Arctonyx-collaris, Hog Badger

Arctonyx-collaris

 Hog Badger

ThArctonyx-collaris, Hog Badgere Hog Badger (Arctonyx collaris) is a terrestrial mammal up to 70 centimetres (28 in) long, with medium-length brown hair, stocky body, white throat, two black stripes on an elongated white face and a pink pig-like snout.

The Hog Badger is found in Southeast Asian tropical rainforests. Its appearance generally resembles the Eurasian Badger, but it is smaller, with larger claws on the front feet. Its tail has long white hairs, and its front feet have white claws.

The Hog Badger is omnivorous, its diet consisting of fruits, roots and small animals. It is nocturnal.

The Hog Badger is common throughout its large range, and has been evaluated as of Least Concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Capricornis sumatraensis , Mainland Serow, Kambing hutan

Capricornis sumatraensis

  Mainland Serow, Kambing hutan

Capricornis-sumatraensis

The Mainland Serow, Capricornis sumatraensis is an endangered species of mammal. The Mainland Serow can often be found living alone or in small groups. It is a grazing animal that consumes grass, shoots and leaves. The Serow is most active at dawn and at dusk. It is a territorial animal and typically moves along beaten paths that it creates through its territory. It marks off its territory by depositing droppings and by marking.
The Mainland Serow can be found in Indonesia, Malaysia, India, southern China, and southeast Asia.

Physical characteristics

The Mainland Serow possesses guard hairs on its coat that are bristly or coarse and cover the layer of fur closest to its skin to varying degrees. The animal has a mane that runs from the horns to the middle of the dorsal aspect of the animal between the scapulae covering the skin. The horns are only characteristic of the males and are light-colored, approximately six inches in length, and curve slightly towards the animal’s back. The Mainland Serow has been known to grow to be six feet long and three feet high at the shoulder, and an adult typically weighs over 150 kgs.

Habitat and diet

The Mainland Serow is a terrestrial dwelling animal often inhabiting forest, tropical and mountainous environments. The animal generally lives alone or in small groups and is territorial. The territory of the Mainland Serow usually extends a few square miles. The Serow generally does not stray from this territory and feeds across this area. The Mainland Serow eats grass, shoots and leaves.

The serow lives alone or in small groups. It is attached to its territory, which usually covers just a few miles square, and does not move far when feeding. It grazes on grass and also eats shoots and leaves. It is most active at dawn and dusk, and spends the rest of the day in thick vegetation. It has paths along which it moves, and traditional spots where it marks its territory and deposits its droppings.

Reproduction

The gestation period is about eight months. The Mainland Serow gives birth to a single young usually in September or October.

Cuon-alpinus-javanicus, Dhole, Ajag

Cuon-alpinus-javanicus

 Dhole, Ajag

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The Dhole (CuoCuon-alpinus-javanicus, Dhole, Ajagn alpinus), also known as the Asiatic Wild Dog, Indian Wild Dog, or Red Dog, is a species of Asian canid, and the only member of the genus Cuon.
The Dhole has many physical similarities to the African Wild Dog and the Bush Dog, most notably in the redundancy of the post-carnassial molars, though whether this is an example of convergence or close relationship is a matter of debate.

The Dhole typically weighs 12–20 kilograms (26–44 lb) and measures 90 centimetres (35 in) in body length and 50 centimetres (20 in) shoulder height. The tail measures 40–45 centimetres (16–18 in) in length.There is little sexual dimorphism.The Dhole has a broad, domed skull and a short, broad muzzle. The bones of the forehead and upper jaw are “swollen”, producing a dish-faced profile. The hooded eyes have amber or light brown irises, and the ears are large and rounded.[citation needed]

The pelage of the back and flanks is red to brown in colour, while the foreneck, chest and undersides are white or lightly gingered.The fur of specimens from southern ranges is typically short and rusty red, while that of more northern subspecies is longer and more yellow or brown in colour.Dholes from Thailand are more uniform brown, and lack the typical lighter throat and chest, while those from Himalayan regions have more yellowish fur.

Dhole dentition is unique among canids, by the fact that it has one fewer lower molars, amounting to 40 teeth rather than the more usual 42 of other species. Its lower carnassials also sport only one cusp (two is more usual for canids), an adaptation thought to improve shearing ability, thus allowing it to compete more successfully with kleptoparasites.Its front pawpads are fused at the base. Females have 6-7 pairs of mammae, as opposed to the more usual five present in other canid species.The chromosome number is 2n = 78.

