our overland journey to visit Bogor. Drive to Bogor, its about 2 hours drive and visiting Bogor Botanical Garden and Zoological Museum. After that continue to Bandung, on the way we will passing trought the huge tea plantation in Puncak Area, which has beautiful sightseeing “a green view” as well then overnight at hotel.
DAY 02 : BANDUNG (B)
After breakfast at hotel, you will have the free program for your own activity which you can enjoy to go shoping in Bandung Area the ” Paris Van Java ” or taste the kind of traditional food.
DAY 03 : BANDUNG (B)
After breakfast at Hotel, then visiting Tangkuban Perahu, a smoulderring 2000 m wide, surrealistic volcano 1800 above sea level. Then continued to Ciater Hot Spring with passing through the huge wonderful tea plantation. Here, you will have lunch and possible to take a bath in the hot natural water pool. Afternoon back to Bandung with stop at Padasuka village to enjoy the Angklung (traditional bamboo instrument)
performance at Saung Angklung Ujo. Overnight at Hotel.
DAY 04 : BANDUNG – PANGANDARAN (B)
Today we make our way to Pangandaran, a narrow isthmus with the best beaches on the south coast of java. We travel through fantastic scenary and reach the beach in late afternoon, just in time for a swim.
DAY 05 : PANGANDARAN FREE PROGRAM (B)
Today free own your leisure.
DAY 06 : FULL DAY TOUR PANGANDARAN (B)
Morning after breakfast, leave the hotel for a day excursion by visits Pangandaran national Park, home of hundreds “Long-tail Macaque”, Wild buffalo, Barking deer and other few species of animal. Country-side excursion to see the local people doing their daily activities. Visit “Green Canyon” one of the most famous tourist attraction in Pangandaran. Afterward return to hotel, rest of the day is free own your leisure.
DAY 07 : PANGANDARAN – JOGJAKARTA (B)
Drive to Jogjakarta after breakfast at hotel and on the way you can see the traditional houses, beautiful scenary of Java island. Overnight at hotel.
DAY 08 : JOGJAKARTA (B)
After breakfast at hotel visiting the magical temple of Borobudur, the largest Buddhist temple in Indonesia. It was built in the IX century. This huge Buddhist pyramid is a Buddhism’s largest shrine in Indonesia, built in the 9th century. After that visit the center of the Javanese Culture, the Sultan palace. It’s just like the Ka’bah for the Moslems. Here you can see the many kinds of heritage of the olden Mataram kingdom which is now become Jogjakarta. From the Palace, we will proceed to visit the factory of hand made batik factory. Here you can still see the clothes are being made manually. Jogjakarta is famous also of it’s silver ware which is still, until nowadays made manually. Free program in the afternoon to enjoy the life of the local Javanese friendly people.
DAY 09 : JOGJAKARTA – SOLO (B)
Today you will drive to Solo to visit Mangkunegaran Palace, Triwindhu Flea Market and Radya Pustaka Museum. On the way to Solo, visits the most beautiful hindu temple, Prambanan Temple. Then overnights in hotel
DAY 10 : SOLO – BROMO (B)
After breakfast, then to Bromo with stop to visit Trowulan, which is officially opened in 1987, it was built for the purpose of displaying and preserving the ever increasing number of historical treasures discovered in the vicinity of the old Majapahit capital, Bajang Ratu temple located in the hamlet of Kraton, not far from Candi Tikus, is one of Trowulan’s principal attractions. Restored to its present condition between the years 1985 and 1989, the site comprise the remains of an ancient ritual bathing place ( pertirtaan ) dating from the Majapahit period.
Day 11 : BROMO – LOVINA (B)
Start your journey at 04.00 am to enjoy the beauty of nature and the splendid sunrise at Mt. Penanjakan. Then proceed to Mt Bromo crater through the shimmering sea of sand. After breakfast and taking bath in hotel, we take a drive along the Anyer Panarukan road Skirting the pristine white beach Pasir Putih, we drive to Gilimanuk Pier on Bali Island, then drop to hotel for overnight.
Day 12 : LOVINA – UBUD (B)
Today your tour will go to Ubud area. Get your own activity
DAY 13 : UBUD – KUTA (B)
Today you will transfer to the famous Kuta Beach area. En route stop for Barong Dance Performance and visit Alas Kedaton, the monkey forest then after a short walk to enjoy the monkey naughty performance we will take you to one of our famous sea temple at Tanah Lot where you can see poisonus snake at the temple and beautifull sunset. ( B )
DAY 14 : KUTA FREE (B)
You have your own activity to enjoy the Kuta beach.
DAY 15 : KUTA OUT (B)
After breakfast at hotel you will go to airport for your next destination.

Banten and Sangiang Map

Banten and Sangiang Map

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java, jawa, banten, , mining, natural recources, nature reserves, plantations

Sunda Strait Bridge

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java, jawa, banten, , mining, natural recources, nature reserves, plantations

http://www.bluefame.com/lofiversion/index.php/t119372.html

Banten Java, Badui, banten

Car license number A

Badui People

The Baduy, who call themselves Kanekes, are a traditional community living in the western part of the Indonesian province of West Java. Their population of between 5,000 and 8,000 is centered in the Kendeng mountains at an elevation of 300-500 meters above sea level. Their homeland in West Java is contained in just 50 km² of hilly forest area 120 km from Jakarta, Indonesia’s megalopolis of high-rises and fast cars. The Baduy are divided into two sub-groups; the Baduy Dalam (Inner Baduy), and the Baduy Luar (Outer Baduy). No foreigners were allowed to meet the Inner Baduy, though the Outer Baduy do foster some limited contacts with the outside world.
More info Wikipedia :http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Badui
The Badui area covers more than 5,100 hectares of land and is separated into two parts, outer Badui and inner Badui with the closest inner Badui village of Cibeo 12 kilometers away from Ciboleger village. Both accept visitors cordially, but the outer area has more contact with outsiders and is thus more open to travelers.

The path to the Badui village starts in Ciboleger, a gateway to the Badui because of its proximity to Kadu Ketug, an outer Badui kampong. Ciboleger is a couple of hours’ drive away from the Rangkas Bitung turnpike exit.

On the way from Ciboleger to Kadu Ketug, stores selling souvenirs like songket (woven cloth), traditional bags made of tree bark, and grocery shops surround a steep but smooth path that leads to a big stone monument marked with a map of the Badui area. A nearby sign lists dos and don’ts for travelers and welcomes those entering Kadu Ketug, a relatively modern outer Badui kampong with 35 houses and shops that sell daily goods like coffee and cigarettes.

Some of their rules prohibit modern inventions like guitars, video cameras and sound recorders. One rule prohibits the use of soap and toothpaste in rivers.

All traces of modernity disappear past the big stone monument and all the brick houses and neon lights turn into small rattan walled huts and oil-filled lanterns.

Not too far from the monument is the house of Badui village chief Jaro Dainah. He is the liaison between the outside world and the Badui people. All travelers who want to enter the Badui villages must pay homage to him.

“All travelers must also pay homage to each kampong chief,” said Jaro Dainah.

Seventeen people have signed his guestbook this month and many
of them have spent a night or two in his hut.

“We get a lot of visitors during the middle of the year, after or before that we just get occasional hikers and students,” he said.

His hut, like many other Badui huts, is a rumah panggung, a house built on wooden stilts placed on rocks or dug into the ground. Layers of thick bamboo shoots make up the floor that, according to Badui customs, must remain above the ground, while tiers of sugar palm leaves tied to the top of the wooden stilts act as the roof.

Further behind his house is a mountain trail leading into more Badui kampongs that can take a whole day to traverse. The Badui people live on a mountain in small homes surrounded by forests and small rice fields and they live independently from the outside world, although they occasionally venture out to other cities like Bandung and Jakarta to sell their handicrafts, brown sugar and honey. Even so, the Badui reject motorized vehicles as well as footwear and always move around barefoot while in the kampong.

Despite the challenging way of life, the Badui exude a tough but calm demeanor as portrayed by Jaro Saidi, chief of the Kadu Keteur kampong, who is also the leader of all kampong chiefs. The farmer — who claims to be 100 years old — looks like he is still in his 80s and is still going strong, something that he may have acquired from living the Badui lifestyle.

Banten Java, Badui, banten

Banten Java, Badui, bantenBanten Java, Badui, banten

Banten Java, Badui, banten

Banten Java, Badui, banten

Minerals and Mining

Mine Companies


Camco Omya Quarry
Cipicung mine, Cikotok Gold District
Cippangleseran mine, Cikotok Gold District
Cirotan mine, Cikotok Gold District
Citotok mine, Cikotok Gold District
Kali Maya
Sopal mine, Cikotok Gold District

Proposed World Heritages

Banten Ancient City Bantrn West Java

nature reserve, banten, fort

nature reserve, banten, fort

Date of Submission: 19/10/1995
Criteria:
Category: Cultural
Submission prepared by:
Directorate General for Culture
Coordinates:
West Java
Ref.: 286
This town serves as a reminder of the Banten Sultanate, a powerful Islamic Empire in the 12th-15th century. During its heyday around the 16th century, the old harbor operated as Southeast Asia’s biggest port. The artifacts displayed in the Archeological Site Museum, along with ancient buildings such as Surosowan Palace, Kaibon Palace and Banten Grand Mosque offer an intriguing peek into the past. The 17th-century Fort Speelwijk provides testimony to Dutch occupation. Locals and visitors mingle in the old town square, where souvenirs and handicrafts are sold. Northeastward lies Pulau Dua, a bird sanctuary all nature lovers should explore
Banten, for a long time one of the most important and largest harbours of the world.

Banten is a very interesting place to visit. It has the remains of old palaces, a beautiful mosque (the minaret it also a lighthouse, how symbolic!), and an old Dutch fort and a harbour. In the sixteenth century the harbour of Banten was probably larger and more important then the harbour of Amsterdam. Merchants from Malacca, Vietnam, India, China, Portugal, England and the Dutch Republic came to do business here.

When the Dutch came to Indonesia for trade, they had a lot of problems with the English, who were already in Banten and had a good relationshop with the Sultan. The Dutch decided to built their own city, just a bit further on the island of Java: Batavia, nowadays also known as Jakarta.

Central Java map info

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Central Java Map, java, jawa, tengah, mining, natural recources, nature reserves, plantations

Minerals and Mining

Mineral cultivation also adds the export value, and this mainly cement raw material, identified that raw material contents such as in Wonogiri Regency (138,289 million tons), Blora (3,483 million tons), Grobogan (4,025 million tons), Kebumen (17,000 million tons), Pati (1,353 million tons), and Rembang (1,313 million tons). All of this is not geothermal potential yet which is in Semarang Regency.

Car license numbers:
G: Pekalongan, Tegal, Brebes, Batang, Pemalang.
H: Semarang, Salatiga, Kendal, Demak.
K: Pati, Kudus,Jepara, Rembang, Blora,Grobogan.
R: Banyumas, Cilacap, Purbalingga, Banjarnegara.
AA: Kedu, Magelang, Purworejo, Kebumen, Temanggung, Wonosobo.
AB: Yokyakarta, Bantul, Kidul, Sleman, Kulon Progo.
AD: Surakarta, Sukoharjo, Boyolali, Sragen, Karanganyar, Wonogiri, Klaten.

World Heritages in Central Java

Borobudur Temple Compounds

Borobudur, Temple , world heritage
Borobudur, Temple , world heritage
Borobudur, Temple , world heritage

Borobudur World Heritage and Treasures

http://gunarto.org/

Borobudur temple is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world. This colossal relic of Borobudur was built by Sailendra dynasty between 778 to 842 AD; 300 years before Cambodia’s Angkor Wat, and 400 years before work had begun on the great European cathedrals. Little is known about its early history except that a huge workforce – sculptors, artists, statue and carving experts – must have been labored to move and carved the 55,000 cubic meters of stone. This Borobudur historic site is a cultural legacy and becomes major sources of Indonesian culture, which is located about 40 km north of Jogjakarta City in central part of Java island.

Sir Thomas Stanford Raffles revealed the temple in 1815. He found the temple in wined condition and buried under volcanic ash. He ordered an archeologist, H.C. Cornelius to excavate and clear the site from undergrowth and do thorough investigation. More than 200 laborers were occupied for 45 days to uncover and remove earth, bushes, and trees which buried the historic temple. The massive restoration project began from 1907 to 1911 led by Dr. Tb. van Erp. Later, with the help of UNESCO, the second restoration to rescue Borobudur was carried out from 1973 to 1983. Since then, it becomes UNESCO World Heritage and Treasures.

Prambanan Temple Compounds

prambanan,, Temple , world heritage

prambanan,, Temple , world heritage

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prambanan

Prambanan is the largest Hindu temple compound in Central Java in Indonesia, located approximately 18 km east of Yogyakarta.

The temple is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the largest Hindu temples in south-east Asia. It is characterised by its tall and pointed architecture, typical of Hindu temple architecture, and by the 47m high central building inside a large complex of individual temples.

Sangiran Early Man Site

sangiran , world heritage

http://anthropology.si.edu/humanorigins/ha/sang2.html

Sangiran represents one of the most important early human fossil sites in Indonesia. Excavated in the late 1930’s, and again after the completion of World War II by G.H.R. von Koenigswald, the remains of over forty individuals have been found there. Von Koenigswald, followed Dubois in placing most of the fossils species Pithecanthropus erectus. It was reassigned to Homo erectus along with the rest of the Javanese material.

