East Java, Wringinlawang Temple, Wringinlawang Hamlet, Jati Pasar Village, Trowulan

East Java, Wringinlawang Temple, Jati Pasar Village, Trowulan

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Wringinlawang Temple is located in Wringinlawang Hamlet, Jati Pasar Village, Trowulan Subdistrict, Mojokerto Regency, or 11 km from Mojokerto en route to Jombang. Legend has it that near the temple there was a big banyan tree, and the temple was named after it (in Javanese, wringin is banyan tree, and lawang is door). Little is known about the period in which the temple was built and about its function. In Raffles’ account in 1815, this ancient building is called Gapura Jati Paser, which probably was derived from the name of the village where the temple is located. In Knebel (1907), this structure is called ‘Wringinlawang Gate’. Wringinlawang is a type of bentar temple, i.e. gate without roof. Bentar temple usually functions as the outermost gate of a building compound. From the shape, Wringinlawang Gate is probably a gate that leads to one of the building compounds within the city of Majapahit. Wringinlawang was restored in a period between 1991 and 1995. The whole structure that faces towards east and west is made of red bricks. Its foundation is square, 13 x 11.50 m in dimension. Before restoration, the southern half of the gate was still intact, standing 15.50 m high, while the northern half was only 9 meter high. To the left and right of the stairs leading to the space between the two halves of the gate there is a partition wall 2 m high. The space between the two halves is quite large. No engravings or relieves are found on the temple walls. The temple’s roof is a layered pyramid with square top. The shape of the roof and the upside-down pyramid ornaments on the roof are similar to those found on Bajangratu Temple.

East Java, Tikus Temple, Dinuk hamlet, Temon village, Trowulan

East Java, Tikus Temple, Dinuk hamlet, Temon village, Trowulan

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Tikus Temple is located in Dinuk hamlet, Temon village, Trowulan Subdistrict, Mojokerto Regency, East Java, 13 kilometers to the southeast of Mojokerto. To reach the temple site, visitors, when taking the highway connecting Mojokerto and Jombang, turn left through Segaran Pool and Bajangratu Temple which are located on the left. Tikus temple is also on the left of the street, around 600 m from Bajangratu temple. Previously buried under the ground, Tikus Temple was rediscovered in 1914. Site excavation was conducted based on report by Mojokerto Regent R.A.A. Kromojoyo Adinegoro, informing the discovery of miniature temple at a public cemetery. Complete restoration was implemented between 1984 and 1985. The name ‘Tikus’ (rat) is used by the local community. They say that the site was the den for a colony of rats. No written information is available that clearly describe the time, purpose, and the builder of the temple. However, the discovery of a miniature tower indicates that the temple was built between 13th to 14th century AD, because miniature tower was a characteristic of architecture of that period. The structure of Tikus Temple that resembles a pool has invited arguments among historians and archaeologists with respects to its function. Some scholars believe that the temple was a pool, a bathing place for imperial family, but some others think that the building was a water reservoir and distribution channel for Trowulan people. However, the pyramidal tower suggests that the temple also functions as a worship shrine. The design of Tikus Temple resembles that of a bathing place, as it has a pool and several buildings inside the temple precinct. Most of the buildings are made of bricks, square with the dimension of 29.5 meters x 28.25 meters. It is interesting to note that the whole structure stands in a pit, 3.5 meters below the ground. Above the temple, there is a 75 cm wide walkway encircling the brink of the pit. Just one meter below it, there is a wider walkway surrounding the pool. A descending entranceway to the temple is found at the north side. The entranceway is a stairway, 3.5 meters in width that leads to the bottom of the pool. There are other two pools; each is situated by each side of the stairway. Each of the rectangular pool is 3.5 meters x 2 meters in width and 1.5 meters in depth. Near the outside walls of each pool, there are three lotus flower-shaped fountains made of andesite stone. Facing towards the stairs, located a bit to the south, there is a square structure with the dimension of 7.65 meters x 7.65 meters. On this building is a 2-meter tall ‘tower’ capped with a leveled mountain-shaped roof. The biggest tower in the middle is surrounded by eight ancillary towers. Meanwhile, the building is encircled with a row of fountains taking the shape of a lotus flower and a makara. It is important to note that the temple was built using bricks of two different sizes. The base of the temple consists of bigger bricks layered with smaller bricks. Also, the temple has two different types of fountains. There are fountains made of bricks and there are ones made of andesite rock. The fact that there are two different sizes of bricks used in the temple leads to the opinion that there are two stages in the construction of Tikus Temple. It is concluded that the bigger bricks were used at an earlier stage, indicating that this type of bricks is older, while the smaller ones were used later. It is also argued that the fountain made of bricks were created during the earlier stage of temple construction. The claim is based on the fact that in comparison to andesite rock fountains, the design of brick fountains is less fine and smooth. Still, the exact date of temple construction remains unknown.