Reproduction

Sexual dimorphism is not very distinct with no quantitative anatomical differences known. Both males and females become sexually active at one year old, though females usually breed at 2 years in captivity, and in the wild, for the first time at 3 years, possibly due to physiological and behavioural restraints. Females exhibit seasonal polyoestrus, with a cycle of around 4–6 weeks. Pups are born throughout the end of fall, winter, and the first spring months ( November – March ) – dens are earthen burrows, or are constructed amongst rocks and boulder structures, in rocky caverns, or close to streambeds. In East Java, the Dhole is thought to mate mainly between January and May. Unlike some other canid species, the Dhole does not engage in a copulatory tie when mating.Also, mating is not as restricted to certain individuals as it is in wolf packs, in which usually only the dominant pair can breed.

After a gestation period of around 60–62 days, females usually give birth to about eight pups (though the range is 5-10, the record is 12, and sizes vary drastically within the same pack through different years), which weigh 200-350g. Dhole growth rate is faster than that of wolves, being similar in length to that of the coyote.At 10 days their body weight has doubled, and body length is 340mm. Pups are weaned between 6 and 9 weeks. In captivity, weaning is sometimes recorded later on in the range. By 8 weeks, younglings are less quarrelsome and aggressive, and more vigilant. At three months litters go on hunts, though the pack may not be fully mobile until eight months. Young reach sexual maturity at about a year, and full adult size at 15 months.

After birth, a few other adults will help to feed the young of the dominant pair. The pups, as early as the age of three weeks, and the mother are fed regurgitated meat. When lone females breed, rearing the litters only results in limited success.

Cynocephalus-variegatus, Colugo, Walang Keke

Cynocephalus-variegatus

 Colugo, Walang Keke

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Colugos are also called flying lemur. However, Cynocephalus-variegatus, Colugo, Walang Kekethere are not closely related to the true lemur, which are found in Madagascar. Flying lemurs are classified in the order Dermoptera, from the Greek words derma, meaning “skin”, and the ptera, meaning “wing”, thus “skin-wing”. These creatures have membranes that connect their legs and tail, enable them to glide from one tree to the other. There are 2 species of colugo in the world; the Malayan Flying Lemur and the Philippine Flying Lemur. It is reported that there are approximately 1500 Malayan Flying Lemurs in Singapore.

Size: About 70cm

Diet: Mainly leaves, young shoots, flower buds and sap.

Activity: Arboreal, largely nocturnal. It is usually seen perching against a tree trunk with its head pointing upwards. When disturbed, the Colugo has two defensive reactions: It wil either freeze and hope not to get noticed or scramble up the trunk higher into the tree.

It can glide from tree to tree in a steady controlled manner, landing with the head up neatly and precisely.

Habitat: Forests. Adapts quite well to disturbed forset edges and coastal plantations. . This species has a wide distribution in Southeast Asia.

Dendrolagus mbaiso, Dingiso, Bondegezou

Dendrolagus mbaiso

 Dingiso, Bondegezou

The DiDendrolagus mbaiso, Dingiso, Bondegezoungiso is currently (2003) listed as a vulnerable species. It is endemic to Indonesia. It was first discovered by an Australian named Dr Tim Flannery in 1987. He roamed the mountains in New Guinea and discovered four new varieties of tree kangaroo. He named this Dendrolagus mbaiso, referring to it as “It’s a beautiful thing, and no biologist had ever seen one before.” Flannery describes the Dingiso as “none was as unusual as Dingiso and none such an interesting evolutionary and culturual story to tell.”

The cultural story that Flannery refers to is the locals refused to hunt this particular species. They believed the dingiso to be sacred, and fittingly the scientific name “mbaiso” translates to “forbidden” in the local dialect.

The Dingiso is the only known species of semi-terrestrial tree kangaroo.

Unlike most tree kangaroos, the dingiso spends most of its time on the ground. They are beautiful black and white coloured animals, and their markings have been reported to change as the animal matures. They have a white patch in the middle of their forehead, and a band of white fur around the muzzle. Females weigh approximately 8.5 to 9 kilograms, but no male Dingisos have ever been weighed. They feed mostly on leaves.