Pictures

http://www.pbase.com/rileyuni/sangiran

Info Sangiran Early Man Site

http://www.unesco.or.id/activities/culture/77.php

Proposed World Heritage

Dieng Temples Compound Central Java

nature reserve, proposed world heritage, dieng
nature reserve, proposed world heritage, dieng
Criteria Requirements – Heritage
Uniqueness and characteristics of heritage The Dieng is situated in the north-west of Central Java. It is a plateau or valley, about 2000 metres above sea-level, well-known both as an archaeological and a natural landmark. Its famous sulphurous springs and lake will at an Early date have marked the barren plateau, surrounded by mountain, as a sacred spot, to be dedicated to a god of the mountains. Therefore the name of Dieng (Dang Hyang) is the name of the mountain of God. The Panoramic view and the diversities of culture in Dieng temples has encourage the government of the Republic of Indonesia in collaboration with the local government and all stakeholders to prepare the site of Dieng as the priority site to be nominated list in the Asean Tourism Heritage Standard
Site Protection and Conservation

* Management of Cultural Property in Indonesia is under the Law number 5, 1992 concerning Item of Cultural Property.
* Governmental Decree Number 10, 1993 concerning the Implementation of Law Number 5, 1992
* Ministry of Education and Culture Decree Number 062,063,064/U/1995
* The partners in the protection and conservation of the heritage not only by the government but also in collaboration with the stakeholders especially the local community, privat organisation

Tourism and site Management Wide variety of stakeholder from the central, regional and local government participated in research, conservation, and restoration and promote of the cultural properties of Dieng Plateau namely:

* The Office of Archaeologlical Heritage Conservation in Prambanan,Central Java
* The Directorate of Archaeological Heritage
* The Centre of Archaeological Research and Development
* Archaeological Research Office in Yogyakarta
* Board of Education and Culture of the Central Java Province
* Board of Tourism of the Wonosobo Regency
* Etc
* In all the site there are sign and notice-board plans showing the layout of the heritage so the visitor can chose his self to the most important treasures.
* There also some souvenir vendors which lies not far from the sites so they should not to distract and confused visitors.

Environmental Management Nowadays, the archaeological site of Dieng plateau is protected under the National Law and Governmental Decree. Each sites within this area has been protected by zoning system in which divided into the core zone, buffer zone and development zone.Conservation management is controlled by the Office of Archaeological Heritage Conservation in Prambanan, Central Java. In addition to protect the natural environment there are also the Office of Forestry for preserve the Wonosobo National park.
Accessibility
The location of Dieng Temples compound and each of their site can be access in many ways both from Jogyakarta and semarang by bus or motor cycle
Support Facilities Some facilities for the traveller already support on site such as hotel, motel, souvenir vendor, etc.

The Dieng people they have attitude very familiar to the visitor and each visitor will be welcomed as personally as possible so their visit to the heritage can enjoynable. In the meantime, sign and notice-board be placed in the strategic point with the result the visitor can be easily to find their location.

Ratu Boko Temple Complex Central Java

nature reserve, proposed world heritage, ratu boko

nature reserve, proposed world heritage, ratu boko

Date of Submission: 19/10/1995
Criteria:
Category: Cultural
Submission prepared by:
Directorate General for Culture
Coordinates:
Yogyakarta Special Region
Ref.: 287

King Boko Palace, the Glory on a Peaceful Hill

King Boko Palace was a glorious building that was constructed during the reign of Rakai Panangkaran, descendant of Sailendra dynasty. The palace that initially was named Abhayagiri Vihara (that means a monastery on a peaceful hill) was built for seclusion purpose and to focus on spiritual life. From this palace, you will feel peace and will be able to see Yogyakarta city and Prambanan temple with Merapi Mountain as the background.

This palace is located 196 meters above the sea level. The area of the palace as wide as 250,000 m2 is divided into four, namely center, west, southeast, and east parts. The center part consists of the main gateway, square, Combustion Temple, pond, square terrace and assembly hall. Meanwhile, the southeast part includes hall, platform, three temples, pond, and a complex for princess. The caves, Buddha effigy, and a pond are in east part while the west part consists of hills only.

If you enter from the palace gateway, you will directly be guided to the center part. Two high gates will welcome you. The first gate has three entrances while the second one has five. If you look it in detail, you will read ‘Panabwara’ writing on the first gate. Based on Wanua Tengah III inscription, the word was written by Rakai Panabwara (the descendant of Rakai Panangkaran) who took over the palace. The intention of carving his name on the gate was to legitimate his authority, to give ‘power’ to the gate in order to look more glorious and to give sign that the building was the main building.

About 45 meters away from the second gate, you will see a temple made of white stones so that it was named Candi Batu Putih or Temple of White Stones.

Close to the place, you will also find Combustion Temple. The temple is of square form (measuring 26 meter x 26 meter) with two terraces. The function of the temple is to burn dead body as the name suggests. Around 10 meters away from the Combustion Temple, there are sacred terrace and a pond.

A mysterious well will be seen if you walk southeastward of the Combustion Temple. As the legend tells, the well was named Amerta Mantana that means sacred water treated with charms. At present time, the water of Amerta well is still used. The legend tells that the water brings luck for anyone who uses it. Hindu people use it in Tawur Agung ceremony, one day before the Nyepi day. Using water in the ceremony is believed to support the achievement of the objective, namely to self purify and to return the earth and its content to its initial harmony. YogYES suggests that you visit Prambanan temple one day before Nyepi day to see the ceremony process.

Moving to the eastern part of the palace, you will see two caves, big pond measuring 20 meters x 50 meters and Buddha effigy that sits quietly. Those two caves were formed of sediment stones. The upper cave is called Gua Lanang (Male Cave) and the lower cave is called Gua Wadon (Female Cave). Right in front of Gua Lanang, there is a pond and three effigies. Based on the research, the effigy is known as Aksobya, one of Buddha Pantheons.

Even though it was built by a Buddhist, there are Hindu elements in it. This can be seen from the presence of Lingga and Yoni, Ganesha statue, and golden plate with the writing “Om Rudra ya namah swaha” on it as form of worship to Rudra as the other name of Shiva. The Hindu elements proved religious tolerance that is reflected in architectural works. In fact, Rakai Panangkaran who embraced Buddhism lived side by side with Hindu people.

Not many people know that this palace is witness of the initial triumph in Sumatera land. Balaputradewa once fled to this palace before leaving for Sumatra when he was struck by Rakai Pikatan. Balaputradewa rebelled because he felt to be second person in the reign of Old Mataram Kingdom because of Rakai Pikatan’s marriage to Pramudhawardani (Balaputradewa’s sister). After his defeat and escape to Sumatra, he became the king of Sriwijaya Kingdom.

As a heritage building, King Boko Palace is different from other inheritances. Most of other buildings are in the forms of temple or shrine, while this place – as the name implies – shows characteristics of a dwelling place. This can be known from the wooden poles and roofs, even though we can only see remains of stone building. Investigate the palace in more details and you will know more. One of them is the beautiful scenery when the sun is setting in the west. An American tourist says, “This is the most beautiful sunset on earth.”

Sukuh Hindu Temple Central/East Java

nature reserve, proposed world heritage, sukuh

nature reserve, proposed world heritage, sukuh

nature reserve, proposed world heritage, sukuh

Date of Submission: 19/10/1995
Criteria:
Category: Cultural
Submission prepared by:
Directorate General for Culture
Coordinates:
Central Java
Ref.: 295

Candi Sukuh , candi is the Indonesian word for temple) is a fifteenth century Javanese-Hindu temple that is located on the western slope of Mount Lawu (elev. 910 m or 3,000 feet (910 m) above sea level) on the border between Central and East Java provinces.

Candi Sukuh has a distinctive thematic reliefs from other candi where life before birth and sexual education are its main theme. Its main monument is a simple pyramid structure with reliefs and statues in front of it, including three tortoises with flattened shells and a male figure grasping his penis. A giant 1.82 m (6 ft) high of lingga (phallus) with four balls, representing penile incisions,was one of the statues that has been relocated to the National Museum of Indonesia.
History
The founder of Candi Sukuh thought that the slope of Mount Lawe is a sacred place for worshiping the ancestors, nature spirits and the observance of the fertility cults.[2] The monument was built around 1437, as written as a chronogram date on the western gate, meaning that the area was under the rule of the Majapahit Kingdom during its end (1293–1500). It is unknown whether the construction of the temple was related to the decline of the kingdom. Some archaeologists, however, believe the founder had cast the fall of Majapahit, based on the reliefs that displaying the feud between two aristrocratic houses symbolizing two internal conflicts in the kingdom.
In 1815, Sir Thomas Raffles, the ruler of Java during 1811–1816, visited the temple and he found the temple in a bad condition. In his account, there were many statues that had been thrown down on the ground and most of the figures had been decapitated. Raffles also found the giant lingga statue broken into two pieces which was then glued together.
The architecture of Candi Sukuh differs completely from other candi from the Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit periods. Unlike meticulous design and reliefs, Candi Sukuh has a simple truncated pyramid as its main monument, surrounded by monoliths and life-sized figures. At glance, the monument architecture reminds visitors of Maya architecture.
Candi Sukuh contains a pervasive theme of spiritual liberation symbolized by reliefs and statues. There is an obvious depiction of sexual intercourse in a relief on the floor at the entrance where it shows a paired lingga (phallus) and yoni (vagina).
On the wall of the main monument there is a relief portraying two men forging a weapon in a smithy with a dancing figure having a human body and the head of an elephant. There is no textual source for the iconography of the relief where its depiction is incongruous with traditional ancestor worship. In Hindu-Java mythology, the smith is thought to possess not only the skill to alter metals, but also the key to spiritual transcendence.[4] Smiths drew their powers to forge a kris from the god of fire; and a smithy is considered as a shrine. Hindu-Javanese kingship was sometimes legitimated and empowered by the possession of a kris.
The elephant head figure with a crown in the smithy relief depicts Ganesha, the god of obstacles in Hinduism. The Ganesha figure, however, differs completely with other usual depictions. Instead of sitting, the Ganesha figure in Candi Sukuh’s relief is shown dancing and it has distinctive features including the exposed genitals, the demonic physiognomy, the strangely awkward dancing posture, the rosary bones on its neck and holding a small animal probably a dog. The Ganesha relief in Candi Sukuh has a similarity with the Tantric ritual found in the history of Buddhism in Tibet written by Taranatha.[4] The Tantric ritual is associated with several figures, one of whom is described as the “King of Dogs”, who taught his disciples by day, and by night performed Ganacakra (Gana means Ganesha and cakra means wheel/dance) in a burial ground.
In front of the main monument there are a number of statues. A 1.82 m (6 ft) height of standing lingga with four balls placed below the tip was one of the statues (it is now in the National Museum of Indonesia). The lingga statue has a dedicated inscription carved from top to bottom representing a vein followed by a chronogram date equivalent to 1440. The inscription translates “Consecration of the Holy Ganga sudhi in … the sign of masculinity is the essence of the world.”[2] Reliefs of a kris blade, an eight-pointed sun and a crescent moon decorate the statue.
Other statues in Candi Sukuh include a life-sized male figure with his hand grasping his own penis and three flattened shells of tortoises. Two large tortoise statues guard the pyramid entrance and the third one lies at some distance in front of the monument. All of their heads point to the west and their flattened shells may provide altars for purification rituals and ancestor worship.[2] In Hindu mythology, the tortoise symbolizes the base of the world.

East Java map info

East Java map and info

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Maps, Resorts, East  Java, jawa timur, Indonesia, tours, culture, ceremonies, art, tribal art, trekking,bromo, travelling, , java, jawa, , mining, natural recources, nature reserves, plantations

 

Minerals and Mining

One of natural resources potentials which is produced is mining sector, with mining area’s width reach 10,992.86 ha, production amount which is produced is 29,458,718.76 tons per year. Production type which is produced from mining sector such as: mountain stone/ andesite with production 55,255.00 tons per year; sand with production 2,003,432.92 ton per year; limestone with production 16,311,268.00 tons per year; feldspar with production 198,094.18 tons per year; kaolin with production 1,868,683.00 tons per year; dolomite with production 456,681.52 tons per year; marble with production 1,177,864.00 tons per year; quartz-sand with production 62,973.40 tons per year, bentonite with production 16,600.00 tons per year; fill land with production 74,141.00 tons per year; trass with production 80,225 tons per year; sand/ stone gravel with production 7,075,176.87 tons.
In East Java, Indonesia lies Kawah Ijen volcano, 2,600 meters tall (8,660ft), topped with a large caldera and a 200-meter-deep lake of sulfuric acid. The quietly active volcano emits gases through fumaroles inside the crater, and local miners have tapped those gases to earn a living. Stone and ceramic pipes cap the fumaroles, and inside, the sulfur condenses into a molten red liquid, dripping back down and solidifying into pure sulfur. Miners hack chunks off with steel bars, braving extremely dangerous gases and liquids with minimal protection, then load up as much as they can carry for the several kilometers to the weighing station. Loads can weigh from 45 to 90kg (100 – 200 lbs), and a single miner might make as many as two or three trips in a day. At the end of a long day, miners take home approximately Rp50,000 ($5.00 u.s.). The sulfur is then used for vulcanizing rubber, bleaching sugar and other industrial processes nearby.

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Car license numbers:
L: Surabaya.
M: Madura,.
N: Malang, Probolingo, Pasuruan, Lumajang, Batu.
P: Besuki, Bondowoso, Situbondo, Jember, Banyuwangi.
S, Bojonegoro, Mojokerto, Tuban, Lamongan, Jombang.
W: Sidoarjo, Gresik.
AE: Madiun, Ngawi, Magetan, Ponorogo, Pacitan.
AG: Kediri, Blitar, Tulungagung, Nganjuk, Trenggalek.

