Tarsius bancanus, Western tarsier

Tarsius bancanus

 Western tarsier

Horsfield’s Tarsier (TarsiusTarsius bancanus, Western tarsierbancanus), also known as the Western Tarsier, is a species of tarsier.

Taxonomic notes

The taxonomy of this species is in doubt, with some subspecies considered unsure.In fact, over 20 years few studies have been done on T. bancanus and a taxonomic revision based upon intensive and systematic field surveys is overdue.These species should be treated as distinct and named as separate taxa until more definitive evidence is available.
Horsfield’s Tarsier in Sarawak

There are three recognized subspecies of Horfield’s Tarsier:

* Tarsius bancanus bancanus
* Belitung Island Tarsier, Tarsius bancanus saltator
* Bornean Tarsier, Tarsius bancanus borneanus

Evolution

There are 3 theories of origin of primates. The first and the oldest being the arboreal theory which suggests that early primates evolved to meet the needs of living an arboreal life They have evolved full stereoscopic vision to be better able to move through the environment. The orbits of these early primates underwent orbital convergence to achieve stereoscopic vision . The reduction of olfaction and the shortening of the snout occurred corresponding to this increase in reliance on vision. Also grasping hands and feet with nails instead of claws were thought to be adaptations to living in an arboreal world.

The visual predation theory puts forward the notion that orbital convergence, grasping hands and feet, and reduced claws were an adaptation for nocturnal foraging for fruit and insects on terminal branches in the shrub layer of the forest. Orbital convergence would assist in determining the prey’s distance without having to move the head, much like we see in modern day owls.

The last, more recent angiosperm radiation theory stated that the adaptive radiation primates occurred with the radiation of angiosperms (flowering plants) that offered new opportunities and an unexplored niche . The early primates were omnivores that were able to feed on objects such as fruits, flowers, gums, nectars, and insects that fed upon these plant parts . The stereoscopic vision evolved to discriminate between food items at low levels of light and handling them would have necessitated better hand-eye coordination. Problems with this theory come from that angiosperms first appeared in the fossil record millions of years before the first primates and that orbital convergence and the correlated neurological specializations occurring with are not found in the early Paleocene primates.
Morphology

The pelage coloration range from pale-olive or reddish brown to pale or dark grey-brown. The coloration possibly varying with age.Based on 12 collected specimens , the range measurement from head to body is 121-154 mm. T.bancanus have an extremely long tail, which can reach 181 to 224 mm, is hairless except for tufts of hair at the end . This species has two grooming claws on each foot .The fingers are very long and have pads on the tips. The toes have flattened nails except for the second and third toes on hind feet, which bear claw-like nails . It has large eyes thus do not reflect torchlight. The membranous ears are slender and almost bare. The molars of this species have high-cusps and are almost tritubercular . The dental formula of T.bancanus are 2:1:3:3 on the upper jaw and 1:1:3:3 on the lower jaw.
Distributions

T.bancanus are found in Southern Sumatra, Borneo and nearby islands. Bornean tarsier, T.b. borneanus known from many lowland sites in Sabah, Brunei, Sarawak and West Kalimantan and above 900m in the Kelabit uplands in Northern Sarawak. Other records that had been made only from Kutai and Peleben in East Kalimantan and Tanjung Maruwe in Central Kalimantan.
Ecology

T.bancanus is a nocturnal species. It sleeps alone during the day in a tangle of vines or creepers at a height of 3.5 to 5 meters. This species prefers to sleep, rest, or remain stationary on perches that are angled 5 degrees from the vertical tree trunks, 1 to 4 cm in diameter and it sleeps solitarily. Before sunset, T.bancanus will wake up and waits 10 to 20 minutes then begins moving around the understory and spend 2 to 1.5 hours of the night foraging for food .T.bancanus can be found from ground level up at least 7m in the understory.

This species is a carnivorous species. It mainly eats insects by consuming beetles, grasshoppers, cockroaches, butterflies, moths, praying mantis, ants, phasmids, and cicadas, but also will eat small vertebrates such as bats (Chiroptera) which are the horseshoe bat, Taphozus sp., the lesser short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis,and the spotted-winged fruit bat, Balionycteris maculata. and snakes, of which poisonous snakes have been found to be consumed. For example the poisonous snake Manticora intestinalis was found to be hunted for by this species. This species was also found to consume birds, including: spider-hunters, warblers ,kingfishers,and pittas. It locates prey primarily by sound and catches the prey with its hands when foraging.The prey items get killed by bites to the back of the neck and the eyes are shut when attacking. It will consume the prey start with the head and work its way down the body.This species drinks by two different ways, one by drinking from a pool or steam, and two by licking water from bamboo leaves or from trunks of trees when water is running down the bark.

