South Ameica, Dutch former Colonies, Chile

The Dutch former Colonies, Chile

List of Settlements

CHILE
Castro:Isla de Chiloè:
Castro:Valdivia:

http://www.colonialvoyage.com/dutchchile.html

Since the Spaniards arrived in Chile in 1535, Valdivia was one of the first city that the Spaniards colonists founded. The city, founded in 1552, was named after the Spanish explorer Pedro de Valdivia (Valdivia (1541-53) became the first governor of Chile). The main reason for the Spanish colonization in the area was gold, infact in the area they found many goldmines. The first contact of a Dutchman with Chile was in the year 1600 when a Dutch pirate called Sebastian de Cordes captured Valdivia from the Spaniards, he left the place after a few days.

The Dutch West-India Company (in Dutch: “Geoctroyeerde West-Indische Compagnie” or WIC) always had want to have parts of Chile because they also wanted to trade in gold. But the Dutch East-India company (in Dutch: “Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie” or VOC) also had interest in the plan. The Dutch decided to send an expedition to Chile. The control of the expedition was entrusted to Hendrick Brouwer a Dutch General who had been in service of the VOC. He had been a commander of a fleet of ships and he was the “Opperhoofd” (Governor) of the Dutch post in Japan Deshima. He had discovered a new sea route to Dutch India, and he was Governor-general of the VOC. Brouwer was a men who controlled his men with much austerity. His assistant was “Elias Herckmans” who had worked with the WIC and he had maked a name with the capture of Dutch Brazil.

In 1642 finally the expedition left from Dutch Brazil towards Chile. The route was for Cape Horn through the Street of Le Maire.

The tasks who the Company gave Brouwer were:

* To capture the first goldmines. * To capture the city Valdivia. * To discover the island Santa Maria. * And to make alliances with the Indians.

Moreover Brouwer had to watch if it was possible to capture Peru.

When the Dutch arrived (in May 1643) they didn’t need to do much to capture Chiloe island from the Spaniards. Also Brouwer has met an Indian tribe: the “Araucaniers”. The Indians hadn’t liked the Spanish colonists because the Spaniards wanted their gold. Brouwer said that he wanted to get lost of the Spanish also and they became ‘partners’. Together they easily captured the city Valdivia.

Everything seemed to go well, until the General Hendrick Brouwer died on 7 August of the year 1643. His body was burried in Valdivia, that was called after him “Brouwershaven”. The death of Brouwer was the first sign that the expedition would be a failure.

The much milder vice-general Elias Herckmans take over the comand. He arrived in Valdivia on 24 August, and then two tings went wrong:

* He let the Indians know that he and the other Dutch were looking for gold, this means the and of their cooperation. * He was soft to his men, eventually causing them to start a mutiny.

This thread did him decide to go back to the Dutch part of Brazil when there wasn’t make any progress. The only thing that the expedition had produced, was that they know that the “Staten Island” wasn’t a part of the unknown “Southland” bud that it was an island. Herckmans arrived in Dutch Brazil on 7 August 1643. The expedition had failed.

After the Dutch expedition the Spanish made in Valdivia more stronger forts, because they didn’t want to have an attack of an other European country again.

chili

chili

Vuurland

Straat-Magellaan-en-Vuurland-1676

Straat Magellaan

Straat Magellaan-1665

South America, Dutch former Colonies, Brazil

The Dutch former Colonies, Brazil

List of Settlements

BRAZIL 

ALAGOAS:
Porto Calvo, Bom Sucesso, Povoacao dos quatro rios, Povoacao do Bom Sucesso:
Fort Bom Sucesso, Fort Boaventura
Fort Igreja Nova,
Fort Nieuwe Kerk  to Portugal
Aguas Mansas, St. Goncalvo (Paripueira):
Fort bij Paripueira, Fort bij S. Gonçalvo   to Portugal
Allegoa do Norte, Alagoa do Norte(Santa Luzia do Norte):  to Portugal
Alagoa do Sul, Allegoa do Sul, Vila S. Maria da Madalena (Marechal Deodoro):   to Portugal
Openedo, Openeda, Vila de S. Francisco de Penedo (Penedo):
Fort Maurits   to Portugal
Fort Suassy:   to Portugal
Fort bij Rio S. Francisco, wambuis Rio S. Francisco   to Portugal

BAHIA:
Sao Salvador da Bahia:
Dutch: 10 May 1624 – 30 Apr. 1625   to Portugal
Boxer Ch. R.   “The Dutch in Brazil”
Itaparica:   Dutch
CEARÁ:
Fortaleza: Fort Schoonenburg, Fort Siara   to Portugal