Surabaya

http://indahnesia.com/indonesia/JAWSUR/surabaya.php

The main point of East Jawa is located at the northern coast, in Surabaya: a rising industrial and commercial centre, and the second largest city in Indonesia. With it’s three milion residents this factory-, and seaport city has developed into the economical capital of entire Eastern Indonesia. The seaport ( Tanjung Perak’e.g. Cape Silver ) is a crossing of trade between the eastern islands of the archipelago and the seaports in the west, a role which Surabaya filled for centuries already. Partly as a result of softening rules the industry as well as the service sector grew tremendously. The famous poor sight of the city is disappearing more rapidly, and is being replaced by that of a metropolis. It even looks like if it will get back it’s important status of most important centre of trade and industry in the entire archipelago; a position it lost to Jakarta after the Second World War. In contrary to Jakarta, with it’s mixture of cultures, Surabaya is an real Jawanese city. Other than In Solo and Yogyakarta, the Jawanese in Surabaya mainly originate from the pasisir ( the coast, the bordr area ) and they belong on the whole to the santri, a more orthodox stream in the Islam.
Original inhabitants are called Ar穠Suroboyo in Jawanese. They are free, proud and sometimes a little simpleminded. The city has a faster pace and a more cosmopolitan look on life than the hinterland, cultivated by centuries of contacts with traders from overseas.
People have little interest in the fuss and etiquette of the royal cities; Surabays is a commecial centere and it’s society reasonable egalitarian. Surabaya has little to offer to tourists, but lovers of the sparkling and busy nightlife can enjoyt this city, especially when they look beneath the surface. Who really wants to enjoy the city has just to copy the middle class; a small walk to the evening market of the shopping mall. Public happenins are an extremely good moment to meet, at watch, other people.
The story of the shark and the crocodile
The name Surabaya originates from a stoey about a fight between sura ( a shark ) and a baya ( a crocodile ). In that fight they united and formed the character S, which can be found at the back of the Monument of the Heroes, on the city arms. Another explaination is saya ing baya, a Jawanese proverb; ‘brave in the face of fear’. With this the aj穠Suroboyo are meant, which offered strong resistance against the fierce attack of sultan Agung. But just as well this proverb can be used fo the people who fought in the later revolution.
It’s not exactly known when Surabaya was founded, but in the seventies the city council declared 31 May 1293 as the big dag. Historically this was the dat at which the Chinese-Mongolian troops were conquerred by Raden Wijaya and he founded the empire of Majapahit. The harbour developped from a small village at the banks of a brackish side-rivers of the Brantas. Maybe this is a declaration of it’s Chinese name, Sishui, which means ‘muddy water’. Chinese sources report that the city was ‘the gate to the mighty Brantas, the main route which leads to the inlands of Jawa’.
During the good period of Majapahid in the 14th century Surabaya had a lower position compared with the near seaports of Tuban and Gresik. Until the first half of the 19th century, the seaport of Pasuran even was bigger. The city got more fame when it held strong against the aggresion of Mataram, Madura and the VOC threathened to invade Surabaya, in the 17th and 18th century. Leaders of resistance like Trunojoyo ( a disloyal prince from Madura ), Sawunggaling ( a local hero ) and Untung Surapati ( a rebelling Baltic slave ) brought huge losses to the Dutch and Mataram.
Eventually the city was lost to the VOC, except of the quarters near the harbour where European, Chinese and other Asian traders lived, it was no more than a Jawanese kampung until the turn of the century, houses of wood and bamboo. As many other cities on Jawa Surabaya got it’s colonial looks only after 1900; big stone buildings besides green and wide lanes, most of the times close to the kampungs, when they didn’t have to dissappear. Even now people speak about ‘the people from the wide lanes’ and from ‘the people from the small alleys’.
City centre
Just like Jakarta, Surabaya developed around the harbour, and gradulately grew southwards. A visit to the city normally starts in the new commercial and governmental centre around Jalan Tunjungan and Jalan Pemuda, a fast developing, smaller version of Jalan Thamrin – Sudirman – Gatot Subroto, the main archer in Jakarta.
Point of recognition dfor Jalan Tunjungan is Hotel Majapahit, the former ‘Oranje Hotel’. At this place the flag-incident took place in September 1945, the spark in the revolutionair barrel of gunpowder of the city. With just across Hotel Sarkies, at Jalan Embong Malang, the corner forms the lost colonial history, with at the eastern side the former private club Deutsche Verein at Jalan Gentengkali, now known as Balai Sahabat.This place offers a good Chinese restaurant, also accessible for non-members. At this street is also the cultural centre, Taman Budaya for expositions and shows. In the morning students practice classical dances. The complex was used for the bupati ( regent ) until the seventies.
At Jalan Dolog is a statue of king Kertanagara in his incarnation of the Bhuddha Asokbhya. The from Malang originating statue was taken to Surabaya earlier. The feet carried the date 1289. Jawanese still honour the statue, that is locally know as ‘Joko Dolog’ ( fat boy ).
More to the east, at Jalan Pemuda, is Grahadi, the official residence of the governor of East Jawa, once the stately residence house. From the road the back of the building can just be seen; at the front if a small canal. In this quarter transport over water was very common. The statue of Soerju, the first governot of East Jawa, dresses up the park across Grahadi.
East of this is the Balai pemuda, built in 1907 as the Simpang Club. It was rebuilt into a luxury cinema and exhibition room of Surabaya. More north, in the middle of a traffic island is a statue of Sudirman, commander-in-chief of the Indonesian revolutionary troops. Here is also the city house, built by the Dutch, which offered a view over the Taman Surya park. The nearby ice-cream salon Zangrandi with it’s colonial air it’s a part of the city. More to the east at Jalan Pemuda is one of the biggest malls in Southeast Asia. Across are food stalls and the river market at Jalan Kayoon; you can buy semi precious stones, in gold and silver if you like.
Further south, at the other bank of the river is Jalan Irian Barat, at night a famous place for transvestites, the only place in entire Indonesia where the waria( fake woman ) are illegal. Along Jalan Keputran ( Prince Street ) many vegetable traders collected at night, futher south, where Jalan Keputran changes into Jalan Dinoyo, is a Chinese temple where on special Thursdays wayang kulit shows are given.
Old city
North of the triangle Jalan Tunjungan – Pemuda – Kaliasin are the old quarters of Surabaya. On Jalan Pahlawan is the Monument of the Heroes ( Tugu Pahlawan ) dating back to the fifties. It is built for the bravery of the youghts of Surabaya during the battle of Surabaya. At this famous Surabaya got it’s nickname ‘City of Heroes’. East of the square is the colonial governors house which partially dates back to the thirties.
From here the route goed back in time. Walk towards the north over Jalan Veteran ( used to be Jalan Niaga, the colonial buildings date from the 1920’s ) to Jembatan Merah, the Red Bridge, in the centre of the former trading quarter. The color of the bridge came from the fight between the shark and the crocodile, at least, that’s the story.
Jalan Kembang Jepun ( ‘Japanese Flowers’ ), east of the bridge got it’s name because of the houses with Japanses prostitutes ( karayuki-san ). Now it’s a business district, and also the centre of Surabaya’s big Chinese quarter. Just south of the Kembang Jepun at Jalan Sompretan is the Hok An Kiong temple, built in the 18th century by Chinese traders to honour Mazu, the proctection goddess of the sailors.
The only pure confucian temple of Indonesia, built in 1907, is at Jalan Kapasan. The Sunday mass is similar to the Christian mass; this influence dates back to the turn of the last century when Chinese students of Chinese missionaries reformed the population.
In this neighborhood is also the Klenteng Bukuh ( Hok Tik Hian ) where daily shows are given with handdolls from Fukien ( potehi ). The accultation is big, the players – which speak Hokkien – and the musicians who are mainly Jawanese. The parking attendant who sells the dolls is from Madura.
An even more crazy example of the blending of religion and culture in Surabaya is Jalan Panggung, where old Chinese totok’s are besided Islamic houses of prayer. Walking among other people you will arrive at Pasar Pabean, an enormous market where traders trade in goods from the countryside, seafood, spices, perfumes and semi gems, like it has gone fot centuries.
Further north the Jalan Kyai Mas Mansyur takes you directly to the past of Surabaya: the heart of the Arabic quarter, whith a kashba-air. The gate which dresses up Jalan Ampel Suci leads to the Mesjid Sunan Ampel, the oldest mosques of the city. The grave of the namer of the mosque is at the back, Sunan Ampel, one of the nine legendaric heroes wali which the Islam took to Jawa in the 15th century.
Just north of the Arabic quarter is the historical harbour Kali Mas. For centuries it was visited by sailboats from all over the archipelago. Even now the rubust pinisi-ships from South Sulawesi can be seen here. They anchor on the two kilometre wide quay west of the modern seaport area Tasnjung Perak, not open for public.
Jalan Kapasari ( bach to Jalan Kapasan and then right ) has a flea market which attracts many vistors on Sundays.
More south the street is names Jalan Kasumabansa; here is the THR, Surabaya’s centre of shopping and enjoyment for the big audience. Covered- and outside theathres bring traditional dance, and modern music to ythe visitors. Besides is Taman Remaja Surabaya ( Surabaya Youthpark ), a non stop pasar. Very interesting is the show of transvestites which is held on Thursday evenings. With their best voices they sing songs on which young guys try to dance. Suburbs
At the most remote Southeastern corner of the city, at the end of Jalan Kenjeran, is Pantai Ria Kenjeran, Kenjeran Beach. There is no beach in the area and the new amusement park has changed into a love hotel, but in the old park there certainly is good seafood for sale. It’s in the middle of the Madurese fishing villages, which hold birding contests as a popular game of gambling; illegal, but inexstinctable.
South and West of the Kenjeran, past the campus of the Institut Teknologi Surabaya ( ITS ), is a flamboyant nouveau riche quarter. On scheduled times the Indonesia-America Friendschip Association holds art expositions. At Toko Miroto good collections of arts and crafts can be found.
At the Southern egde of Surabya, besides Jalan Raya Darmo, the Dutch built an elegant quarter at the start of the 20th century. At Jalan Taman Mayangkera 6 is the Mpu Tantular Museum, placed in the house of the former representative of the ‘Javaansche Bank’ ( Jawanese Bank ). It has a small but important historical and archeological collection. Across the museum is the Kebun Binatant, one of the oldest and biggest zoo’s in Southeastern Asia, with among the animals the Komodo Dragons and river dolphins from Kalimantan.
The way back to the centre takes you along Jalan Diponegoro to the busy crossing with Jalan Girilaya. Here is the famous brothel Dolly’s, named after the lady whi started the sex-industry in this quarter in the 1960’s. This red-light-disctrict gives a sobering view on the blending of normal housed, houses of prayer and brothels.

Malang

Malang was a popular stay for colonials. The city had a cool climate and is located on a nice, with vulcanoes surrounded plauteau, 450 metres above the pressing heat of the lowlands. In the east the active Gunung Semeru dominates the view; the Gunung Anjasmoro, Arjuna and Penderman in the north are covered with hotels and holiday places. Southwest of the city is the mystical Gunung Kawi, where pilgrims pray for prosperity.
Following the Dinoyo-inscription from 760 a kingdom flourished at the location of the current city; in the area there are many old objects. The modern Malang is an colonial city though. The growth started after 1870, when Europeans built coffe-, rubber, and cacao plantations and the sugar industry of the government started to grow. The wealth attracted more and more Dutch. They built houses in the city, and holiday house in the mountains of Batu, Selekta and Lawang.
The alun-alun of Malang was constructed in 1882 following the standard pattern; at it’s border a market, a mosque, a prison and regents house. Later the Europeans built the house of the assisting resident, the Protestant church and later a bank building and a society. In 1914 a new city centre across the River Kali Brantas was constructed around a square at it’s centre. At the same time a new quarter north of the city was built, complete with wide lanes and big trees. The colonial feeling can still be felt around here.
The good, 90 kilometre road from Surabaya to Malang takes you to the
botanical garden of Purwodadi
, an department of the Kebun Raya Bogor. The garden, where the beautifull Baung-falls are, stretches all the way to the lower hills of the Arjuna. The imposant Jugendstil hotels Niagara, which is said to be haunted, was designed for a rich Chinese in 1911 by the Brasillian architect Pinitu.
Malang is a good place to view at a good walk. The Balai Kota Malang, the city house at Jalan Tugu is the best point for a start. On the big, round square with the mahony trees for the shade.
The Splendid Inn at Jalan majapahit used to be a landhouse; in 1973 it was rebuilt into a hotel.
Toko Oen. Since the father of the current owner opened the store at the end of the 1930’s, on the inside nothing changed. Tourists and ladies from Malang buy fresh bread and nice cakes there, though it’s closed on Mondays.
Besides the western road of the alun-alun is the reformed church and just a little ahead the most important mosque of the city. In the southwestern corner of the square is Hotel Pelangi, the former Palace Hotel. Dutch tiles decorate the walls of the coffeehop. At the southern side of the square is a main kantor pos post office. It’s a gathering point for street sellers of food, toys and sellers who try to sell medicines to passers-by.
Colonial suburbs
Holiday places
Twenty kilometres west of Malang are the holiday places of Batu en Selekta, which are from the Dutch times. The old colonial buildings and the modern weekend vill;a’s belong to the rich of Malang and Surabaya.
The main road from Malang to the northwest leads to Dinoyo, with a good pottery industry.
A turn to the right takes you to Selekta. The bumby road climbc up along villas and impressivee trees towards Hotel Selekta. The hotel, once an exclusive place of relaxation,
The village of Sumber Brantas is just ahead, near the sources of the Brantas river. The road full of holes climbc to the vegetable nurseries and forested ravains over which is a cool fogg.
Past the pass are untouched hot sources of the Canggar, a well-known spot among youths.
Back on the main road appear dozens of warung when you near the small city of batu. Various kinds of vegetables are sold; the area is well-known for its vegetables. The holiday hotels are past Batu, hold a rest at Amsterdam restaurant.
West of Batu starts Songgoriti, a place of holiday. Near Candi Songgoriti are the hot suplhur sources and the recreation park Tirtanirwana with swimming pools, playgrounds and a fishing pond. The main road with hairpin curves climbs along Gunung Panderman. This path ends at a small densely forested claft with a 60 metre high fall Cuban Rondo.
Back on the main road the route takes you to sawahs, some falls and closed, mountainous rainforest to the cities of Pare and Kediri in the lowlands. At the border of the forest, 28 kilometres from Malang, is the swimming pool of Dewi Sri. Here the road descents towards Ngantang and the Selorejo-reservoir ( 43 kilometres from Malang ), loved by watersporters.
The southern coast
60 Kilometres south of Malang are the beached of the rough southern coast, battered by wind, deserted and beautiful. The most are only reachable by car; a journey through poor farmers villages over rough landroads and stone hills. Ngliyep is attracting most visitors, especially on holidays like Labuhan ( normally in October ). However the sea looks very attractive, along these beaches are dangerous streams and whirlpools. This is the place of the Queen of the Southern Sea, Myai Ratu Kidul; the color green angers her and a huge wave takes away innocent swimmers.
At Sendangbiru swimming is safe. Here, boats can be hired ( make a clear price after bargaining ) for a trip to the island reserve Sempu with sandy creeks which are overshadowed by low trees. It is said that this is the last place where the Jawanese tiger can be found. The green area of the 800 hectare big island is being engulfed in warm waves, and offers a view towards Jawa’s green coastal area.
The beach of Balekambang is a popular place; in the sheltered bay are two small islands, connected by footbridges. On one of them is an Balinese temple, in which every March the Jalanidipuja-ceremony is held. On the beach here Suran-ceremonies – to celebrate Jawanese New Year – are held too, normally in July.
All three beaches can be reached by car. Others are only with four-wheel-drive and on foot along paths used by fishermen, like the beaches of Modangan and Tamban.
About 36 kilometres west of malang is the mystical Gunung Kawi, favorite place among pilgrims who want to become rich instantly.