T.bancanus is a vertical clinger and leaper hence they known for their extraordinary leaping abilities by having the elongated tarsus, the fibula and tibia is fused on the lower third part going towards the foot. An individual will mainly support itself with its feet and the tail exerts enough force to hold the individual in place without using the hands as much because of the pads located on the feet except when resting the hands are usually placed no higher than nose. The hands only placed higher up if to maintaining the position of the individual. Other modes of locomotion of this species are climbing,quadrupedal,walking,hopping and “cantilevering”.

Horsfield’s tarsiers are monogamous; by that the frequency of copulation during estrus is only once per night (Wright et al., 1986a). Courtship call are performed by the male and he emits 2-3 chirrups while opening and closing the mouth (Wright et al., 1986a). This call happens within 5 minutes of looking at the female and the male does during courtship after the female will perform genital displays to him .If the female is not in estrus it will emit agonistic call is often followed by biting and pushing the male away (Wright et al., 1986a). Both of each call lasts on average for 1 second and the interval between each call is on average 3 seconds.

Infants are born with their eyes open and fully furred and are able to groom themselves (Roberts, 1994). The mother will carry her infant in her mouth and when she forages for food the mother will park the infant on a branch . Clicks are the call that is uttered by the infant sounds like “k”, “tk”, “ki”, or a rapid “kooih” and can be heard when the infant is left alone or is cold [45]. The mother contact with their infants through this high-pitched calls. Infants were found to first use the tails as support during resting at 7–10 days . Young Horsfield’s tarsiers leave their range at the onset of puberty, and find their own territory.

Social grooming in this species only occurs between mothers and infants which are when one individual grooms another, removing dead skin and parasites by scratching with their toe claws and licking their fur, avoiding their faces. Faces are cleaned by rubbing on branches and it is to reinforce social bonds.

Horsfield’s tarsiers mark their territories with scents from urine and glandular secretions on a substrate while scratching the surface with its hindlimb toe claws.
Habitat

This species can live in both primary and secondary forests, and it also lives in forests along the coasts or on the edge of plantations.
Conservation status

The habitat loss rapidly due to forest conversion, oil palm plantations, fire and logging[52]. Even the species are collected for the illegal pet trade and wrongly considered a pest to agricultural crops, and can suffer, directly and indirectly, from contamination from agricultural pesticides.

HorsefieldÂ’s tarsier is listed as Vulnerable in 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and protected by law in Indonesia and in Malaysia, and is listed in CITES Appendix II.

In February 2007, the governments of Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia agreed to protect roughly 220,000 square kilometers (85,000 square miles) of tropical forest in the so-called “Heart of Borneo”. Environmental group WWF was particularly active in the establishment of the protected area.In the “Heart of Borneo” project, non governmental organizations have played role in promoting the critical Heart of Borneo initiative and in assisting the transboundary nations in its conceptualization, design, and implementation. The transboundary nations is to improve biodiversity conservation in Bornean production forests, and to ensure that such forests are not simply converted to agricultural land-uses such as oil-palm plantations after logging .

Tarsius pumilus, Pygmy Tarsier

Tarsius pumilus

 Pygmy Tarsier

Tarsius-pumilus

The Pygmy Tarsier (Tarsius pumilus), also known as the MountainTarsier or the Lesser Spectral Tarsier, is a nocturnal primate found on central Sulawesi, Indonesia, in an area with lower vegetative species diversity than the lowland tropical forests. The Pygmy Tarsier was believed to have become extinct in the early 20th century. Then, in 2000, Indonesian scientists accidentally killed one while trapping rats. The first Pygmy Tarsiers seen alive since the 1920s were found by a research team from Texas A&M University on Mount Rore Katimbo in Lore Lindu National Park in August 2008. The two males and single female (a fourth escaped) were captured using nets, and were radio collared to track their movements. As the first live Pygmy Tarsiers seen in 80-plus years, these captures dispelled the belief among some primatologists that the species is extinct.