East Java, Tegawangi temple, Tegowangi village, Kediri

East Java, Tegawangi temple,  Tegowangi village, Kediri

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Tegawangi temple is situated in Tegowangi village of Plemahan subdistrict around 24 Km from Kediri, East Java. It is around 1 km from access road and hidden among village houses, but the vicinity is well preserved. The Hindu temple is estimated to be built in the end of 14th century by the order of King Hayam Wuruk to purify his cousin Bhre Matahun. It is mentioned in the book of Pararaton that Bre Matahun died in the Javanese year of 1310 (1388 AD) and was buried in Tegawangi. Tegawangi temple faces west, and is laid out on a square base 11.20 m in width and stands 4.29 meter high. The temple is made of andesite stone, bigger than the Surawana temple in Kediri. The temple is in worse condition than the Surawana is, with only the base and small fractions of its body remain. There is a sculpture of drum player on the stairway’s banisters. The bottom of the temple’s foot is decorated with relief of climbing plants, flowers and gana arranged in interchanging pattern. The wall of the temple’s foot is adorned with relief sculptures depicting scenes from Sudamala ballads. The relief proves that Tegawangi temple was built for purification purposes. Similar scenes are also found on Sukuh temple. At the southeastern corner of the temple’s park there are ruins of temples and statues, which have not been restored to their original forms. Some of them are statues, including Parwati statue.

East Java, Surawana Temple, Canggu Village, Kediri

East Java, Surawana Temple, Canggu Village, Kediri

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Surawana Temple is situated in Canggu Village, Pare Subdistrict, Kediri Regency. It is about 25 kilometers to the northeast of Kediri. The temple, whose official name is Wishnubhawanapura, is estimated to be built in 14th century in order to glorify Bhre Wengker, a king of Wengker Kingdom, a nation under the control of Majapahit Empire. The king of Wengker died in 1388. Negarakertagama states that in 1361, King Hayam Wuruk of Majapahit Empire once visited the temple and even stayed there. The temple is small, only 8 meters x 8 meters. The temple, which was made of entirely andesite stones, is a Shiva temple. Currently, the whole body and roof of the temple have gone without a trace. Only the 3 meter high temple base remains in its place. To access the veranda on the temple base, a narrow stairway is available on the west side. From the stairway position, it can be concluded that this temple faces towards the west. As it is seen in Rimbi Temple, The base of the temple looks as if it had two layers, and each layer is separated by a line with projecting design in every corner. The upper base, the base above the decorative line, is narrower than the lower base. Unlike the relief sculptures at Rimbi Temple, the bas-reliefs sculpture at Surawana Temple are made bigger and finer, engraved on both the upper and lower bases. Relief sculptures on the lower base depict Tantric tales, while the relief sculptures on the upper base portray the tales of Sri Tanjung, Arjunawiwaha, Bubuksah and Gagak Aking. Such tales are commonly found at purification temples e.g. Bajangratu Temple in Trowulan and Tegawangi Temple, which is also in Pare. Looking at the neatly orderly environment, Surawana appears to have gone through a restoration. The work, however, is still far from perfection since the base of the temple is the only part left. There are still a lot of stones and statues that have not been restored to their original positions. The stones and statues are neatly arranged on rows made of cement blocks in order to prevent further damage due to water absorption.