Ijen Plateau

www.petra.ac.id

The Ijen Plateau lies in the centre of the Ijen-Merapi Maelang Reserve, which extends over much of the mountainous region directly west of Banyuwangi and borders on the Baluran National Park in the north east. As at Mt. Bromo , the caldera is best viewed from the air.
Fortunately, almost all commercial flights operating between Denpasar – Surabaya, Yogyakarta or Jakarta usually fly, if not directly over, then close by Ijen plateau, where the seemingly luminous blue/green crater lake forms an unmistakable landmark. It is a beautiful scenery and located about 32 km to the north west of Banyuwangi.
The principal attraction at Ijen is the large, sulphureous crater lake which lies hidden between sheer walls of deeply furrowed rock at more than 200 meters. The Ijen crater itself lies at approximately 2,300 meters above sea level. It forms a twin volcano with the now extinct Mount Merapi. The enormous crater lake, which is 200 meters deep and covers an area of more than meters, a million square meters, contains about 36 million cubic meters of steaming, acid water.
Ijen crater shows a special type of volcanic feature common to Indonesia, about 1 kilometer in diameter and 175 meters deep. The floor is covered completely by a warm lake, milky blue green in colours held back by a dam built many years ago by the Dutch, in order to keep the hot, mineral laden water from raining the crop lands below.
The crater can be reached from either the east or the west by any kinds of vehicles, but the second part of the trip covers distance 3 km on foot (jungle track). However, the latter is more popular approach, since the climb from the road’s end to the edge of the lake is only one and a half hours. And a walk around the lake takes a full day.
The temperature drops at night, near the crater rim it can fall to about 5o Celcius. The road ends at Jampit, where very basic shelter is available. It is also possible to sleep in the old vulcanology station further up the hill, now used by sulphur collectors, but permission must be obtained in advance.
The sulphur is transported entirely on foot. In the past, horses were used but they were found to be less practical on the hazardous terrain. Today, the mine yields nine to twelve tons of sulphur per day.
Individual loads of up to 70 kg are carried by men, often barefooted, up to the rim of crater and then 17 km down the mountainside to a factory near Banyuwangi. The porters are paid by weight. The most important advice if you are travelling to Ijen is: “If you lose your way, just look out for the sulphur trail”. The meaning was clear, since a continuous flow of two way traffic,carrying the sulphur down the mountainside from the lake and trudging up again to re-load, had left a yellow trail on the well worn path. The best time for seeing Ijen Crater is at 8 to 9 am.
How to reach Ijen Crater
Surabaya – Bondowoso :by bus [191 km]
Bondowoso – Sempol :by bus [165 km]
Sempol – Banyuapit :by bus [14 km]
Banyuapit – Paltuding :by minibus, or car [4 km]
Paltuding – Ijen Crater :on foot [4 km]
.
Denpasar [Bali] – Banyuwangi :by bus and ferry [140 km]
Banyuwangi – Jambu :by minibus [18 km]
Jambu – Ijen Crater :on foot [21 km]

Kaliklatak Banyuwangi

source : www.gluckman.com/kalik.html

After thrashing through the wild jungles of eastern Java, smart adventurers take a turn through banana plantations and rubber trees, to an aromatic oasis that serves home-grown feasts and pots of coffee that are fit for paradise
FROM THE KITCHEN COMES THE RICH AROMA OF EXOTIC SPICES like nutmeg and clove. On the table, a feast awaits: soup filled with wild mushrooms, platters of banana fritters and fried ferns, and a fresh vegetable casserole. Besides sweets of cinnamon and chocolate, there’s also sinful agar, a vanilla pudding with coffee Jell-O.
To this glorious Garden of Eating, the houseboy adds a huge pot of Javanese coffee, thick enough to stand up even the heaviest spoon.
There is something special about sipping Java, as coffee is called in many parts of the world, in the land that made it famous. Better yet, we’re drinking Javanese coffee fresh from the source, at the very plantation where it is grown, roasted and brewed.
In fact, every ingredient on the table – from the bountiful main courses right down to the tiny grains of pepper – comes from the surrounding soil. At Kaliklatak, at the eastern end of Java, a short ferry ride from Bali, images of Eden are everywhere.
At 1,000 hectares, and employing 600 workers, the highly-successful Kaliklatak rubber and coffee plantation is Java’s largest. The ranch claims 115 hectares of cocoa, 550 hectares of coffee, 130 hectares of rubber trees, 80 hectares of cloves, plus an assortment of nutmeg, cinnamon, pepper, vanilla and all varieties of fruits and vegetables.
More than anything, though, the plantation has proven that the pursuit of profit needn’t ruin paradise. At Kaliklatak, commerce coexists with immense natural beauty. Scores of orchid species mingle with American cactus, palms from Saudi Arabia, parrots and monkeys. Statues and religious shrines add a mystical spell.
The ranch, which rents 20 cottages to curious visitors, also produces bananas so fine that Kaliklatak’s variety, Pisang Ambon Kuning, was long ago named the National Banana.
“The government asked me to plant 200 hectares more of bananas,” says I.H. Soehoed Prawiroatmodjo, who has run the ranch since her husband died in 1982. “I told them I’m too old. So I gave them some seeds and said, ‘do it yourself’.”
Age hasn’t hampered this sprightly matron, who drives her jeep around the ranch, stopping to pull unsightly weeds from around the rubber trees with her own strong hands. Nor is she timid about expressing her opinions, even when criticism of the ruling family is involved.
Few in Indonesia would be so bold, but Prawiroatmodjo has always enjoyed the ability to level with the nation’s leaders. While working as a journalist in the 1950s, she traveled with long-serving Suharto’s only predecessor, President Sukarno.
Her journalism career was cut short after meeting her husband, a military leader who retired a few years later. He wanted to move to the country, to make things grow. They looked at numerous parcels for a retirement villa, but knew Kaliklatak would be their home from the moment they first saw the sprawling ranch, tucked on a forested hillside overlooking a volcano and the sea.
“My husband was a real Javanese,” she says. “He believed the saying, ‘Put before you the ocean, behind you the mountains; in between the land will bring you happiness’.” And, it has.
Kaliklatak produces 300 tons of coffee in a good year. Rubber is harvested daily. Each worker tends 500 trees, collecting the thin trickle of white sap that runs slowly down the circular notch cut into each one. Banana plants are harvested twice a month, producing five to six tons monthly.
Assessing all this bounty, and the beauty of Kaliklatak’s spacious gardens, it’s hard to believe that this magnificent and productive plantation was left in ruins following World War II. Hard work transformed the soil, and the Prawiroatmodjos devoted themselves to restoring the land’s spiritual qualities.
In a book printed two years after her husband’s death, Mrs. Prawiroatmodjo recounts his dream to build more than a mere ranch, but also a model village. It is centered by an ornate fence, with carvings that tell the history of the people of Indonesia, from the creation of the sun and the moon, until modern times.
The spiritual gate and fence were finished in 1960, but the family continued to add shrines and statues throughout the plantation. They invested heavily in ornamental plants and established nurseries for their favorite flowers, shrubs and trees. They experimented with a variety of crops, which flourished in the rich volcanic soil.
“My husband said we should plant spices. That was his idea, so that visitors would know what Indonesia had to offer, and why the Dutch came to these islands, for the spices,” she says.
Even after all this time, the Dutch still come, along with Europeans, Americans and tourists from every part of Asia. They come from Jakarta or Bali to Banyuwangi, then make the 15-kilometer drive through towering forests of teak to the plantation on the picturesque slopes of 9,000-foot Mt. Merapi.
At Kaliklatak,one stay in cottages with two bedrooms, bath, living room and lovely verandas. Each of the 20 cottages, or Pondoks, is of an unique design, as are the surrounding gardens.
Guests can take tours of the rubber factory, where the sap is pressed and squeezed until thick bundles of latex are produced. They can also watch workers sorting the four grades of Kaliklatak coffee, most of which winds up ground into the thick paste that makes the pungent Javanese coffee. Or they can wander freely around the plantation, which is really a community unto itself, with over 300 houses, several stores, three schools, a mosque and a church.
Bedtime comes early on the plantation, unless guests find a singing session in one of the ranch towns. The workers are friendly, and eager to welcome guests.
Supano, one cottage worker, has lived on the ranch his entire life. He was born here and attended a plantation school. Both his parents lived here even before the Prawiroatmodjos bought the plantation. Supano, 38, says he expects both his children to grow up and work on the farm. His wife feels the same way. They met in the farm school. She was born here, too.
And you could hardly find a better place to spend your life, as many visitors find. “Guests often come for one night and stay for three,” says Mrs. Prawiroatmodjo proudly.
Kaliklatak offers a rare sort of rustic luxury; primitive pampering. Understandably, some visitors roam no further than the wicker furniture on their own personal veranda, where they are served by their own personal houseboy, who produces colorful and nutritious meals that bring new meaning to the theme of home cooking. Much of the food is harvested on the plantation that very day.
And topping it all off are piping hot pots of Java – fresh from the ranch, here in the heartland of Indonesia.

Margo Utomo Kalibaru

http://margoutomo.com/

It was in 1943 when the late Mr. H. R.M. Moestadjab the founder of Margo Utomo inherited piece of land in Kalibaru, Banyuwangi. He thereafter continue his father’s business in this land, where coconut, nutmeg, coffee, pepper and cloves are grown, not to forget the milking cows farm with only small number of cows at that time, the only farm in this region which provides nutrient food during difficult time.
1975, the market prices of all plantation products were falling down, which made it even tougher for him to manage the agro farm. He then came up with his brilliant idea to set and introduce a new tourism concept which we call now an Agro Resort. A perfect combination of tourism and plantation business, where people will enjoy the true living in the village like Kalibaru and also learn the wide varieties of plants and tropical flowers.
Started from his own house to welcome and host the guests he thereafter expanded up to 51 rooms and its called Margo Utomo Agro Resort. In 1991 he successfully opened a sister hotel located only 3 kms away called Margo Utomo Hill View Cottages, with a different concept of living.
He passed away in June 2000, buried in his beloving and memorable place, Kalibaru. His wife, Mrs. Hj. Sayati Moestadjab or more known as “Ibu Yati” together with their daughter Endang Mariana, continues the “treasure” which he left behind. Endang has successfully managed to expand the milking cows farm up to more than 100 cows, distributing fresh milk around banyuwangi and bali also producing other dairy items such as yoghurt and cheese.
Tours
Mini Plantation tour through 13 hectares plantation garden at Margo Utomo Agro Resort, with varities of spices such as nutmeg, pepper, cinnamon, chocolate, coffee and coconuts. May also discover the extraordinary attraction of a traditional making process of palm tree liquid into coconut sugar. Not to forget the milking cows farm
Hackney carriage / andong tour around the kalibaru villages, visit the home industry of red brick, roofing tiles and aluminium kitchen utensils
Tour to Wonorejo waterfall, east kalibaru, on the slope of Mount Raung, also Jatisrono swimming pool, a natural spring water at the village of Kajarharjo.
Rajegwesi beach, located at Sarongan village. The way to reach this place is beautiful, through the hills, plantation and the village houses. It has a hidden paradise called Teluk Hijau and connects to Sukamade.
Mount Ijen
Ijen Crater is one the tourist destinations which is well known by foreign and local tourists with its natural view. It is located in the area of Sempul. The crater area lies at 2.386 meters above sea level (mdpl) and is not active anymore. Many beautiful species of plants can be found there such as the edelweiss flower and the Casuarina Junghu (cemara gunung) etc. Various animals can also be seen in the area like jungle fowl (ayam hutan) and porcupine (landak) etc.
Sugar Tree
Alas Purwo. Alas means forest or jungle and purwo is the beginning of everything. It is located in 42 square hectares, with many kinds of wild animals, such as Banteng (bos javanicus), deer, pigs and peacocks. Also we can discover the old Hindu Temple in this area.
Sukamade
Sukamade beach, located 97km southwest of Banyuwangi. A beautiful, natural and quiet place. Dutch discovered this place in 1927, surrounds with 1200 hectares plantation area that produces rubber, coffee and cacao. It is the natural resource conservation of turtle. A night tour to see the turtles lay their egg by the beach is an unforgettable moment. November to March is the peak season for laying eggs, for around more than 100eggs per female turtles.