MARANHAO:
Sao Louis do Maranhao:
Dutch:  25 Nov. 1641 – 28 Feb. 1644 to Portugal  (28 Feb. 1644)
Itapicurù, Forte Calvario (near Sao Louis do Maranhao):
Dutch:         – 1642 to Portugal
PARA:
Fort Adriaensz: (Post aan de Paru rivier, Post aan de Ginipape rivier)
Dutch:             – Jul. 1623 destroyed by the Portuguese
Fort Oranje: (Xingu rivier)    Dutch: – 1623 destroyed by the Portuguese
Fort Nassau: (Cajamue eiland, Cojamine eiland, Coyamine eiland)
Dutch:              – 1623 destroyed by the Portuguese
Tocujos eiland (Ilha Grande de Curupá): Fort op Tocujos eiland    to Portugal
Tapajos rivier (Topayos rivier):   to Portugal

PARAIBA:
Cabedelo:
Fort Santo Antonio do Norte
Fort Marghareta, Fort Catharina  to Portugal
Nossa Senhora das Neves, Paraíba, Frederikstad, Frederica, Filipea (Joao Pessoa):   to Portugal
Restinga island: Fort Restinga   to Portugal

PERNAMBUCO:
Recifo, Arrecifo, ‘t Recif, ‘t Recijf , Maurisstad, Mauricia, Mauriciopolis, Antonio Vaz, Mauritstad (Recife):
Recife: (Fort Brum, Fort Bruyne,  Fort do Brun,  Fort de Bruyn)
Recife: (Fort Buraco, Fort S. Antonio do Buraco)
Boavista: (Forte Cinco Pontas, Fort Vijfhoek, Fort Frederik Hendrik)
Mauritsstad: (Fort Ernestus, Fort Ernest, Fort Altena)
Mauritsstad: (Fort Waerdenburgh, Fort Driehoek)   Dutch: 3 Mar.1630 – to Portugal
Olinda:   to Portugal
Itamaracà eiland, Tamaraca, Tamarica (Itamaracà): Fort Oranje   to Portugal
Schoppestad, Van Schoppe stad, Nossa Senhora da Conceicao (Vila Velha):
Fort Nossa Senhora da Conceicao   to Portugal
Igaracù (Igarassu):   to Portugal
Arraial do Bom Jesus (Velho):
Fort Bon Jesus, Fort Real, Fort Bom Jesus    Dutch: 8 Jun. 1635 -to Portugal
Cabo Sao Agostinho, Kaap St.Augustijn, Caepo S. Augustijn, Cabo de Santo Agostinho:
Fort Puntal, Fort Pontael, Fort Van der Dussen
Fort Nazareth, Fort Nazaré
Fort Gijselingh, Fort Domburg   to Portugal
Affogados:
Fort Prins Willem, Fort de Afogados, Fort de Effogados
Fort Kijck in de Pot   to Portugal
Serenheijm, Zirinaim (Serinhaem):   to Portugal
Pojuca, Posuica, Sao Miguel de Ipojuca, S. Miguel de Ipojuca (Ipojuca):   to Portugal
Fort aan Rio Formoso, Fort Oranje aan Rio Formoso:
Fort aan Rio Formoso, Fort Oranje aan Rio Formoso   to Portugal
Tamandarè:   to Portugal
Fort Barretta:   to Portugal
Fernando de Noronha: Hospitaalfort (later Fortaleza Nossa Senhora dos Remedios)   150  –   Dec. 1623 ? – Jan. 1630  Jan. 1630 –  
 
RIO GRANDE DO NORTE:
Rio Grande, Potigí, Potingì, Rio Grande do Norte (Natal):
Fort Ceulen, Fort Tres Reis Magos   to Portugal
SERGIPE:
Vila Velha (Neopolis):   to Portugal
Sergipe del Rey, Sao Cristovao (Sergipe del Rey): Fort bij S. Cristovão, Fort Sao Cristovao, Fort Sergipe del Rey   to Portugal

The Dutch cities

Brasilia 1770

Brasilia 1770

Amazone

BAHIA DE TODOS OS SANCTOS

BAHIA DE TODOS OS SANCTOS

BAHIA DE TODOS OS SANCTOS

De-seer-aanmerkelijke-en-vermaarde-reys-van-Johannes-Lerius-na-Brazil-1706

Voyage to Brazil Johannes-Lerius 1706

Fernando de Noronha

Fernando de Noronha 1779

Fort Ceulen

Fort Ceulen-on-the-Rio-Grande


Itamaraca

Itamaraca-1637

Parayba

Parayba-1652


PRAEFECTURAE-DE-PARAIBA,-ET-RIO-GRANDE-1662

PRAEFECTURAE-PARANAMBUCAE-PARS-BOREALIS,-una-cum-PRAEFECTURA-de-ITAMARACA-1662

Recife

Recife

Rio San Andero

Rio San Andero

Serinhaim

Serinhaim-in-Brazil-1706

S-Salvador

S-Salvador

Truchillo en Campeche

Truchillo en Campeche,-het-versterkte-kasteel-Tres-Reyes,-nu-Ceulen-genaamd,-gelegen-in-Rio-Grande,-in-1633