East Java, Singasari Temple, Candi Renggo village, Malang

East Java, Singasari Temple, Candi Renggo village, Malang

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Singasari Temple is located at Candi Renggo village, Singosari Subdistrict, about 9 km from Malang city. The temple is also called Cungkup temple or Tower temple, meaning that this temple is the highest, at least compared to the other temples in the compound. Today, however, it is only Singasari temple left in Singasari area, while the other temples have gone without a trace. There is no certain time when this temple was built, but archaeologists estimate that the temple was built around 13th century to commemorate King Kertanagara of Singosari Kingdom. There are two shrines dedicated to Kertanagara, Singosari temple and Jawi temple, as indicated in the presence of several Shiva statues in the temple’s court. Singosari temple is at the center of the court. The temple body rests on a shelf, 1.5 meter high. The base of the temple is simple in design, without any ornament or relief. Unlike other temples, the stairs at the base of the temple bear no decoration of makara pattern. The entrance into the space inside the temple is located at the front side of display room (a small frontward projecting room), facing south. The entrance is also simple without ornaments engraved on the sills. Above the entrance sills is a relief sculpture of a kala head. The artwork is very modest. Some relief sculptures are so modest and simple that leads people to suspect that Singasari Temple was partially completed. Slightly rearward on the left and right hand sides of the gate there is a niche to put a statue. Similar niches are also found on the other three sides of the temple’s body. These niches are bigger, with an indented display, above which sills simple ornaments of kala head are engraved. At the center of the room there is a yoni that is already damaged in its upper part. No engravings are found on the yoni’s base. At a glance, Singasari Temple seems to be arranged in two tiers because the roof’s lower part is in square shape, resembling a small chamber with niche on each side. It appears that there were statues inside the niches, although four of them are currently empty. Above the sills of each niche’s “door”, there are engravings of Kala head ornaments which are more complicated than those above the sills of the entrance and niches in the temple’s body. The roof top is pyramidal in shape, with gradually narrowing structure towards the top. Portions of the roof appear to have collapsed. Singasari temple was partially restored in the 1930’s by Dutch government, as stated in the relief at the temple’s base. However, the restoration was not completed since there are still many rows of stone piles in the yard not successfully restored to their original positions. It is difficult to put the stone in the right place. The yard also has some statues, most of which are in damaged or unfinished condition, such as Shiva statues in various positions and sizes, Durga, and Lembu Nandini. About 300 m to the west of Singasari temple, through a densely populated area, there are two big statues of Dwarapala, a gate-keeping giant in massive size. Each of the statues is said to weigh around 40 tons, 3.7 m in height, with 3.8 m body measurement. The two statues are around 20 m apart (today they are separated by a road). Dwi Cahyono, an archeologist from Malang University, says that the two statues of Dwarapala used to be facing the east towards Singasari temple, but the one on the south side has now changed direction to face northeast. The change in direction occurred during the process of statue excavation. Until the end of 1980s, the lower half of the south statue was still buried in the ground. Rubble is seen in the background of the south statue, which seems to be a wall. The two statues were probably keepers of the entrance into the palace of King Kartanegara (1268-1292), which is located to the west (on the background) of the two statues. Legend around Singasari Dynasty Some temples in East Java, especially around Malang, have a close historical connection to the Singasari Kingdom. Singasari dynasty descended from Ken Dedes and her two husbands, Tunggul Ametung an akuwu (chief of an area comparable to present day Subdistrict) of Tumapel and Ken Arok, a commoner who killed Tunggul Ametung and seized his power and wife. The history of Singasari Kingdom has given birth to a legend of Kris (Javanese double-edged dagger) Mpu Gandring that is highly popular among the people of East Java. Legend has it that Ken Arok was born out of an affair between a woman from Panawijen village named Ken Endog and Brahma. Shortly after his birth, baby Ken Arok was abandoned by his mother in a cemetery, and then was found and brought home by an experienced thief. From his stepfather, Ken Arok learned many things, such as murder, gambling and robbery. Young Ken Arok became the meanest bandit around Tumapel and people were afraid of him. One day, Ken Arok met a Brahmin priest called Dang Hyang Lohgawe and the priest advised him to leave his walk of life. Following the advice of the priest, Ken Arok quit being a criminal and became a Tumapel soldier. The then chief of Tumapel, an area within Kediri Kingdom, was Tunggul Ametung, who married Ken Dedes, the daughter of Mpu Purwa who lived in Panawijen village. A son named Anusapati was born out of the marriage. One day Ken Dedes went home to see her father. As she stepped down from her imperial carriage, a strong wind blew open her under skirt. Ken Arok, who was on duty of escorting the carriage, briefly saw the thighs of Tunggul Ametung’s wife. To the eyes of Ken Arok, the thighs produced a sparkling light. The scene lingered on the mind of Ken Arok. He then asked Mpu Parwa about what he had seen. The master explained that the light was an omen that Ken Dedes was predestined to be a woman who would descend kings on the island of Java. Ken Arok then ordered a Kris from a Kris master (mpu) in Tumapel named Mpu Gandring. It takes long to forge, shape, and follow the necessary rituals to make a reliably powerful Kris. Because the completion of his Kris was dragging on, Ken Arok became very angry. He snatched the unfinished Kris and stabbed it to the body of its maker. Dying, Mpu Gandring cast a curse upon Ken Arok that he too would meet the same fate to be killed by the same Kris and that the Kris would take seven lives. Ken Arok lent Mpu Gandring Kris to his colleague, Kebo Ijo, who liked to show off. Kebo Ijo showed the Kris to his fellow soldiers and bragged that the Kris was his. After it became a common knowledge that the Kris was Kebo Ijo’s, Ken Arok stole and used it to stab Tunggul Ametung. As it was expected, people, who were under the impression that the Kris belonged to Kebo Ijo, accused him for the murder while Ken Arok walked freely and took over Tunggul Ametung’s place as the chief and married Ken Dedes. Soon after he became the chief, Ken Arok conquered Kediri Kingdom, which was under the reign of King Kertajaya (1191-1222). Upon defeating Kediri Kingdom, Ken Arok declared the establishment of Singasari Kingdom and made himself its first king entitled Rajasa Bathara Sang Amurwabhumi. Ken Arok had a son named Mahisa Wongateleng from his marriage to Dari Ken Dedes, and another son named Tohjaya from his marriage to Ken Umang. Then, Mpu Gandring’s curse started to happen. Anusupati killed Ken Arok and took over his throne, Tohjaya came up and killed Anusupati and claimed the throne. In turn, Ranggawuni, Anusupati’s son, killed Tohjaya and came to reign. Ranggawuni was addressed Jayawisnuwardhana and ruled Singasari from 1227 until 1268. Jayawisnuwardhana was succeeded by his son, Joko Dolog, who was called Kertanegara (1268-1292). Kertanegara was the last of Singasari kings. He was overthrown by Jayakatwang, the king of Kediri. Jayakatwang, however, was defeated by Kertanegara’s son-in-law, Raden Wijaya, who was the descendant of Mahisa Wongateleng and King Udayana from Bali. Later, Raden Wijaya established a new kingdom named Majapahit and ruled the kingdom from an area called Tarik (Trowulan).