Proposed World Heritages

Mount Lawu Cultural and Natural Landscape Heritage East Java

nature reserve, proposed world heritage, lawu
nature reserve, proposed world heritage, lawu
Criteria Requirements – Heritage
1. Uniqueness and characteristics of heritage Natural Heritage
1.1 Significance of ecological systems and natural habitats.
Mount Lawu preservation area covers a wide variety of tourism attractions. It is a pilgrimage destination for some people because they believe that Sunan Lawu (Sunan means the messenger of Islam) died there.

It is also the home of Sarangan lake and Tawangmangu waterfalls, two already popular tourist destinations.

But the main reason behind the preservation is an archaeological sites lies at 900 meters above sea level. The unique temples found in mount Lawu is somehow almost like a miniature of Inca remnants in Peru.
1.2 Undisturbed environments or environments demonstrating natural process at work.
As a forest reserve Mount Lawu is highly protected by the local and central government. A memorandum of understanding had been signed by both parties to ensure that conservation prevails.

Together with a prominent university and some NGOs, the government is planning to make this area a significant culture preservation program.
1.3 Existence of rare and unique species present at the site
Mount Lawu has endemic flowers not to be found anywhere else. It is also the home of some endangered plantations. Local people believe that some of them possess medical values.

The endangered Javanese Tiger and wild deer is also inhabited the area.

Cultural Heritage
1.4 Significance of the existing cultural and historical resources.
Archaeological remnants in this area are scattered in almost the whole area.

Majapahit Kingdom built these temples in 15th century. They are as follows : Sukuh temple, Ceto temple, Ketek temple, Planggatan temple, and Petirtaan Simbatan Wetan.

Some statues also found in these temples. Hindu disciples are regularly performing their rituals in these temples.
1.5 Authenticity and integrity
The archaeological remnants of Mount Lawu are well integrated with the surroundings. They were built in terraces to go along with the geographic and geologic nature of the area. The relief picturing the specific nature of Hinduism in Indonesia.
1.6 Degree of survival of the archaeological remains, human values, ways of life, custom, land use, events and living traditions.
Of all the temples, only two of them have been restored. They are Sukuh temple and Ceto temple.
They have become the destination of pilgrimage for Hindu disciples in Indonesia and also a place to perform some cultural performances.
2. Site protection and conservation
2.1 Existence of management control/measures to ensure that the site capacity (in terms of resources and facilities) can absorb tourism activities.
Mount Lawu preservation area covers 8 different administrative. They have sat together to coordinate the development of the area according to their responsibilities. In the mean time the central government has established a zoning regulation for the area not only for preservation but also for tourism purposes.

Some tourist facilities have been built to cater the needs of visitors that include parking lot, souvenir shop, museum, accommodation etc.
3. Tourism and site management
3.1 Appropriate tourism activities compatible with local heritage, values and character.
Sukuh temple and Ceto temple have become a pilgrimage destination for Hindu disciples. And for tourism purposes both temples also used for performing arts and cultures.
3.2 Involvement of local communities in the development and the management of the cultural and the natural heritage site.
The first day of Islam Month Muharram is the time for Grebeg Lawu, a ritual that regularly performed.

During Indonesia’s independence day, a cultural festival is held in the temples.

The local government of Karanganyar have made and agreement with the local government of Gianyar Bali which is a Hindu Island to make Ceto temple not only as a pilgrimage destination but also a cultural destination.
3.3 Creation of jobs that encourage the use of local knowledge, skills and traditions.
Because the variety of attraction in this area, the government has appointed and trained some guides both local community and from the private sector to cater the specific character of the area that covers cultural and natural attractions.
3.4 The use of appropriate off-site and on-site interpretative media to educate visitors.
The local government backed by the central government has produced some promotion materials to promote the area.

They also provide signage to give clear direction for visitors.
4. Environmental management 4.1 Zoning parking area for the site.
Parking lot is available near the area and for visitor without their own vehicle, they can use public transportation or motorbike rent provided by the local community.

Penataran Hindu Temple Complex East Java

nature reserve, proposed world heritage, penataran

nature reserve, proposed world heritage, penataran

nature reserve, proposed world heritage, penataran

Date of Submission: 19/10/1995
Criteria: (iv)
Category: Cultural
Submission prepared by:
Directorate General for Culture
Coordinates:
East Java
Ref.: 294

Penataran temple is the largest and most important Hindu temple in East Java. It lies just 10 Kilometers north of Blitar on the lower slopes of Mt. Kelud. Dedicated to the god Siva. the temple was in use for at least three hundred years, from the 12th to 15th centuries. Most of the buildings which can be seen today were constructed during Majapahit’s golden century.

The layout of the temple is similar to that found in the Balinese “pura” today. A number of small buildings are scattered within a sacred, walled enclosure, with the largest and most important temple at the rear of the complex, Hindu legends, among them the Ramayana epic, are carved in relief on the temple walls and terrace foundations.

Trowulan Ancient City East Java

nature reserve, proposed world heritage, trowulan

nature reserve, proposed world heritage, trowulan

Date of Submission: 19/10/1995
Criteria:
Category: Cultural
Submission prepared by:
Directorate General for Culture
Coordinates:
East Java
Ref.: 285


Trowulan is a village in Mojokerto, in the Indonesian province of East Java. It is surrounded by an archaeological site covering approximately 100 square kilometres. It has been suggested it was the site of the eponymous capital city of the Majapahit Empire, which is described by Mpu Prapanca in the 14th-century poem Nagarakretagama and in a 15th-century Chinese source.

The Nagarakretagama contains poetic descriptions of the palace of Majapahit and its surroundings, but is limited to the royal and religious sectors. Some of the details are vague, and scholars who have tried to compile a plan of the capital have come to different conclusions.

Older research at Trowulan has concentrated on monumental remains: temples, tombs, and a bathing place. Archaeological surveys and excavations have recently found the remains of industrial, commercial and religious activity, habitation areas and water supply systems, all of which are evidence of dense population during the 14th to 15th centuries.

Descriptions in contemporary sources

According to the account of Prapanca in the Nagarakretagama poem, the royal compound was surrounded by a thick, high wall of red brick. Nearby was the fortified guard post. The main gate into the palace was located in the north wall, and was entered through huge doors of decorated iron. Outside the north gate was a long building where courtiers met once a year, a market place, and a sacred crossroads. Just inside the north gate was a courtyard containing religious buildings. On the western side of this courtyard were pavilions surrounded by canals where people bathed. At the south end a gate led to rows of houses set on terraces in which palace servants lived. Another gate led to a third courtyard crowded with houses and a great hall for those waiting to be admitted into the ruler’s presence. The king’s own quarters, which lay to the east of this courtyard, had pavilions on decorated red brick bases, ornately carved wooden pillars, and a roof decorated with clay ornaments. Outside the palace were quarters for Shiva priests, Buddhists, and other members of the nobility. Further away, and separated from the palace by open fields, were more royal compounds, including that of the chief minister Gajah Mada. Here Prapanca’s descriptions end.

A 15th-century Chinese source describes the palace as clean and well kept. It was said to have been enclosed within a brick wall more than 10 metres high and with a double gate. The houses inside were built on pillars and were 10–13 metres high, with wooden floors covered with fine mats on which people sat. Roofs were made from wooden shingles and the dwellings of the common people were roofed with straw.

A book on Majapahit court etiquette defines the capital as ‘All where one can go out without passing through paddy fields.’ Temple reliefs from Majapahit do not depict urban scenes, but some contain sketches of settlements indicated as pavilions enclosed within walls. The word ‘kuwu’ in Nagarakretagama seems to refer the settlement units consisting of a group of buildings surrounded by wall, in which a large number of people lived under the control of a nobleman. This pattern characterised the 16th-century coastal cities of Java described by early European visitors, and Majapahit’s capital was probably composed of such units.

Discovery

The ancient city ruins at Trowulan had been discovered by the 19th century. Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, governor of Java from 1811 until 1816 and an indefatigable enthusiast for the island’s history, reported the existence of ‘ ruins of temples…. scattered about the country for many miles ‘. Much of the region was blanketed with dense teak forest at that time, making detailed survey impossible. Nonetheless, Raffles was so impressed by what he saw that he was later to refer to Trowulan as ‘ this pride of Java ‘.

Excavations in and around Trowulan have shown that parts of the old settlement still lie buried under several metres of mud and volcanic debris, a result of the frequent eruptions of nearby Mount Kelud, as well as frequent flooding of the Brantas river. Several archaeological ruins lie scattered around Trowulan village. Several are quite damaged, while others have undergone reconstruction. Most are constructed of red brick.

Candi Tikus is a ritual bathing pool (petirtaan) which is perhaps the most exciting recent archaeological finding at Trowulan. Candi Tikus means ‘rat temple’, the name given to the discovery in 1914 because the site appeared during the excavation to be a rat-breeding enclosure. Restored to its present condition in 1985 and 1989, this complex of red brick takes the form of a sunken, rectangular basin, into which a flight of steps descends on the northern side. The principal structure, which projects from the southern wall of the basin, was apparently modelled on the legendary Mount Mahameru. No longer complete, it consisted of terraced foundations, upon which would have rested a concentric arrangement of ‘turrets’ surrounding the highest peak of the building.

Not far from Candi Tikus in the Keraton district stands the recently restored gateway of Bajang Ratu, an elegant red brick paduraksa gate dating from the mid-14th century. The form of the structure is tall and slender, rising to a height of 16.5 metres and displaying intricate relief decoration, especially on the roof section. Bajang Ratu in Javanese literally means ‘dwarf or defect monarch’. Folk tradition links the gate with Jayanegara, the second Majapahit king, successor to Kertarajasa Jayawarddhana, founder of the Majapahit Empire. According to tradition, Jayanegara fell from the gate as a child, causing defects to his body. The name probably also means ‘little monarch’, as

Jayanegara ascended to the throne at a young age. Historian connect this gate with Ʋenggapura (Ʋi Ranggapura) or Kapopongan of Antawulan (Trowulan), the shrine mentioned in Nagarakertagama as the dharma place (holy compound) dedicated to King Jayanegara during his death on 1328.

Wringin Lawang is located a short distance south of the main road at Jatipasar. The name in Javanese means ‘The Banyan Tree Gate’. The grand gate portals are made from red brick, with a base of 13 x 11 metres and a height of 15.5 metres, and date from the 14th century. The gate is of the ‘Candi Bentar’ or split gateway type, a structure which may have appeared during the Majapahit era. Most historians agree that this structure is the gate of an important compound in the Majapahit capital. Speculations concerning the original function of this majestic gateway have led to various suggestions, a popular one being that it was the entrance to the residence of Gajah Mada.

Candi Brahu in the Bejijong district is the sole surviving structure of what was once a cluster of historic buildings. According to popular folk belief, it was in the vicinity of Candi Brahu that the cremation ceremonies for the first four Majapahit rulers were carried out. This tradition, while difficult to prove, is supported in part by material evidence, which suggests that the monument once served as a royal mortuary shrine. The royal personage to whom the building was dedicated remains unclear. The ruin of Candi Gentong lies nearby.

The Islamic tomb of Champa Princess is believed to be the tomb of a Majapahit king’s consort. According to local traditions, she is said to have married one of the last of the Majapahit kings and to have converted him to Islam before her death in 1448.

Segaran Pool is a large rectangular pool with size 800 x 500 metres. The name Segaran originated from the word ‘segara’ in Javanese which means ‘sea’, probably the local suggest that the large pool is the miniature of the sea. Surrounding the water basin is rectangular wall made of red brick thus make the form of the pool. The pool brick structure is discovered in 1926 by Maclain Pont, at that the pool was covered in dirt and mud. Reconstruction took place some years later and now Segaran pool is functioned by locals as recreational pool and fishing pond. The brick structure originated from 14-15th century Majapahit era. The actual function of the pool is unknown. The study suggested that the pool probably served various functions, but mainly the as city reservoir, the source of fresh water essential for high density urban area, especially during dry season. Another local popular belief is this pool is use as the bathplace and swimming pool to train Majapahit troops, also as recreational pool for Majapahit royalties to entertain the envoys and guests.

Near northeast edge of Kolam Segaran lies the ruin of Candi Menak Jingga. The structure is now ruined and stones scaterred around the vicinity with the base still lies buried underground. Excavation still on the progress. The structure is made from carved andesite stone on outer layer with red brick in inner layer. The most exciting feature of this structure is the parts contained ornaments (probably roof part) identified as Qilin, a Chinese mythical creature. This might suggested a strong cultural relationship with China especially during Ming Dynasty. The local tradition linked this site with the pavilion of Queen Kencana Wungu, the Majapahit queen from the tales of Damarwulan and Menak Jingga.

At Umpak, stones form the base for wooden pillars, which were probably part of wooden building. The organic material has decayed and only the stone base remains.

In the Troloyo district, numerous Islamic tombstones have been discovered, the majority of which date from between 1350 and 1478. These finds confirm not only that a Muslim community was well established in Java by the mid 14th century, but also that the religion was officially acknowledged and practised within the royal capital itself.
When you like to know more go to Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trowulan

 

A really nice site about Trowunan is :http://www.eastjava.com/books/majapahit/html/museum.html

West Java map and info

West Java map and info

Click on the map to see a larger image !

java west,jawa barat, mining, natural recources, nature reserves, plantations

 

Car license numbers
B:Jakarta, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok.
D: Bandung, Cimahi.
E: Ceribon, Indramayu, Majalenka, Kuningan.
F: Bogor, Cianjur, Sukabumi.
T: Purwakarta, Karawang, Bekasi, Subang.
Z: Garut, Tasikmalaya, Sumedang, Ciamis, Banjar.