The dingiso is a close relative of Doria’s Tree Kangaroo (Dendrolagus dorianus).

The dingiso lives high in mountains where the temperature usually drops below freezing at night. As such it has developed a dense thick coat. It is reported to be a fearless animal that will approach humans without much hesitation.

Dicerorhinus-sumatrensis, Sumatran Rhinoceros, Badak Sumatera

Dicerorhinus-sumatrensis

 Sumatran Rhinoceros, Badak Sumatera

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The Sum Dicerorhinus-sumatrensis, Sumatran Rhinoceros, Badak Sumateraatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is a member of the family Rhinocerotidae and one of five extant rhinoceroses. It is the smallest rhinoceros, standing about 120–145 centimetres (3.9–4.8 ft) high at the shoulder, with a body length of 250 centimetres (98 in) and weight of 500–800 kilograms (1100–1760 lb). Like the African species, it has two horns; the larger is the nasal horn, typically 15–25 centimetres (6–10 in), while the other horn is typically a stub. A coat of reddish-brown hair covers most of the Sumatran Rhino’s body.

Members of the species once ranged throughout rainforests, swamps and cloud forests in India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and China, where they survived into historical times in the southwest, particularly in Sichuan.They are now critically endangered, with only six substantial populations in the wild: four on Sumatra, one on Borneo, and one on peninsular Malaysia. Their numbers are difficult to determine because they are solitary animals that are widely scattered across their range, but they are estimated to number around 300. The decline in the number of Sumatran Rhinoceros is attributed primarily to poaching for their horns, which are highly valued in traditional Chinese medicine, fetching as much as US$30,000 per kilogram on the black market.The rhinos have also suffered from habitat loss as their forests have been cleared for lumber and conversion to agriculture.

The Sumatran Rhino is a mostly solitary animal except for courtship and child-rearing. It is the most vocal rhino species and also communicates through marking soil with its feet, twisting saplings into patterns, and leaving excrement. The species is much better studied than the similarly reclusive Javan Rhinoceros, in part because of a program that brought 40 Sumatran Rhinos into captivity with the goal of preserving the species. The program was considered a disaster even by its initiators, with most of the rhinos dying and no offspring being produced for nearly 20 years, an even worse decline than in the wild.

Distoechurus pennatus, Feather-tailed possum

Distoechurus pennatus

 Feather-tailed possum

The Feather-tailed PDistoechurus pennatus, Feather-tailed possumossum (Distoechurus pennatus) is a species of marsupial in the Acrobatidae family. It is found in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.

It is the only species in the genus Distoechurus.

Elephas-maximus-sumatrana, Sumatra elephant, Gajah Sumatera

Elephas-maximus-sumatrana

 Sumatra elephant, Gajah Sumatera

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Asian  Elephas-maximus-sumatrana, Sumatra elephant, Gajah SumateraElephants are the smaller of the two species. Their trunks have only one lip. They have an arched back and smaller ears. Female elephants tusks are not visible.

Elephants are the largest living land animals, with males standing on average at 4 metres tall, weighing about 6,500 kgs with a body length of 25 feet.

Their trunk, or proboscis is a very sensitive organ used for smelling, handling food, objects, sucking up water and touching. Their food and water is picked, or sucked up using the trunk and then passed into their mouth. They also use their trunks to suck up water to squirt over their bodies to keep them cool. Their trunk is sensitive enough to pick up seeds and powerful enough to lift whole trees.

Their large ears act as a cooling system. The backs of the ears are covered by blood vessels and by flapping their ears elephants can keep their body temperature down.

Elephant’s tusks are large teeth growing from the upper jaw. They use their tusks for feeding such as digging up roots and lifting the bark from trees, as well as for display and as a weapon. Elephants are usually about 2 years of age when their tusks first begin to appear. It is because of their tusks that elephants have been so widely hunted.

Elephants eat grasses, leaves, shrubs and also tree bark, twigs and branches. Each day they will consume about 500 lb of vegetation and drink about 120 litres of water.

They are very sociable animals usually living in herds consisting of cows with their calves, led by the oldest female the matriarch. Some males are part of bachelor herds. They communicate by sight, sound, smell and touch.