East Java, Sawentar Temple, Kanigoro village, Blitar

East Java, Sawentar Temple, Kanigoro village, Blitar

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Sawentar Temple is located in Kanigoro village, Garum Subdistrict, to the east of Blitar. The temple lies several meters below the ground level. For years the temple was buried under the ground before it was excavated in 1915 to 1920. This rectangular temple, 9.53 X 6.86 meter in dimension, is very similar to Kidal Temple. The body of the temple stands on a shelf in 7 x 7 meter dimension, and 1.5 m high. The temple stands 10.65 meters high. The body of the temple is smaller than its base, creating a narrow veranda around it. The entrance to the temple is at the west side, and there are niches on both sides of the entrance. There are no Kala head engravings on either the entrance frame or the niches. Both niches are empty without any statues. Outside the walls of the temple, at the north and south sides, there are also empty niches. Unlike the entrance to the temple, there are relief sculptures depicting Kala heads above these niches. There is a staircase –about 0.5 m wide, to climb to the batur stone or cella. An ornament of dragon head is at the lower part of the stair, while the left and right sides of the stairs are plain stones without any relief on the inner sides. A relief shows a wing of bird in geometric pattern is found on the outer side of the stair. The position of the floor of the cella and the niches on the three sides of the wall are higher above the veranda. Both in front of the gate and each niche lies a small stair complete with its ornament. Inside the garba grha (a room inside temple) is a yoni on a pedestal engraved in Garuda figure, suggesting that Sawentar Temple is build to worship the god Wishnu, because garuda is Wishnu’s vehicle. The wall has a Portuguese cross pattern engravings. The temple’s roof is an arrangement of three square boxes increasingly smaller to the top. The edge of each square box has engravings that look like an inscription. The center and corner of each box are decorated with smooth engravings. The roof top is in ruined condition, probably because of its near to surface position when it was buried. The different complexity of engravings on temple’s roof and upper part of temple body and those of the base and lower part of temple body indicates that the construction of Sawentar temple had not been completed. It remains uncertain as to when the temple, considered to be a transitional style of old to new East Java temple, was built. It is estimated that the temple was built between early and mid 13th century.