Minerals and Mining

West Java produces excellent mine production. In 2006, it contributes 5,284 tons zeolite, 47,978 tons bentonite, iron sand, pozolan cement, feldspar, and jewel barn/ gemstone. Precious stone mining potential generally are found in Garut, Tasikmalaya, Kuningan, and Sukabumi Regency areas.

Mine Companies

Kawah Ijen, Jawa Island (Java Island), Indonesia
Marble quarry, Tulungagung
Ciemas prospect
Gunung Pongkor Mine, Bogor District
Papandagan volcano
Tangkubanparahu

Bandung Area Nature reserves

java west,jawa barat, mining, natural recources, nature reserves, plantations

Jakarta

http://indahnesia.com/indonesia/JAKHIS/historic_trip.php

Historic trip through the old city
Jakarta has developed from the north to the south, seen in an historical way. Places of interest can best be visited in a chronogolical way. Start wirh the old harbour in the north, and then go south towards the old VOCV-headquarters (Kota) and the Chinese quarter (Glodok), to end the journey at Medan Merdeka (Freedom Square), or in one of the new suburbs. Take half a day for every part.
The old harbour
Batavia developed around the old spice-seaport of Sunda Kelapa. Nowadays it forms the northen part of Jakarta, where the Ciliwung mouths in the Jawa Sea. in 1619 the VOC founded a trading fortress at the eastern bank, ‘het Kasteel’ (the Castle), which was fortified with walls and 15 big bastions over the years.
The old watchtower ‘de Uitkijk’ (the View) on jalan Pakin was built in 1839 on bastion Culemborg (a small city in Holland nowadays), to guard the coastal waters. Later is also served as a weather station. Today you can still visit it, and enjoy a view over the entire area. Before 1619 on this spot there was the customs-office (‘pabean’ called Paap Jan by the Dutch) of Sunda Kelapa.
The old harbour, which was in use ever since the 12th century, stretches from north of the tower to across the river. On the west of the river the Dutch built a timber-shipyard in the 17th century. In 1817 this building was renovated and enlarged. This is also the place where the pinisi-ships are, one of the last big sailing commercial fleets of the world. On the rickety gangways carriers walk everywhere with sacks, boxes, cables, barrels and wood. The nice, hand-built boats are mored bow to bow, and belong to Jakarta’s picturesque places of interest. Travelers with a little adventure can negotiate here for a journey to other islands. Sulawesi can be reached in ten days if the winds are good.
On the western bank of the river, somewhat to the north of the guarding tower, there is the marine museum Bahari. It’s settled in the warehouses which were built by the VOC in 1652. Earlier a big variety of goods was stocked here, pepper, nutmeg, coffee, tea, copper and much more. In this beautifull complex of buildings some traditional sailers are being displayed, they give an impression of Indonesia’s history at sea.
Just in front of the museum the only remained massive city wall which surrounded Batavia can be found. Fout out of the fifteen bastions which surrounded ‘het Kasteel’ were square. They had names from precious stones like Diamant, Pearl, Ruby and Sapphire, to wich Batavia got it’s nickname ‘Kota Intan’, City of Jewels.
Behind the museum there is the big fish market, Pasar Ikan. Mainly the day’s heat is producing tremendous bad smell. Around it there is a true maze of little shops with shells, ship-goods, kitchen products, fishing-nets, model-ships and all kinds of old-fashioned stuff. Just like the early days it’s a constant coming and going of traders, kids, beggers and chess-players.
The part directly south and east of the harbour, also known as ‘Kota’, once formed the centre of a walled city. There are several remains of the times of the company. Between Kali Besar and jalan Kakap are the old VOC-shipyards and the Chinese warehouses. The 18th-century company shipyard was closed in 1809 because of unhealthy circumstances, but the ramshackle depot and the beautifull warehouses are still in use today, as well as four old warehouses on jalan Tongkrol (Mackerel Street).
These are not open for public. Futher south at jalan Nelayan Timur, there is a typical Dutch drawbridge. The Hoendermarktbrug (hen-bridge) is about 200 years old, and bridges the northern part of the Kali Besar. It was restaurated in the seventies, but is not in terrable state again. At Jalan Kali Besar Barat, south and west of the bridge, the former house of governor-general Van Imhoff, dating from 1730, can be found at number nine. The house is known as Toko Merah (Red House) and has beautifull Chinese woodcarvings, characteristic for the 18th century houses in Batavia. Now, it belongs to PT Dharma Niaga. The office of the Chartered Bank, on number three dated back to the same century. Both buildings can be visited during office hours.
The Fatahillah square
The centre of control in old-Batavia was located on some distance of the harhous at a square, which is now known as Taman Fatahillah. The founders of the city ordered a splendid cityhouse to be built. Square and buildings were restaurated between 1972 and 1975, part of a big project aimed on saving Jakarta’s historical places. The colonial buildings became museums.
The cityhouse, on the south of the square, houses the Museum Sejara Jakarta Fatahillah, an historical museum in which old maps and antiques from the colonial times are shown to the public. The 37 beautifull decorated rooms still have the atmosphere of the VOC-times. The cityhouse was rebuilt three times, the last time in 1710, and served at courthouse, city council and prison.
A big collection of wayang puppets from all over Indonesia is being displayed in the Wayang Museum, jalan Pinto besar Utara 27, at the west side if the Faatahillahsquare. In early ages the New Dutch Church was located here. This was replaced by warehouses in 1808. At the back gravestones from Dutch people from the comany-time can be seen.
In the former palace of justice the museum of Arts and Keramics (Balai Senu rupa Jakarta & Museum Keramik) is being housed. The building from 1870 is neoclassical and contains a collection antique porcelain which vice-Presicent Adam malik left to Jakarta, as well as modern Indonesian paintings.
Besides restaurant Fatahillah, at the north side of the square, the cannon of fertillity (Si Jagur) can be found. The Portuguese cannon was taken to Batavia after the conquest of Malaka in 1641. From the back of the cannon, a vist with it’s thumb between index finger and middle finger, a pose that is considerred obscene in Indonesia as well. Childless women have the habit to sit down on the barrel of the cannon, in the hope to get pregnant.
The quarter south of Fatahillah was redeveloped in the 19th and 20th century. An exeption was Gereja Sion, or the Portuguese church at jalan Pangeran Jayakarta, east of station Kota. The church was built by Mardijkers in 1695 (from ‘Merdeka’, which means independence), and people from Portuguese-Indian or African origin, which were taken to Batavia as slaves in the 17th century. At the end of the 17th century they got their freedom, when they went away from Catholicism and turned to Protestantism under pressure. The church, the oldest in Jakarta, orgininally had benches and copper chandlers.
The Chinese quarter Glodok
Chinese always played an important role in Indonesias economy. After the massacre of 1740, in which about 5000 Chinese were killed, the Chinese were appointed a special area south of the old city walls. It is now known as Glodok. The use of Chinese writing is allowed in Indonesia since shortly after the fall of Suharto in May 1998, but until then, signs which are representative for Chinatowns all over the world couldn’t be found here. Chinese architecture can be found everywhere in the network of small streets and alleys behind Glodok Plaza, filled with merchands, food stalls (warung-warung) and shops.
The Dharma Jaya temple of Jin-de Youan (Temple of the Golden Good) at jalan Petak Sembilan is one of the oldest and biggest Chinese religional places of Batavia. The temple was built around 1650, and was meant to honor Kuan Yin (Guanyin), the goddess of mercy. The temple Candra Naya, at jalan Gajah Mada 188, is housed in the former landhouse if merchand So Bing Kong. In 1619 he became leader of the Chinese community and intermediary between Chinese and the first three governors of the VOC. His gravetombe can be found in a house at Gang Taruna.
Many ‘Batavian’ Chinese became islamic before the 20th century and Glodok also has a number of old Chinese mosques. South of the National Archive, at the corner of jalan Hayam Wuruk en jalan Kebon Jeruk is the Kebon Jeruk-mosque, built in 1785 or 1786. The style of building is an extraordinary mixture of islamic, Chinese and Dutch influences. Another Chinese 18th-century mosque, Mesjid Krukut, is located at jalan Kebahagiaan, at the corner of jalan Kejayaan 1.
In the 18th century rich Europeans and Chinese settled outside the city walls in the big gardens in the south. At the place where jalan Gajah Mada and jalan Hayam Wuruk are today, they built big Dutch landhouses. The only remained one is at jalan Gajah Mada 111, in the nowadays city centre. It was built for Reinier de Klerk in 1760, the later governor-general. In 1844 it was rebuild into an orphanage and in 1925 it housed the country archive. In 1979 a restauration took place.
The quarter south of jalan Gajah Mada is also know as ‘Harmonie’ (Harmony), after the society with the same name, the biggest in South-East Asia. In 1979 it was demolished because traffic was expanding, a square was built at jalan Majapahit. Construction was started under governor-general Deandels (1808-1811). In 1815, during Stamford Raffles, the society was completed. The ‘Harmony’ became the meeting place for the rich elite of the colonial society.
At the other side of the traffic-square, at the corner, the earlier popular fashion designers Oger Fr籥s worked. Their building, which is now a travel agency, was in the centre of the elegant, rich European-looking city, which developed in the 19th century. Only the statue of Hermes on the railing of the bridge does remind of that period. He is not watching the passing cars, and still holds his globe, which is degraded to a football.
The ‘Museum Nasional’, the National Museum at the west side of the square was founded in 1778 by the ‘Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen’ (Batavian Society of Arts and Science), is the oldest in Indonesia. The building itself is in desparate need of a restauration, and also need an reorganisation. The showcases show numerous of treasures: the famous skull of the Jawa-man, the famous stones and bronze statues and inscriptions from the Hindu-Javanese period, the treasury room with golden and silver opjects, and the department bronze objects. The Ganesha Society organises interesting guided-tours in the morning. The first floor offers keramics from Chinas, Annam, Thailand, Persia and Euroe, the earlies collection of E.W. van Orsoy de Flines (1886-1964).
At the north of the Merdeka square two mayor presidential palaces are built. The most northern building is Istana Negara, the State palace, the former Palace Rijswijk. It was built in 1796 by Jacob Andries van Braam and server as residence of the governor-generals since 1820. Between 1873 and 1879 a new, bigger, palace was being built at the Koningsplein, now jalan Medan Merdeka Utara, ‘Paleis Koningsplein’ (‘Palace Kingssquare’). The official tranfer of sovereignty took place on 27 December 1949 took place in this palace. Since then, the palace is called Istana Merdeka, Palace of Independence. Officialy it’s the residence of the current President, but it is not used for that purpose. Suharto, in his time, preferred his house in Menteng area.
Between Wilhelminapark and Menteng
More to the south, at the corner of Jalan Pejambon, the Gereja Imanuel is located, the former calvinistic Willemskerk, named after king Willem I. The neo-classical building was built between 1835 and 1839, to a design of J.H. Horst. It offers a wide variety of old Dutch silver. In the more southern Menteng, just across Hotel Aryaduta Hyatt at Jalan Ptrepatan, is the All Saints Church (English Church) from 1829, with nice decorated windows.
Between the cathedral and Hotel Borobudur is Lapangan Banteng (Buffalo Field), the former Waterlooplein (Square Waterloo), with an enormous statue of a handcoffed man which breaks his chains. It was built from molten Dutch coins to order of Sukarno in 1963, to rememberance of the liberation of Irian Jaya. Until 1820 landhouse Weltevreden could be found south of the Waterlooplein, it belonged to governor-general Mossel. In 1857, the military hospital was built, which is still in use as military hospital as of today. East of the square, now Lapangan Benteng Timur, Deandels started with the construction of a palace, ‘het Witte Huis'(the White House), the Department of Finance today. besides the neo-classical Mahkamah Agung or higher court, which dates back to 1848. At Jalan Taman Pejambon is Gedung Pancasila. This neo-classical buiolding from 1829 served as headquarters of the KNIL, and after 1917 as seat of the Volksraad (People’s Council). Because Sukarno did his famous Pancasila-speech in this building, it was declared an national monument later on. North of Lapangan Banteng is Gedong Kesenian, the former municipal theathre from 1821. After the war a cinema was built, but after a good restauration the building got it’s original destination back. The Pasar Baru or Nieuwmarkt (New Market), is on the other side of the canal. In the many shops everything is for sale, from textile to computers.
Menteng, south of Medan Merdeka, is a big, quiet, green quarter with colonial houses, modern expensife villa’s and embassies. The diplomats and CEO’s live in this area. Right through the heart of Menteng is Jalan Diponegoro, the most expensife street in Jakarta. At side street of Jalan Surabaya is a flee market with numerous stalls full with ୴iques’, the most new imitations and all kinds of other things.
In the quarter Pasar Minggu, at the southern border of Jakarta, about 15 kilometres from the city’s centre, Ragunan zoo is located. In this nature park, opened from 9.00 to 18.00, it’s nice to have a walk or a picnic between all kinds of flora and fauna. Weekends are usually overcrowded.
Another busy Sunday place to be in the southern part of the city is Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (Nice Indonesia Miniature Park), a park of 100 hectares in which all different building styles from all over the archipelago are displayed. Start with Keong Mas, the form of a extraordinary snails house, for a magnificent journey on film through Indonesia on a giant screen. The park also offers a museum, an orchid garden and a birdpark.