The Pygmy Tarsier has a head-body length of 95 to 105 mm (about 4 inches), and weighs less than 57 grams (2 ounces). T. pumilus has very distinct morphological features, a body length which is smaller than other tarsier species, and a small body weight. It also has smaller ears than the rest of the genus, and its fur is tan or buff with predominant grey or brownish red coloring. The tail is heavily haired and ranges from 135 to 275 mm. The most noticeable feature of T. pumilus are its large eyes, about 16 mm in diameter. The Pygmy Tarsier also has nails on all five digits of each hand and on two digits of each foot. The claw-like nails aid in its grasping strength and are also used as an aid in its need for vertical support for feeding and movement.

Behavior

T. pumilus is found in stable bonded pairs, remaining together for up to 15 months. This stable pair bond is usually monogamous. The species has two breeding seasons, one at the beginning of the rainy season and the other at the end, separated by about 6 months. Gestation lasts 178 days on average, and births occur in May and from November to December. Infants are quite precocial, and develop quickly, similar to other juveniles in the genus. The offspring begin capturing their own prey around 42 days of age, and travel in groups after only 23 days. Young females remain with parents until adulthood, while young males leave the natal group as juveniles.

The Pygmy Tarsier is nocturnal or crepuscular, and is mainly arboreal. It spends most of the daylight hours sleeping on vertical branches in the canopy. T. pumilus is not a nest builder. Unlike other tarsier species, it does not use scent glands to mark territorial boundaries. Also, tactile communication and interaction is important with the Pygmy Tarsier, as in other tarsier species.

Diet

Tarsiers, in general, are insectivorous, and tarsiers are the only primates that are completely carnivorous. They eat arthropods, and there are anecdotal stories[citation needed] of T. pumilus capturing birds and snakes. As insectivores, they also play an integral role in their habitat in structuring the insect community and in the local food webs

Tarsius-bancanus-borneanus, Horsfield’s Tarsier, Tangkasi Kalimantan

Tarsius-bancanus-borneanus

 Horsfield’s Tarsier, Tangkasi Kalimantan

Click to Enlarge !

Tarsius-bancanus-borneanus-02-800

Horsfield’s Tarsier (Tarsius bancanus), also known as the Western Tarsier, is a species of tarsier.

The taxonomy of this species is in doubt, with some subspecies considered unsure.In fact, over 20 years few studies have been done on T. bancanus and a taxonomic revision based upon intensive and systematic field surveys is overdue.These species should be treated as distinct and named as separate taxa until more definitive evidence is available.

There are three recognized subspecies of Horfield’s Tarsier:

* Tarsius bancanus bancanus
* Belitung Island Tarsier, Tarsius bancanus saltator
* Bornean Tarsier, Tarsius bancanus borneanus

Evolution

There are 3 theories of origin of primates. The first and the oldest being the arboreal theory which suggests that early primates evolved to meet the needs of living an arboreal life . They have evolved full stereoscopic vision to be better able to move through the environment. The orbits of these early primates underwent orbital convergence to achieve stereoscopic vision . The reduction of olfaction and the shortening of the snout occurred corresponding to this increase in reliance on vision. Also grasping hands and feet with nails instead of claws were thought to be adaptations to living in an arboreal world.

The visual predation theory puts forward the notion that orbital convergence, grasping hands and feet, and reduced claws were an adaptation for nocturnal foraging for fruit and insects on terminal branches in the shrub layer of the forest. Orbital convergence would assist in determining the prey’s distance without having to move the head, much like we see in modern day owls.

The last, more recent angiosperm radiation theory stated that the adaptive radiation primates occurred with the radiation of angiosperms (flowering plants) that offered new opportunities and an unexplored niche [13]. The early primates were omnivores that were able to feed on objects such as fruits, flowers, gums, nectars, and insects that fed upon these plant parts . The stereoscopic vision evolved to discriminate between food items at low levels of light and handling them would have necessitated better hand-eye coordination[15]. Problems with this theory come from that angiosperms first appeared in the fossil record millions of years before the first primates and that orbital convergence and the correlated neurological specializations occurring with are not found in the early Paleocene primates .

Morphology

The pelage coloration range from pale-olive or reddish brown to pale or dark grey-brown. The coloration possibly varying with age.Based on 12 collected specimens , the range measurement from head to body is 121-154 mm. T.bancanus have an extremely long tail, which can reach 181 to 224 mm, is hairless except for tufts of hair at the end [18]. This species has two grooming claws on each foot .The fingers are very long and have pads on the tips. The toes have flattened nails except for the second and third toes on hind feet, which bear claw-like nails [19]. It has large eyes thus do not reflect torchlight. The membranous ears are slender and almost bare. The molars of this species have high-cusps and are almost tritubercular . The dental formula of T.bancanus are 2:1:3:3 on the upper jaw and 1:1:3:3 on the lower jaw .