East Java, Segaran Pool, Trowulan Hamlet, Trowulan village, Trowulan

East Java, Segaran Pool, Trowulan Hamlet, Trowulan village

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Kolam Segaran (Segaran Pool) is located in Trowulan Hamlet, Trowulan village, Trowulan Subdistrict, Mojokerto Regency, to the south of a crossroads linking Mojokerto – Jombang. The pool is to the left of the road, around 500 meters away. Kolam Segaran was discovered in 1926 in buried condition. In 1966, an inadequate restoration was performed to this pool. It was only in 1974 that a planned and integrated restoration began, which took ten years to complete. The definite function of Kolam Segaranl is yet to find out, but according the people around it, the pool was used by Majapahit imperial family for recreation and entertaining overseas guests. This pool is the biggest ancient pool ever found in Indonesia. The overall dimension of the pool is approximately 6.5 hectares, 375 m from north to south and 175 m wide. The pool has 1.60 m thick walls with a depth of 2.88 m. At the entrance door on the west, there is a terrace that projects to the center of the pool. On the inner side of the veranda are stairs to step down to the pool. The entire walls and veranda are made of brick layers without adhesive materials. The bricks are rubbed one against the other to make them sticky. On its southeast side, there is a ditch to channel water into the pool, while drain is on its northwest side. Water that drains from the pool will flow to Balongdawa (long pond) located to the northwest and Balongbunder (round pond) to the south. Considering the presence of water inlet and outlet, it can be estimated that Segaran Pool was once used to function as dam and water collecting facility. Scholars predict that this pool is what is mentioned as lake in Negarakertagama.