Kebun Raya Bogor

The small, but fast growing city of Bogor ( 300,000 inhabitants ) is located 60 km south of Indonesia’s capital Jakarta, at the base of the Gunung Salak vulcano. Bogor is located at an altitude of 260 metres, which causes it to be remarable cooler than the coastal area’s. It’s a good place to escape the heat and chaos of Jakarta. That’s the same as what the Ducht governor-general Van Imhoff though; in 1745 he built his own refuge in this picturesque place, which he suitable called ‘Buitenzorg’.
Bogor is known for it’s botanical gardens which are located just behind the beautifull 19th-century Presidential Palace. The city also has an official world record ( 300 days with thundershowers in one year ), two important inscriptions in stones and one of the last gamelan-workshops on Jawa.
The old royal residence
One of the oldest – known- kingdoms of Indonesia, the Hinduist Tarumanagara from the 5th century, was probably located near Bogor. In the area a number of inscriptions has been found, under them a remarkable one which still can be seen in Ciampea, 15 km west of the city. It’s a big stone in a riverbank which contains several lines of Indian style inscriptions, and two king-size footprinte, which should have been from the conqueror and king Purnawarman.
A replica of the stone can be found in the Fatahillah Museum in Jakarta. The name of the kingdom seems to have close ties with the river which runs through the Bandung Basin east of Bogor to the coast, the River Citarum. Because the inscriptions were found here, historicans concluded the capital of Tarumanagara should have been here, also because it’s a good place for defence, and it also provides entry to the fertile hinterlands andthe nearby trading harbours at the Sunda Strait.
A later batutulis ( batu; stone and tulis; writing ) was found in Bogor in Jalan Batutulis, aproximately two kilometres Southwest of the botanical gardens. This inscription tells about the influence of king Surawisesa of Pajajaran in 1533, an important Hindu-king.
Like most other Sundanese places of historical value, there are no architectural remains to be found. This does people think that temples and other structures were built from wood, or just from stone, but they did re-use the stones for later buildings in the area.
The holy inscriptions are still being honoured meanwhile. Sukarno ordered the construction of a house very close to the batutulis, because of it’s mystical powers. He even wanted to be buried there, but this wish was not fullfilled.
The city grow around the house of ‘Buitenzorg’, and became a popular place among the Dutch because of the unhealthy living conditions in Batavia. Raffles lived in the house from 1811 to 1816. From 1870 to 1942 it was extended and restaurated and it became the residence of the Dutch governor-generals.
Since the independence Istana Bogor is one of the five official residences of the President. Suharto didn’t want to spend his time there, but Sukarno liked to; it is said that is ghost is still living there, between an impressive collection of art, the most sensual objects carefully hidden away. An hord of stained deers, imported from the Netherlands as food for official diners, is now living decoration of the 24 hectare domain.

Proposed World Heritage

Great Mosque of Demak Central Java

nature reserve, proposed world heritage, demak

Date of Submission: 19/10/1995
Criteria:
Category: Cultural
Submission prepared by:
Directorate General for Culture
Coordinates:
Central Java
Ref.: 289

Masjid Agung Demak (or the Great Demak Mosque) is one of the oldest mosques in Indonesia, located in the center town of Demak, Central Java Indonesia. The mosque is believed to be built by the Wali Songo (the nine pious religious leaders) during the first Demak Sultanate ruler, Raden Patah during the 15th century.[citation needed]

This mosque is the proof of glory achieved by the Demak Bintoro kingdom as the first Islamic kingdom in Java island.

Mosque Features

Masjid Agung Demak is the classic example of a traditional Javanese mosque. Unlike mosques in the Middle East it is built from timber. The tiered roof is supported by four enormous teak pillars. This means that the mosque is rather small when compared to many modern Indonesian mosques. The tiered roof shows many similarities with wooden religious structures from the Hindu-Buddhist civilizations of Java and Bali. The main entrance of Masjid Agung Demak consists of two doors carved with motifs of plants, vases, crowns and an animal head with an open wide-toothed mouth. It is said that picture depicts the manifested thunder caught by Ki Ageng Selo, hence their name “Lawang Bledheg” (the doors of thunder).

The Carving and Historical Relics of Masjid Agung Demak

The carvings at Lawang Bledheg are also interpreted according to chronogram based on lunar calculation as “Naga mulat salira wani” which means Saka Year 1388 or A.D. 1466 as the year in which Masjid Agung Demak existed.

The front wall of the mosuqe is inset with sixty-six porcelain tiles. These exquisite blue and white tiles are believed to derive from Champa in modern-day Vietnam, a kingdom with which Demak’s former rival Majapahit had extensive trade contacts. According to some reports, these tiles were stolen from the palace of the Sultan of Majapahit and later added to the mosque.

Masjid Agung Demak has many historical remainders and unique things, such as Saka Tatal; Maksurah; Dhampar Kencana/pulpit; Saka Majapahit; etc. Besides that in the environment of Masjid Agung Demak there are also graves of the sultans of Demak and a museum.
Thanks to Wikipedia

Ujon Kolon Birdwatching

 

Duration: 6 DAYS / 5 NIGHTS
GROUP SIZE: 1 – 5 people
Best Visit Season: April – September

Day 01 : JAKARTA – TAMAN JAYA
After Breakfast, we will drive to Taman Jaya village, this will be take 5-6 hours, afternoon we will arrival in Taman Jaya, and after lunch walking to Cibiuk hot spring water for hearing bird in the forest and back to Taman Jaya. (D)
Day 02 : CIPAMANGGANGAN RIVER – CIKABEMBEM RIVER
Early morning we starting sailing using traditional boat to and use canoing to Cipamanggangan river and others side Cipamanggangan for wild bird watching, afternoon canoing to Cikabembem river after that back to boat and overnight in Heundeuleum or overnight on boat. (B,L,D)
DAY 03 : CIKABEMBEM RIVER – CIGENTER RIVER
Early morning, starting for wild bird watching in Cikabembem river and afternoon canoing to Cigenter river, overnight at tent or on boat. (B,L,D)
DAY 04 : CIGENTER RIVER – CITENGAH RIVER – PEUCANG ISLAND
Early morning starting canoing to Cigenter river, in this river we are not watching a bird, many other wild life eg. pyhton snake, monkey, if we lucky we can meet with java rhinoceros. Afternoon we canoing in Citengah river for bird watching, and sailing to Peucang island, overnight in Peucang. (B,L,D)
DAY 05 : PEUCANG ISLAND – CI UJUNG KULON RIVER – CIDAUN – CIBOM or PEUCANG ISLAND
Early morning, we starting for canoing at Ci Ujung Kulon river, and watch wild bird in Peucang island or relax for swimming or snorkel, afternoon visiting Cidaun savana for watching many bos javanicus javanicus, javan deer, javan leaf monkey, javan gibbon, other wild animals, overnight in Peucang or camp in Cibom. (B,L,D)
DAY 06 : TAMAN JAYA – JAKARTA
After breakfast, sailing to Taman Jaya then drive to Jakarta. End tour. (B)

UJUNG KULON NATIONAL PARK
“JUNGLE AND BEACH TREKKING – SAILING”

Duration: 06 DAYS / 05 NIGHTS
START/FINISH: JAKARTA
Grade: MODERATE

Day 01: JAKARTA – SUMUR – TAMAN JAYA
Meeting point at noon, depart to Taman Jaya village by car, and we will arrive before dinner time, eat dinner and there’s a welcoming introduction about trip from our staff and we’ll spend the night in guest house. (D)
Day 02 : TAMAN JAYA – KALAJETAN – KARANG RANJANG
Get up in the morning, eat breakfast, prepare to trek to Kalajetan, and as soon as we get there we eat lunch, rest for one hour then we begin to trek to Karang Ranjang passing through forest, swamps, and the beach. We eat dinner at Karang Ranjang and spend the night in the tent. (B,L.D)
Day 03 : KARANG RANJANG – CIBANDAWOH – CIBUNAR
Get up in the morning, eat breakfast, and we trek to South beach of Cibandawoh. Take a rest at lunch time, begin trekking again to Cibunar, a long way to go and there’s coffee break on the road. By the time we get there it will be dinner time, free programs afterwards and sleep in tents. (B,L,D)
Day 04 : CIBUNAR – CIDAUN – CIBOM
Get up in the morning as usual, eat breakfast and start trekking through the woods of Cidaun. There’s a coffee break at the edge of a river. Watch wild animals on the park, take a rest and eat lunch. After lunch we trek passing the beach to Cibom. Eat dinner at cibom, free programs after that and sleep in tents. (B,L,D)
Day 05 : CIBOM-TANJUNG LAYAR- PEUCANG ISLAND
Get up in the morning, eat breakfast and follow a short trek to lighthouse in Tanjung Layar. Coffee break at 9am and back on trekking to Cibom, arrive on the boat and begin sailing to Peucang island. Eat lunch on the island and rest if you want, it’s free time, you could swim or snorkel. Coffee break at 4 and we’ll have a short trek to Karang Pocong up until sunset, after that go back to the base camp on the island, eat dinner, free programs afterwards and go to sleep in guest house. (B,L,D)
Day 06 : PEUCANG ISLAND-HENDEULEUM-SUMUR-JAKARTA
Get up in the morning, eat breakfast as usual. Travel by boat to Hendeuleum island. then canoeing in Cigenter river, take a break and eat lunch on the boat. Sail back to Sumur and drive home to Jakarta. (B,L)

Geothermal Energy

Wayang Windu Geothermal Plant, Java, Indonesia


Announcement of contract
1997 (Unit 1)
Start of operation
2000 (Unit 1) and 2009 (Unit 2)
Output
110MW (Unit 1)
117MW (Unit 2)
Plant type
Geothermal
Location
Wayang Windu geothermal field near Pangalengan in West Java, Indonesia
Estimated investment
US$200m
Employment
More than 1,500 workers at production peak
Full specifications

A second turbine-generator unit has been added to the Wayang Windu geothermal field in West Java, Indonesia. The 117MW unit more than doubles the plant’s output, adding to the existing 110MW turbine. At a total cost of around US$200m, Wayang Windu is now the largest geothermal power plant in Indonesia. The field is itself Indonesia’s largest geothermal development, and one of the largest in the world.

At the peak of construction of Unit 2, there were more than 1,500 workers on site. The unit was powered up to 30MW in December 2008, selling its first electricity into the PLN (Perusahaan Listrik Negara) West Java high voltage grid. Full commercial operation began in March 2009. Another two units are planned to come on stream by 2010, bringing the total plant capacity to 500MW at an additional cost of around US $450m.
Wayang Windu powers 117MW geothermal turbine
The steam is produced at more than 300oC, and contains virtually no pollutant gasses or CO2.

Star Energy acquired the 110MW Wayang Windu geothermal plant in November 2004. It owns the plant through its 100%-owned subsidiary Magma Nusantara Limited (MNL). MNL appointed Maunsell to provide engineering review, design and supervision consulting services for Unit 2 construction and development, excluding the geothermal wells themselves. Maunsell also provided support for administration and cost management, QA/QC, certification of construction status, sub-surface advisory services, and training.

Much of the preparation and infrastructure works for Unit 2 was completed as part of Unit 1 development between 1997 and 2000. Besides the 117MW geothermal turbine generator unit, Unit 2 has auxiliary plant including condenser, cooling tower, non-condensable gas extraction facilities and H2S removal system. A steam above-ground pipeline system (SAGS) connects the new geothermal wells to the turbine. The plant-wide distributed control system has also been extended and integrated.
World’s largest single cylinder turbine

Unit 1 began operation in 2000, with power equipment supplied by Fuji Electric Co. At the time, the 110MW turbine was the world’s largest single cylinder machine. There are two-phase fluid pipelines with central separators, and integrated pressure control. Since startup, the generator has supplied 110MW at night and 105MW in the day into the State Electricity Company PLN’s grid.
The country has an abundant source of clean, sustainable energy to complement its immense hydrocarbon and coal reserves.

The plant uses flash steam technology, with the steam generating electricity by driving the turbine directly. The steam is produced at more than 300oC, and contains virtually no pollutant gasses or CO2. Wayang Windu is the world’s most efficient geothermal facility. The first Unit 2 development well MBD-5 was also found to be the largest dry steam well in the world at more than 40MW.

MNL has a Joint Operating Contract with Pertamina Geothermal Energy (PGE), and an Energy Sales Contract with Pertamina and PLN to supply up to 400MW to PLN for 30 years. The plant feeds Java, Madura and Bali.

The Plant is located in Pangalengan 40 Km South of Bandung

See this PDF

Proposed World Heritages

Kampong Naga (Dragon Village) West Java

nature reserve, proposed world heritage, naga, dragon village

nature reserve, proposed world heritage, naga, dragon village

Criteria Requirements – Heritage
1. Uniqueness and characteristics of heritage Natural Heritage
1.1 Significance of ecological systems and natural habitats.
Kampong Naga is located in the highlands characterized by river, hills and valleys. Kampong Naga is administratively bordered by Garut-Tasikmalaya road in the south, Cipalontang Village in the North, Ciwulan river in the east and Bukit Naga (Dragon Hills) in the west. Ciwulan river and the preserved forest formed a natural border with other villages.
1.2 Undisturbed environments or environments demonstrating natural process at work.
Geographically Kampong Naga is located in a fertile valley beside Ciwulan river with the altitude of 1200 meters above sea level. The climates varied between 21º-23º Celsius and humidity 75%-85%. The monthly average rainfalls between 289 mm to 3468 mm this provides Kampong Naga with enough water supplies all year round
1.3 Existence of rare and unique species present at the site
There is an endemic type of bamboo trees growing in Kampong Naga that is called awi tali or rope bamboo. This type of bamboo tree can be transformed to a strong rope and provide the villagers with materials for housing and daily lives (weaved bamboos is widely used for household apparels) and also can be produced as handicrafts for sale.
Cultural Heritage
1.4 Significance of the existing cultural and historical resources.
Kampong Naga is a traditional village that is bonded by traditional values shown in their rituals, houses, housing lay-out, family bonds, and art forms.

Kampong Naga residence is Sundanese and they strongly believe that Eyang Singaparna or the grand old man is their ancestor and founder of the village. Eyang Singaparna also known as Sembah Dalem Singaparna or Eyang Galunggung. His grave lies in a hill near Kampong Naga and considered sacred by the native Naga residence (sa-naga).

The chief of Kampong Nagai called Kuncen (the key holder), he acts as the highest leader helped by a Lebe Naga for marital affairs and Punduh Naga for external affairs.