Distributions

T.bancanus are found in Southern Sumatra, Borneo and nearby islands. Bornean tarsier, T.b. borneanus known from many lowland sites in Sabah, Brunei, Sarawak and West Kalimantan and above 900m in the Kelabit uplands in Northern Sarawak. Other records that had been made only from Kutai and Peleben in East Kalimantan and Tanjung Maruwe in Central Kalimantan.

Ecology

T.bancanus is a nocturnal species. It sleeps alone during the day in a tangle of vines or creepers at a height of 3.5 to 5 meters. This species prefers to sleep, rest, or remain stationary on perches that are angled 5 degrees from the vertical tree trunks, 1 to 4 cm in diameter and it sleeps solitarily[26]. Before sunset, T.bancanus will wake up and waits 10 to 20 minutes then begins moving around the understory and spend 2 to 1.5 hours of the night foraging for food.T.bancanus can be found from ground level up at least 7m in the understory.

This species is a carnivorous species. It mainly eats insects by consuming beetles, grasshoppers, cockroaches, butterflies, moths, praying mantis, ants, phasmids, and cicadas, but also will eat small vertebrates such as bats (Chiroptera) which are the horseshoe bat, Taphozus sp., the lesser short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis,and the spotted-winged fruit bat, Balionycteris maculata. and snakes, of which poisonous snakes have been found to be consumed. For example the poisonous snake Manticora intestinalis was found to be hunted for by this species. This species was also found to consume birds, including: spider-hunters, warblers ,kingfishers,and pittas. It locates prey primarily by sound and catches the prey with its hands when foraging.The prey items get killed by bites to the back of the neck and the eyes are shut when attacking. It will consume the prey start with the head and work its way down the body.This species drinks by two different ways, one by drinking from a pool or steam, and two by licking water from bamboo leaves or from trunks of trees when water is running down the bark.

T.bancanus is a vertical clinger and leaper hence they known for their extraordinary leaping abilities by having the elongated tarsus, the fibula and tibia is fused on the lower third part going towards the foot. An individual will mainly support itself with its feet and the tail exerts enough force to hold the individual in place without using the hands as much because of the pads located on the feet except when resting the hands are usually placed no higher than nose[38]. The hands only placed higher up if to maintaining the position of the individual. Other modes of locomotion of this species are climbing,quadrupedal,walking,hopping and “cantilevering”.

Horsfield’s tarsiers are monogamous; by that the frequency of copulation during estrus is only once per night (Wright et al., 1986a). Courtship call are performed by the male and he emits 2-3 chirrups while opening and closing the mouth (Wright et al., 1986a). This call happens within 5 minutes of looking at the female and the male does during courtship after the female will perform genital displays to him .If the female is not in estrus it will emit agonistic call is often followed by biting and pushing the male away (Wright et al., 1986a). Both of each call lasts on average for 1 second and the interval between each call is on average 3 seconds.

Infants are born with their eyes open and fully furred and are able to groom themselves (Roberts, 1994). The mother will carry her infant in her mouth and when she forages for food the mother will park the infant on a branch . Clicks are the call that is uttered by the infant sounds like “k”, “tk”, “ki”, or a rapid “kooih” and can be heard when the infant is left alone or is cold . The mother contact with their infants through this high-pitched calls. Infants were found to first use the tails as support during resting at 7–10 days . Young Horsfield’s tarsiers leave their range at the onset of puberty, and find their own territory.

Social grooming in this species only occurs between mothers and infants which are when one individual grooms another, removing dead skin and parasites by scratching with their toe claws and licking their fur, avoiding their faces. Faces are cleaned by rubbing on branches and it is to reinforce social bonds.

Horsfield’s tarsiers mark their territories with scents from urine and glandular secretions on a substrate while scratching the surface with its hindlimb toe claws.

Habitat

This species can live in both primary and secondary forests, and it also lives in forests along the coasts or on the edge of plantations.

Conservation status

The habitat loss rapidly due to forest conversion, oil palm plantations, fire and logging. Even the species are collected for the illegal pet trade and wrongly considered a pest to agricultural crops, and can suffer, directly and indirectly, from contamination from agricultural pesticides.

HorsefieldÂ’s tarsier is listed as Vulnerable in 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and protected by law in Indonesia and in Malaysia, and is listed in CITES Appendix II.