East Java, Kidal Temple, Rejokidal village, Malang

East Java, Kidal Temple, Rejokidal village, Malang

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Kidal Temple is located in Rejokidal village of Tumpang Subdistrict in Malang Regency approximately 20 km to the east of Malang city. This temple is said to be the oldest shrine in East Java, because Airlangga (11-12 century AD) of Kahuripan Kingdom and kings of Kediri Kingdoms (12-13 century AD) left only Belahan Temple and Jalatunda, which is a pool. Kidal Temple was built in 1248 AD, following a ‘Cradha’ funeral ceremony for King Anusapati of Singasari Kingdom. The temple was constructed as King Anusapati’s dharma in order the he received glorification as Shiva Mahadewa. Built during transitional period of Central Java kingdoms’ heyday to East Java kingdoms, Kidal Temple shares the characteristics of Central Java temple and East Java temple. Some scholars even mention that Kidal Temple is the prototype temple of East Java style. The temple is made exclusively of andesite stones in vertically geometric dimension. Around the temple yard is a stone structure that serves as a fence. The temple sits on a batur (temple base) 2 meters high. To access veranda on the temple base, stone stairs are placed right in front of the entrance gate. Interestingly, each of the stair is flat, which makes the whole stairs do not look like real stairs from distance. These stone stairs do not have handrails in ukel style, as commonly found in other temples, but on the left hand side there is a badug (low wall) in elbow shape that blocks the side and a part of the front side of the stair base. No such badug is found in other temples. The temple’s entrance gate heads towards the west, with performer room having kalamakara (a giant’s head) ornament above its sill. The giant’s head ornament, which is scare with eyes open wide, open mouth, and 2 big and long curved fangs, gives a sense of dominance. The 2 fangs are also a characteristic of temples in East Java style. On the left and right corners are fingers in threatening mudra (position), making a perfect fearsome impression that a shrine keeping creature deserves. There is a small niche on the left and right hand side of the entrance gate, where a statue is positioned with a ‘roof’ above. Above the sills of the niches are decorated with kalamakara ornaments as well. The roof of Kidal Temple is three-layered square, which gets smaller to the top. The top is not pointed, but square with wide enough surfaces. The roof top is not decorated with ratna or stupa, but is simply plain. Around the edge of each layer is decorated with flower floral and climbing plantations. Legend has it that each layer’s corner is planted with a small diamond. Around the temple base is decorated with medallion engravings in rows interspersed with frames in floral and climbing plantation motifs. On the left and right of stair base and on each projecting corner, there is an animal statue that resembles a lion in sitting position like human with one hand to the air. These statues look like supporting the upper edge of the temple base projecting out of the veranda. The temple body is slim, providing a wide enough veranda on the temple base. Inside the temple body is a relatively small room, which is now vacant. The temple’s walls are engraved in medallion motifs. A niche is provided on the flank and rear part of the temple to place a statue. The niches also have ‘roof’ and kalamakara decoration above the sills. None of the statues are found in Kidal Temple. Reportedly the beautiful Shiva statue now kept in Leiden Museum was taken from Kidal Temple. In ancient Javanese literature, there is a popular myth among the people, i.e. Garudeya, a mythical bird garuda that managed to liberate her mother from slavery by giving amerta holy water (water of life) in exchange. Legend has it that Garudeya was invented to fulfill Anusapati’s wish who want to purify Ken Dedes, his beloved mother. The myth of Garudeya is depicted in detail in reliefs of around temple base. The prasawiya (counter clockwise) technique of reading is used for reading the reliefs, beginning from the southern side. The first relief describes a garuda carrying 3 giant snakes; the second depicting a garuda with pot on its head; and the third relief depicting a garuda carrying a woman. Among the three reliefs, the second is the most beautiful and intact. The Myth of Garudheya The myth of Garudheya lived among ancient Javanese people who embraced Hinduism. It tells of a mythical bird struggling to free his mother from hardship. The story begins with a Resi (somebody who leads austere life) named Kasyapa who lives in his retreat with his two wives, Dewi Winata and Dewi Kadru. Although the wives are siblings, each day they fight resentfully to win bigger attention from their husband. Their hearts grow even bitter when they bear no children yet. One day, a god visits Dewi Winata and leaves an egg into her care. The god advises her to raise whatever creature coming out of the egg as her own child. Upon receiving the egg, Dewi Winata keeps it in a hidden place. Meanwhile, Dewi Kadru also has the same experience. Later when the time is due, the eggs hatch. A chick comes out of Dewi Winata’s egg whereas some snakes hatch out of Dewi Kadru’s. Dewi Winata’s young bird grows into a garuda (a mythical gigantic eagle), later called Garudheya, while Dewi Kadru’s foster children become dragon snake. Although each wife has already been presented with children, the siblings are never on good terms. One day, Dewi Kadru tricks her sister into betting and Dewi Winata loses both the bet and her freedom. She becomes a slave to Dewi Kadru and her children. Learning that his mother leads a miserable life, Garudheya is deeply sad. As soon as he becomes a fully-fledged bird, Garudheya vows to set his mother free at any cost. Finally he finds out that his mother will regain her freedom on condition that he can fetch tirta amerta (water of life). The water can only be found in the abode of gods and goddess, guarded by Vishnu. Through tremendous toil and trouble, Garudheya finally managed to obtain the water. Vishnu, however, grants Garudheya his permission to take the water only after Garudheya gives his word to be Vishnu’s means of transportation.