Family bonds in Kampong Naga based on bilateral and parental relationship referring to either father and mother line. They identified 7 levels of generation both upwards and downwards.

Upwards: 1. Kolot/sepuh (parents), 2. Embah/eyang (grandparents, 3. Buyut (great grandparents), 4. Bao, 5. Jangga wareng, 6. Udeg-udeg, 7. Kait Siwur/gantang siwur.

Downwards: 1. Anak (children), 2.Incu/putu (grandchildren), 3. Buyut (great grandchildren), 4. Bao, 5. Jangga wareng, 6. Udeg-udeg, 7. Gantung siwur/wait.
1.5 Authenticity and integrity
Kampong Naga was built under macrocosmic and microcosmic concepts. This is shown in their housing arrangement that follows the land contours, river, vegetations, and sun and wind direction.
The mosque and the assembly house are placed in the center of the village as a symbol of bonding for every houses in the village

The inhabited areas of Kampong Naga is surrounded by double bamboo fence of 1.5 meters high called kandang jaga (security cage), which also functioned as borderline between sacred and profane areas.
1.6 Degree of survival of the archaeological remains, human values, ways of life, custom, land use, events and living traditions.
Islam is the only religion in Kampong Naga despite the facts that myths-based rituals still greatly influence their daily lives. They hold rituals on Mondays and Thursdays whereas they keep silent and must not talk about history, belief, custom on Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Saturdays. They also carefully chose a certain good day for traveling, building homes, wedding and other rituals to avoid bad luck.

Kampong Naga inhabitants earn a living by farming and grow fish in fish ponds around their village and in the river by building fish cages.
2. Site protection and conservation
2.1 Existence of management control/measures to ensure that the site capacity (in terms of resources and facilities) can absorb tourism activities.
Kampong Naga has its system to control tourists visit by Punduh Naga (deputy chief for external affairs), and a government body who helps maintaining the authenticity of Kampong Naga historic heritage.
2.2 Implementation of preventive measures/ management mechanisms to minimize degradation of resources.
Visitors entering Kampong Naga must meet the elderly of the village before roaming around the village. They will be briefed about the history and the taboos and restrictions that abide them during their visit. Visitors are not allowed to enter Kampong Naga on Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Saturdays.
3. Tourism and site management
3.1 Appropriate tourism activities compatible with local heritage, values and character.
Events that can be observed by visitors are Hajat Sasih, Ngikis and Pedaran.

Hajat Sasih is an ancestor-worship ceremony to ask blessings, soundness and express gratitude to God almighty. It is held by visiting the ancestor grave (Eyang Singaparna).

Ngikis is a ceremony to replace the fence of Eyang Singaparna’s grave.

Pedaran is held once in 8 years to tell and unveil the history and custom of Kampong Naga, carried out in the Islam month of Maulud on 13-14.
3.2 Involvement of local communities in the development and the management of the cultural and the natural heritage site.
Kampong Naga manage its own development in a traditional manner. Government helps restricted only in terms of preservation and funding.
3.3 Creation of jobs that encourage the use of local knowledge, skills and traditions.
People of Kampong Naga use their spare time to produce bamboo handicraft, traditional food, and clothing (hand woven) not only for personal use but also to be sold as souvenirs.
3.4 The use of appropriate off-site and on-site interpretive media to educate visitors such as:

* Signage /panel
* Brochure
* Visual/ audio presentation
* Guide book
* Special events

Local and central government helped by the private sector have provided signage, brochures and other tourism promotion materials to help develop Kampong Naga as a tourist attraction.
3.5 Availability of well-trained local guides/interpreters to serve visitors.
Tour guides consist of well-trained tour guide from the private sector and also native people from Kampong Naga who have reside outside the village because of the ancestor’s rules that limited the number of inhabitants of Kampong Naga (there is a rule that restricted number of the house and inhabitants). Together they can provide an insight of the traditional village.
3.6 Introduction of Cades of conduct to educate visitors on what should or should not do when visiting the site.
3.7 Monitoring program in place to assess tourism impacts on the site.
4. Environmental management 4.1

Provision of appropriate and sufficient waste management system.
4.2 Put in place waste water treatment.
4.3 Zoning parking area for the site.
The local government provides a parking area outside the village. Visitors must walk along a scenic path to reach the village.
4.4 Control and regulate the entry of objects, materials and vehicles to the site.
Visitors are not allowed to bring their personal music instruments, electronics and other devices that are not common to the inhabitants and potentially can disrupt the peaceful nature of the village.
5. Accessibility 5.1 Sufficient infrastructure and facilities to enable easy and safe access to the site..
Good road connects Kampong Naga with major cities in West Java. From the capital city Bandung (86 km), Garut (26 km), and Tasikmalaya (30 km). In fact it is located nearby the main road of Garut-Tasikmalaya.

The local government have also upgrade the originally village path to become an enjoyable scenic path that connects the village with the parking lot which lies beside the main road.
5.2 Adequate and clear directional signage to the site.
Signage is available but they need to be added with clear sign in English language.
6. Support facilities 6.1 Adequacy of facilities such as medical care, F&B outlets, electricity, water supply, restrooms, communication tolls.
Complete facilities can be found in the nearby city of Garut and Tasikmalaya and the capital city of West Java (Bandung).

While on-site, visitors can find parking lot, souvenir shop, and accommodation just outside the village.Kampong Naga itself is restricted from providing those facilities to keep its original environment.
6.2 Availability of skilled staff, officials/local guards and other measures to take care of safety and security for visitors.
Kampong Naga has social values that honor guests and together with the backings from the government, safety and security issues are taken care of in a proper manner.

Trowulan Ancient City

Trowulan Ancient City
 

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Date of Submission: 19/10/1995
Criteria:
Category: Cultural
Submission prepared by:
Directorate General for Culture
Coordinates:
East Java
Ref.: 285


Trowulan is a village in Mojokerto, in the Indonesian province of East Java. It is surrounded by an archaeological site covering approximately 100 square kilometres. It has been suggested it was the site of the eponymous capital city of the Majapahit Empire, which is described by Mpu Prapanca in the 14th-century poem Nagarakretagama and in a 15th-century Chinese source.

The Nagarakretagama contains poetic descriptions of the palace of Majapahit and its surroundings, but is limited to the royal and religious sectors. Some of the details are vague, and scholars who have tried to compile a plan of the capital have come to different conclusions.

Older research at Trowulan has concentrated on monumental remains: temples, tombs, and a bathing place. Archaeological surveys and excavations have recently found the remains of industrial, commercial and religious activity, habitation areas and water supply systems, all of which are evidence of dense population during the 14th to 15th centuries.
 

Descriptions in contemporary sources

According to the account of Prapanca in the Nagarakretagama poem, the royal compound was surrounded by a thick, high wall of red brick. Nearby was the fortified guard post. The main gate into the palace was located in the north wall, and was entered through huge doors of decorated iron. Outside the north gate was a long building where courtiers met once a year, a market place, and a sacred crossroads. Just inside the north gate was a courtyard containing religious buildings. On the western side of this courtyard were pavilions surrounded by canals where people bathed. At the south end a gate led to rows of houses set on terraces in which palace servants lived. Another gate led to a third courtyard crowded with houses and a great hall for those waiting to be admitted into the ruler’s presence. The king’s own quarters, which lay to the east of this courtyard, had pavilions on decorated red brick bases, ornately carved wooden pillars, and a roof decorated with clay ornaments. Outside the palace were quarters for Shiva priests, Buddhists, and other members of the nobility. Further away, and separated from the palace by open fields, were more royal compounds, including that of the chief minister Gajah Mada. Here Prapanca’s descriptions end.

A 15th-century Chinese source describes the palace as clean and well kept. It was said to have been enclosed within a brick wall more than 10 metres high and with a double gate. The houses inside were built on pillars and were 10–13 metres high, with wooden floors covered with fine mats on which people sat. Roofs were made from wooden shingles and the dwellings of the common people were roofed with straw.

A book on Majapahit court etiquette defines the capital as ‘All where one can go out without passing through paddy fields.’ Temple reliefs from Majapahit do not depict urban scenes, but some contain sketches of settlements indicated as pavilions enclosed within walls. The word ‘kuwu’ in Nagarakretagama seems to refer the settlement units consisting of a group of buildings surrounded by wall, in which a large number of people lived under the control of a nobleman. This pattern characterised the 16th-century coastal cities of Java described by early European visitors, and Majapahit’s capital was probably composed of such units.

Discovery

The ancient city ruins at Trowulan had been discovered by the 19th century. Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, governor of Java from 1811 until 1816 and an indefatigable enthusiast for the island’s history, reported the existence of ‘ ruins of temples…. scattered about the country for many miles ‘. Much of the region was blanketed with dense teak forest at that time, making detailed survey impossible. Nonetheless, Raffles was so impressed by what he saw that he was later to refer to Trowulan as ‘ this pride of Java ‘.

Excavations in and around Trowulan have shown that parts of the old settlement still lie buried under several metres of mud and volcanic debris, a result of the frequent eruptions of nearby Mount Kelud, as well as frequent flooding of the Brantas river. Several archaeological ruins lie scattered around Trowulan village. Several are quite damaged, while others have undergone reconstruction. Most are constructed of red brick.

Candi Tikus is a ritual bathing pool (petirtaan) which is perhaps the most exciting recent archaeological finding at Trowulan. Candi Tikus means ‘rat temple’, the name given to the discovery in 1914 because the site appeared during the excavation to be a rat-breeding enclosure. Restored to its present condition in 1985 and 1989, this complex of red brick takes the form of a sunken, rectangular basin, into which a flight of steps descends on the northern side. The principal structure, which projects from the southern wall of the basin, was apparently modelled on the legendary Mount Mahameru. No longer complete, it consisted of terraced foundations, upon which would have rested a concentric arrangement of ‘turrets’ surrounding the highest peak of the building.

Not far from Candi Tikus in the Keraton district stands the recently restored gateway of Bajang Ratu, an elegant red brick paduraksa gate dating from the mid-14th century. The form of the structure is tall and slender, rising to a height of 16.5 metres and displaying intricate relief decoration, especially on the roof section. Bajang Ratu in Javanese literally means ‘dwarf or defect monarch’. Folk tradition links the gate with Jayanegara, the second Majapahit king, successor to Kertarajasa Jayawarddhana, founder of the Majapahit Empire. According to tradition, Jayanegara fell from the gate as a child, causing defects to his body. The name probably also means ‘little monarch’, as Jayanegara ascended to the throne at a young age. Historian connect this gate with Ʋenggapura (Ʋi Ranggapura) or Kapopongan of Antawulan (Trowulan), the shrine mentioned in Nagarakertagama as the dharma place (holy compound) dedicated to King Jayanegara during his death on 1328.
 

Wringin Lawang is located a short distance south of the main road at Jatipasar. The name in Javanese means ‘The Banyan Tree Gate’. The grand gate portals are made from red brick, with a base of 13 x 11 metres and a height of 15.5 metres, and date from the 14th century. The gate is of the ‘Candi Bentar’ or split gateway type, a structure which may have appeared during the Majapahit era. Most historians agree that this structure is the gate of an important compound in the Majapahit capital. Speculations concerning the original function of this majestic gateway have led to various suggestions, a popular one being that it was the entrance to the residence of Gajah Mada.

Candi Brahu in the Bejijong district is the sole surviving structure of what was once a cluster of historic buildings. According to popular folk belief, it was in the vicinity of Candi Brahu that the cremation ceremonies for the first four Majapahit rulers were carried out. This tradition, while difficult to prove, is supported in part by material evidence, which suggests that the monument once served as a royal mortuary shrine. The royal personage to whom the building was dedicated remains unclear. The ruin of Candi Gentong lies nearby.

The Islamic tomb of Champa Princess is believed to be the tomb of a Majapahit king’s consort. According to local traditions, she is said to have married one of the last of the Majapahit kings and to have converted him to Islam before her death in 1448.

Segaran Pool is a large rectangular pool with size 800 x 500 metres. The name Segaran originated from the word ‘segara’ in Javanese which means ‘sea’, probably the local suggest that the large pool is the miniature of the sea. Surrounding the water basin is rectangular wall made of red brick thus make the form of the pool. The pool brick structure is discovered in 1926 by Maclain Pont, at that the pool was covered in dirt and mud. Reconstruction took place some years later and now Segaran pool is functioned by locals as recreational pool and fishing pond. The brick structure originated from 14-15th century Majapahit era. The actual function of the pool is unknown. The study suggested that the pool probably served various functions, but mainly the as city reservoir, the source of fresh water essential for high density urban area, especially during dry season. Another local popular belief is this pool is use as the bathplace and swimming pool to train Majapahit troops, also as recreational pool for Majapahit royalties to entertain the envoys and guests.

Near northeast edge of Kolam Segaran lies the ruin of Candi Menak Jingga. The structure is now ruined and stones scaterred around the vicinity with the base still lies buried underground. Excavation still on the progress. The structure is made from carved andesite stone on outer layer with red brick in inner layer. The most exciting feature of this structure is the parts contained ornaments (probably roof part) identified as Qilin, a Chinese mythical creature. This might suggested a strong cultural relationship with China especially during Ming Dynasty. The local tradition linked this site with the pavilion of Queen Kencana Wungu, the Majapahit queen from the tales of Damarwulan and Menak Jingga.

At Umpak, stones form the base for wooden pillars, which were probably part of wooden building. The organic material has decayed and only the stone base remains.

In the Troloyo district, numerous Islamic tombstones have been discovered, the majority of which date from between 1350 and 1478. These finds confirm not only that a Muslim community was well established in Java by the mid 14th century, but also that the religion was officially acknowledged and practised within the royal capital itself.
When you like to know more go to Wikipedia : 

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trowulan

 A really nice site about Trowunan is :http://www.eastjava.com/books/majapahit/html/museum.html