Equus ferus caballus, Asian horse, kuda

Equus ferus caballu

 Asian horse, kuda

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The horse  Equus ferus caballus, Asian horse, kuda(Equus ferus caballus) is a hoofed (ungulate) mammal, a subspecies of one of seven extant species of the family Equidae. The horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature into the large, single-toed animal of today. Humans began to domesticate horses around 4000 BC, and their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC; by 2000 BC the use of domesticated horses had spread throughout the Eurasian continent. Although most horses today are domesticated, there are still endangered populations of the Przewalski’s Horse, the only remaining true wild horse, as well as more common feral horses which live in the wild but are descended from domesticated ancestors.

There is an extensive, specialized vocabulary used to describe equine-related concepts, covering everything from anatomy to life stages, size, colors, markings, breeds, locomotion, and behavior. Horses are anatomically designed to use speed to escape predators, and have a well-developed sense of balance and a strong fight-or-flight instinct. Related to this need to flee from predators in the wild is an unusual trait: horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down. Female horses, called mares, carry their young for approximately 11 months, and a young horse, called a foal, can stand and run shortly following birth. Most domesticated horses begin training under saddle or in harness between the ages of two and four. They reach full adult development by age five, and have an average lifespan of between 25 and 30 years.

Horse breeds are loosely divided into three categories based on general temperament: spirited “hot bloods” with speed and endurance; “cold bloods”, such as draft horses and some ponies, suitable for slow, heavy work; and “warmbloods”, developed from crosses between hot bloods and cold bloods, often focusing on creating breeds for specific riding purposes, particularly in Europe. There are over 300 breeds of horses in the world today, developed for many different uses.

Horses and humans interact in many ways, not only in a wide variety of sport competitions and non-competitive recreational pursuits, but also in working activities including police work, agriculture, entertainment, assisted learning and therapy. Horses were historically used in warfare. A wide variety of riding and driving techniques have been developed, using many different styles of equipment and methods of control. Many products are derived from horses, including meat, milk, hide, hair, bone, and pharmaceuticals extracted from the urine of pregnant mares. Humans provide domesticated horses with food, water and shelter, as well as attention from specialists such as veterinarians and farriers.

Galeopterus variegatus, Sunda Flying Lemur

Galeopterus variegatus

 Sunda Flying Lemur

Galeopterus-variegatus

The Su Galeopterus variegatus, Sunda Flying Lemurnda Flying Lemur (Galeopterus variegatus), also known as the Malayan Flying Lemur, is a species of Colugo. Until recently, it was thought to be one of only two species of flying lemur, the other being the Philippine Flying Lemur which is found only in the Philippines. The Sunda flying lemur is found throughout Southeast Asia in Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore.

Until recently, scientists recognized just two colugo species, the Sunda Colugo (Galeopterus variegatus) and the Philippine Colugo (Cynocephalus volans). But researchers analyzing genetic material from Sunda Colugos living on the Malay Peninsula, Borneo and Java found genetic differences great enough to suggest that the colugos living on each island had evolved into distinct species. The new distinct species of colugo also look slightly different. For instance, the colugos on Borneo are smaller that their Javan and mainland counterparts and the Borneo colugos also have a wider variation than their relatives in fur colour, including some with spots and others with really dark colouring.

Flying Lemurs are the closest living relatives of primates, having diverged from that group about 86 millions years ago during the Late Cretaceous. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have demonstrated that primates, treeshrews and colugos are closely related, forming a single evolutionary grouping that can be traced back to a common ancestral species.

The Malayan Flying Lemur is not a lemur and does not fly. Instead, it glides as it leaps among trees. It is strictly arboreal, is active at night, and feeds on soft plant parts such as young leaves, shoots, flowers, and fruits. After a 60-day gestation period, a single offspring is carried on the mother’s abdomen held by a large skin membrane. It is a forest-dependent species.

Head-body length of Sunda Flying Lemur is about 34 to 38 cm. Its tail length is around 24 to 25 cm and weight is 0.9 to 1.3 kg.

Sunda Flying Lemur is protected by national legislation. Hunting by local people for meat is a major threat to this animal. Besides that, deforestation and loss of habitat also cause their population declines. Moreover, competition occurred with the Plantain squirrel (Callosciurus notatus) is one of the threat to Sunda Flying Lemur. More information is needed on population declines, but at present it is believed that the rate of the decline is probably not fast enough to trigger listing in any category other than Least Concern.