East Java, Jawi Temple, Welirang Hill, Candi Wates village, Pasuruan

East Java, Jawi Temple, Welirang Hill, Candi Wates village, Pasuruan

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This temple is located on the foot of Welirang Hill, Candi Wates village, Prigen Subdistrict, Pasuruan Regency, around 31 km from the city of Pasuruan. The temple is relatively still intact after frequent restorations. The second restoration of Jawi Temple was performed between 1938 and 1941 out of its ruined condition. The work, however, was discontinued because there are many missing stones, and was completed further between 1975 and 1980. Verse 56 of Negarakertagama mentions that Jawi Temple was built by the last king of Singasari Kingdom, Kertanegara, as a worship shrine for Shiva-Buddhist followers. King Kartanegara was a Shiva-Buddhist follower. While being a worship shrine, Jawi Temple is also a place where Kertanegara ashes are kept. This is rather strange because Jawi Temple is located quite distant away from the center of Singasari Kingdom. It is probably because of the fact that the people in the area were so loyal to their king and many of them were Shiva-Buddhist followers. The assumption is founded on a reality that as Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara’s son-in-law, fled after Kertanegara was dethroned by King Jayakatwang from Gelang-gelang (Kediri); he had once hidden in this area before taking refuge to Madura. Jawi Temple occupies a large area of approximately 40 x 60 m2. The temple is encircled by a ditch, which today has lotus flowers. The temple stands around 24.5 meters high, 14.2 m long and 9.5 m wide. The temple is slim and high like Prambanan Temple in Central Java, while the pointed, pyramidal roof is a combination between stupa and cube. Facing the East, Jawi Temple has Pananggungan Mountain on its background, reinforcing the assumption of some experts that this temple is not a shrine or pradaksina, because worship temple usually heads towards mountains where the gods dwell. Some other experts retain their beliefs that Jawi Temple is a place of worship. Entrance position that does not face the mountain is considered to be resulting from Buddhist influence. One of this temple’s unique characteristics is the use of two types of stone as its construction materials. From the base to veranda, the temple uses stones of dark colors; the body uses white stones, while the roof combines dark and white stones. This temple was probably built in two period of construction. Negarakertagama mentions that in the Javanese year of 1253 (chronogram: Fire Shooting Day) Jawi Temple was struck by lighting. In the incident, the statue of Maha Aksobaya disappeared. The disappearance of the statue had made King Hayam Wuruk sad when the king visited the temple. A year after the incident, Jawi Temple was rebuilt. It is in this period that the white stones were presumably applied. The use of white stones also stimulates questions, because there are only dark-colored stones in Welirang Mountain. The stones were probably taken from the north coasts of Java or Madura. The temple base sits on a shelf 2 m high engraved in relives that depict a story of a meditating woman. The relatively narrow stairs are positioned right in front of the entrance to graba grha (room in temple body). Detailed engravings decorate the left and right handrails of the stairs into veranda, while the handrails of the stairs from the veranda into temple floor are decorated with a couple of long-eared animal figures. The temple body is encircled by wide enough verandas. It appears that there used to be a statue inside the temple. The door frame is plain without engravings, but reliefs of kalamakara with a pair of fangs, lower jaw and decoration on its hair are engraved above the door to fill the space between door top and roof base. There is a niche on each of the left and right hand sides of the door to place a statue. Sills above each of the niche are decorated with engravings of fanged and horned creature heads. The inner room of temple body is currently in empty. Negarakertagama mentions that inside the temple’s niche there was a statue of Shiva with Aksobaya on his crown. The book also mentions that there are a number of god statues in the Shiva system of belief, such as Nandiswara, Durga, Ganesha, Nandi, and Brahma statues. None of the statues remain in their place. Reportedly the Durga statue is now kept in Empu Tantular Museum, Surabaya. The outer walls of the temple body are decorated in reliefs, which to this day none can interpret. It is probably due to the excessively thin engravings, or because there is a lacking in supporting information such as sculptured stone or scripts. Even Negarakertagama, which tells this temple in detail, does not mention anything about the reliefs. According to gatekeeper of the temple, the reliefs must be read using prasawiya technique (counter-clockwise reading), similar to that used in reading Kidal Temple reliefs. Still according to the gatekeeper, reliefs engraved on the west side of the north wall describe the map of temple compound and its neighboring areas. A narrow stream separates the temple’s backyard, which is wide and orderly arranged, from settlement area. On the south corner of the yard, there is a ruined construction of red bricks, which probably was a gateway or gapura. However, there is not record available concerning its original shape and function.