In February 2007, the governments of Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia agreed to protect roughly 220,000 square kilometers (85,000 square miles) of tropical forest in the so-called “Heart of Borneo”. Environmental group WWF was particularly active in the establishment of the protected area.In the “Heart of Borneo” project, non governmental organizations have played role in promoting the critical Heart of Borneo initiative and in assisting the transboundary nations in its conceptualization, design, and implementation. The transboundary nations is to improve biodiversity conservation in Bornean production forests, and to ensure that such forests are not simply converted to agricultural land-uses such as oil-palm plantations after logging

Tarsius-dianae, Dian’s Tarsier

Tarsius-dianae

 Dian’s Tarsier

Tarsius-dianae

Dian’s Tarsier (Tarsius dentatus) also known as Diana Tarsier, is a nocturnal primate found and endemic to central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Its head-body length is 11.5-12 cm plus a tail of 22 cm. Dian’s Tarsier lives in rain forests. It was formerly called T. dianae, but that has been shown to be a junior synonym.

Tarsius-spectrum, Eastern Tarsier

Tarsius-spectrum

 Eastern Tarsier

Tarsius-spectrum

MORPHOLOGY:
This nocturnal species has large eyes and large ears that are mobile. This species lacks a tapetum lucidum in the eyes, which are usually found in nocturnal animals. The spectral tarsier has a special adaptation in its neck vertebrae to help it turn its head 180 degrees. It needs to do this because its eyes can not move. The spectral tarsier has a dental formula of 2:1:3:3 on the upper jaw and 1:1:3:3 on the lower jaw (Nowak, 1999). This species has relatively small upper canines (Nowak, 1999). This species receives its name from the elongated tarsus bone. The tail of this species is naked except for the last half to third, which has long hair, and on the end there is a tuft of hair (Rowe, 1996). This species has two grooming claws on each foot. The average body mass for males is around 125 grams, and for feTarsius-spectrum, Eastern Tarsiermales it is around 110 grams.

RANGE:
The spectral tarsier is found in the country of Indonesia, on the island of Sulawesi and the nearby islands of Sangihe, Peleng, and Salayer (Nowak, 1999). This species lives in a variety of habitats, including primary and secondary forests, coastal forests, and mangrove forests. This species is found at altitudes from sea level to 4000 feet (Nietsch and Niemitz, 1991). This species has also been reported to have been found in urban gardens (Nietsch and Niemitz, 1991).

ECOLOGY:
This nocturnal species is a carnivorous species. The spectral tarsier mainly eats insects. Of the insects consumed includes: moths, termites, crickets, dragonflies, cockroaches, and beetles (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980). This species catches cryptic prey by sight and moving prey by sound first then the individual fixates the prey with sight (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980). If a prey item is on the ground this species will pounce on it then move to a perch before eating it (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980). If a prey item is in the foliage the spectral tarsier will grab at with its hands then move to another perch before eating it (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980). This species hunts for prey below 9 meters and will often hunt on the ground (Rowe, 1996). The family groups will hunt for prey together and remain in visual contact (Rowe, 1996).

Group sizes in this species range from 2 to 6 individuals (Nietsch and Niemitz, 1991). Sleeping trees for this species tend to be found at the territorial borders (Nietsch and Niemitz, 1991). The core area for the group is used exclusively by the group (Nietsch and Niemitz, 1991). During heavy rains this species shelters itself by sitting under large leaves (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980). This species becomes active about 20 minutes after sunset (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980). Adults of the group tend to range further during the night than juveniles (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980). Group home ranges tend to slightly overlap with other groups (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980).

MacKinnon and MacKinnon (1980) found four categories of sleeping sites for the spectral tarsier:

  • 1. ” Dense thickets of the grass Saccharum spontaneum, bamboo, or Pandanus.”
  • 2. “Dense tangles of vines or epiphytic ferns in a bush or tree.”
  • 3. “Cracks or holes in a tree with more than one exit.”
  • 4. “Complex aerial roots of strangling figs.”

In primary forests, sleeping sites of type 4 is the most common, while in open areas type 1 is the common type of sleeping site (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980). All of the sleeping sites have the following characteristics: multiple exits to escape from predators, darkness, protection from wind and rain, and multiple surfaces to grasp when sleeping (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980). The spectral tarsier sleeps in groups (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980). The most popular tree used for sleeping in is Ficus caulocarpa(Gursky, 1998). The mean height of sleeping trees is 23 meters (Gursky, 1998). The spectral tarsier uses the same sleeping site each day (Sussman, 1999).