East Java, Jago Temple, Jago Hamlet, Tumpang Village, Malang

East Java, Jago Temple,  Jago Hamlet, Tumpang Village, Malang

http://candi.pnri.go.id/jawa_timur/index_e.htm

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Jago Temple is located in Jago Hamlet of Tumpang Village, Tumpang Subdistrict, Malang Regency, or 22 km to the east of Malang. Because it is located in Tumpang village, the temple is also called Tumpang Temple. Local villagers call the temple Cungkup. According to Negarakertagama and Pararaton, the original name of this temple is Jajaghu. Verse 41 phrase 4 of Negarakertagama describes that King Wisnuwardhana who ruled Singasari was a Buddhist Shiva, a religious sect that combines the teachings of Hindu and Buddhist. The teaching flourished during the ruling of Singasari Kingdom, a kingdom located 20 km from Jago Temple. Jajaghu, which means ‘greatness’, is a term used for referring a shrine. Still according to Negarakertagama and Pararaton, Jago Temple was built between 1268 and 1280 AD, as a tribute to the 4th King of Singasari Sri Jaya Wisnuwardhana. Although the temple built during the ruling of Singasari Kingdom, the two books mentioned that in 1359 AD Jago Temple was one of the places most frequently visited by King Hayam Wuruk of the Majapahit Empire. The connection between Jago Temple and Singasari Kingdom can also be traced from lotus carvings, which ramble upwards from their stems and decorate the statues’ pedestals. Such lotus motif was highly popular during Singasari Kingdom. Important to note from temple history is the habit of past kings to restore temples erected by their predecessors. Jago Temple had probably been restored in 1343 AD as ordered by King Adityawarman of Melayu, who had blood relation to King Hayam Wuruk. Today Jago Temple is still in ruined condition and yet to restore. The whole structure of the temple is a square, 23 m x 14 m in dimension. Its roof has gone, so it is not possible to find out the exact height of the temple. It is estimated that the temple stood 15 m high. Facing west, the temple sits on a 1-meter high base and three-terraced feet. Going upward, the temple feet are getting smaller, providing a walkway on the first and second floor where people can walk around the temple. Graba ghra (main room) is shifted slightly to the back. This temple is pyramidal in structure with walkways and shifted rearward, a common shape of building found during megalithic age, which is called punden berundak (pyramidal shrines). The shape was generally applied in the construction of a shrine to worship ancestral spirits. The shape indicates that Jago Temple was built as a shrine to worship ancestral spirits as well. However, further research and study are still required to prove the truth of it. Important to consider is that during the ruling of kingdoms in East Java, there are many variations in shape and function of building. This can be related to the deviation in religious practices which, by itself, affects the arts in holy shrines, including temple. To go to the upper floor, there are two narrow stairs to the left and right hand side of the front part (west). The most important and holiest floor is the highest, of which the construction is shifted rearward. Jago Temple is full of relief panels carved skillfully from the feet up to the walls of the highest room. There is virtually no vacant space, because they are all decorated with various ornaments that tell interrelated stories conveying a message of a “release”. This has reinforced the assumption that Jago Temple was built in close relation to the death of Sri Jaya Wisnuwardhana. In line with the religion followed by King Wisnuwardhana, i.e. Shiva Buddhist, reliefs on Jago Temple contain the elements of both Hindu and Buddhist teachings. Buddhist teaching is reflected in reliefs telling the story of Tantri Kamandaka and the story of Kunjarakarna, which are carved on the lowest terrace. The walls on the second terrace are carved with the next sequence of Kunjarakarna story and parts Mahabharata story that contain Hindu teachings, Parthayajna and Arjuna Wiwaha. The third terrace is full of reliefs telling the next sequence of Arjunawiwaha. The temple body’s walls are also carved with Hindu stories of Krishna and Kalayawana war. In the middle of the front yard, around 6 m from the temple’s feet, there is a big carved stone, 1 m in diameter, which resembles the shape of giant pedestal. On top of it, there is a relief of lotus flower rambling out of its stem. On the west side of temple front yard is the statue of eight-armed Amoghapasa in the foreground of giant-head-shaped thrones in a position of one opposing the other. The statue’s head is missing and the arms broken. Around 3 meters to the south of the statue is a giant head 1 m high. No information is available whether the objects in the temple yard are in their original places.