The only predators of this species are feral cats (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980). Spectral tarsiers probably defend themselves from feral cats by tasting bad (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980).

LOCOMOTION:
This species is a vertical clinger and leaper. Having the elongated tarsus helps them in leaping. Also the fibula and tibia is fused on the lower third part going towards the foot which also helps in leaping. The mean leap length for this species is 1.4 meters (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980). This species also moves by climbing, hopping, or a slow quadrupedal type movement much like that found in lorises (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980). When hunting and traveling the spectral tarsier uses vertical supports 4 centimeters in diameter and less than 3 meters high (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980). However when resting, sleeping, or grooming this species is found higher up in the forest, uses supports of larger diameters and the are diagonal or horizontal (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980).

SOCIAL BEHAVIOR:
The basic group of the spectral tarsier is made up of the mated pair and their offspring. However unlike the Horsfield’s tarsier, Tarsius bancanus, this species sleeps and forages in these groups. Gursky (1998) found that this species is also found in polygynous groups. In polygynous groups it was found that all adult females of the group gave birth (Gursky, 1998). Pairs are territorial, chasing other conspecifics out of their home range (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980). Females will stay in their groups until they are adults, while males will emigrate when they are still juveniles (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980). In this species the mother will park her infant in the tree in which she is foraging in, and this occurred when the infants were between the ages of 3 and 6 weeks (Gursky, 1996).

Allomaternal care is found in this species and includes: infant transporting, food sharing, baby-sitting, grooming, and playing (Gursky, 2000). Allomaternal care does not occur until the infant is of 3 weeks of age because before that the mother separates herself from the rest of the group not allowing contact with her infant (Gursky, 2000). Infant transport by other group members has only been found to have been done by subadult females (Gursky, 2000). This transport occurred when the infant fell from its parked position, and the subadult female transported the infant in its mouth (Gursky, 2000). Food sharing has also only been seen to occur between infants and subadult females (Gursky, 2000). Adult males, subadult males, and subadult females all were found to groom and play with the infant, although subadult females were in physical contact with infants more than adult males and subadult males (Gursky, 2000). It is interesting to note that mothers rarely if ever played with their infants (Gursky, 2000). Adult males, subadult males, and subadult females were all found to baby-sit infants, although subadult females did this at a higher frequency (Gursky, 2000). Adult males, subadult males, and subadult females emitted a higher number of alarm calls when an infant is in the group compared to as when an infant is not present (Gursky, 2000). Subadult females may provide allomaternal care so as to learn to care for their own offspring and/or to be able to remain on the parental territory (Gursky, 2000). Adult males might not be able to participate in allocare because they spend a large amount of time patrolling the territory and scanning for predators (Gursky, 2000). Other members of the group tend to stay away from the infant when the mother is near the infant (Gursky, 1994).

VOCAL COMMUNICATION:
male-female duet: this behavior is used to bring the family together, family cohesion and for territory marking. Males will emit a regular series of squeal barks while the female of the pair will punctuate each call with a series of squeaks that rise in pitch and that end in a trill (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980). For the female song, the peak frequency will decrease from the start of the series to the end (Nietsch, 1999). The pair may adjust their calls to match that of their mates by acceleration or deceleration of call rate (Nietsch, 1999). This call occurs in the morning around dawn (Nietsch and Kopp, 1998). This call is used to advertise the pair bond of the male and female to territorial intruders (Nietsch and Kopp, 1998).

OLFACTORY COMMUNICATION:
Olfactory communication is important for the spectral tarsier. It is used to communicate territory demarcation.

scent mark with circumoral gland: This is where adults will scent mark each other using the gland surrounding their mouths (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980).

scent mark with epigastric gland: This is where males will scent mark their mates and substrates with the gland on their abdomens (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980).

scent mark with the anogenital region: This is when females will mark their mates or tree branches with their swollen vulva (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980).

urine mark: This where spectral tarsiers of both sexes and all ages groups will mark tree branches with urine (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980). Individuals will use larger size trees (7.1 centimeters) when performing this behavior (Niemitz, 1984). The areas that are marked tend to be around 1.08 meters in height (Niemitz, 1984). This behavior serves to demarcate territories (Niemitz, 1984).

VISUAL COMMUNICATION:

TACTILE COMMUNICATION:

REPRODUCTION:
This species gives birth to a single offspring twice a year, once at the beginning and the end of the rainy season, April-May and November-December (MacKinnon and MacKinnon, 1980). The mother carries the infant around in her mouth