South Amrica, Dutch former Colonies, French Gyana

The Dutch former Colonies, French Gyana

List of Settlements

FRENCH GUIANA
Post aan de Aprowaco,
Post aan de Aprouak:
Post aan de Wacogenive rivier:
Mecoria Island:
Fort Ceperou, S. Louis,
Fort Cayenne (Cayenne):
Post aan de Wiapoco, 
Post aan de Oyapoc,
Post aan de Oiapoque (Wiapoco):

French Guiana, lying north of Brazil and east of Suriname on the northeast coast of South America, was variously settled by the Spanish, Dutch, and French. The Treaty of Breda awarded France the territory in 1667. The French used it as a penal colony between 1852 and 1939, which included the infamous Devil’s Island. In 1947 it became an overseas department of France. Since then, many indigenous French Guianians have called for increased autonomy, although only around 5% favor independence from France, partly due to the vast subsidies from the French government. The European Space Center at Kourou has brought a corner of French Guiana into the modern world and attracted a sizable expatriate workforce.

French Gyana

Frans-Guyana-van-Mont-Maye-tot-Rio-Koeroea-1785

French Gyana, Cayenne

Cayenne-1769

French Gyana, Wieronje

Redoute-aan-de-Kreek-Wieronje

South America, Dutch former Colonies, Brittish Gyana

The Dutch former Colonies, Brittish Gyana

List of Settlements

Ft. Ter Hooge, Huijs Ter Hooge (Essequibo):
Ft. Kijkoveral (Essequibo):
Ampa:
Borsselen Eiland (Borslem Island):
Ephraim Post (Epira):
Forteiland, Vlaggeneiland (Flag Island):
Nieuw Amsterdam 1 (Fort Nassau):
Stabroeck (Georgetown):
Nieuw Amsterdam 2, Krabbeneiland (New Amsterdam):
Aquewayse Post:
Arinda:
Kartabo (Cartabo):
Cayouni Post:
Concordia Post:
Stevenburg Post, Concordia Post aan Canje River (Concordia Post):
Hardenbroek Post (Wikkie Kreek Post):
Huis Nabij:
Post aan Moruka Kreek:
Fort Nassau (Berbice):
Nieuw Middelburg:
Fort Nova Zelandia:
Redoute Samson (Brandwacht):
Savonette:
Fort St. Andries:
Post aan de Wironje Kreek (Post aan de Wiruni Creek):
Redoute bij Wironje Kreek:
Fort Zeelandia (Essequibo):

1598 – The Dutch make their first trip to Guiana.

1621 – Dutch West India Company receives a charter for Essequibo.

1640 – Slaves arrive in the colonies from Africa.

1657 – A small Dutch settlement is established on the Pomeroon River.

1666 – War breaks out between England and Holland.

1763 – The Berbice slave revolution breaks out (at the time when Berbice is a separate Dutch colony). The revolt begins on one estate but soon spreads to others along the Berbice River and is the result of the cruelty with which the Dutch plantation owners have been treating their slaves. It is led by a male slave called Cuffy. The few hundred white settlers are soon overwhelmed, and the uprising will only be put down after the arrival of war ships and with the help of troops as far away as Barbados.

Cuffy will commit suicide 3 months after beginning the uprising. His followers are hunted down for another year until the Dutch authorities are satisfied that the rebellion has been crushed.

1781 – War breaks out between England and Holland. The colonies of Demerara, Essequibo, and Berbice are taken by the English.

1782 – Some months later, the French, who are also at war with England (and who are the allies of Holland) under the command of the Marquis de Lusignan (who’s name is perpetuated in the plantation of that name) take the three colonies. The French build Fort Dauphin at the mouth of the Demerara and, nearby, begin to build a town, “Longchamps”.

1783/4 – (a) The colonies are restored to Holland; (b) Longchamps is chosen as the new colonial capital, later to be called Stabroek;

(c) The Dutch move the seat of government down river to its mouth, where they begin to build the town of Stabroeck in a geometrical “grid iron” system of streets, divided by canals in the manner of their home country;

(d) The Dutch build a series of sluice gates or kokers at points where the canals meet the Demerara estuary. At high tide the kokers (see picture of koker) form a barrier between the Atlantic Ocean and the canals. At high tide they are opened to allow the accumulated water to flow away

1796 – War breaks out again between England and Holland. The colonies are taken by England for a second time.

1802 – At the peace of Amiens, Guiana is returned to the Dutch. English settlers are given three years to wind up their affairs, and then to leave.

1803 – War breaks out again between England and Holland. In September, Hood arrives at the mouth of the Demerara and demands the surrender of the colony. Guiana is handed over without fighting never again to be returned to Holland.

Brittish Gyana

Amerikaansche-voyagien-naar-Rio-de-Berbice-en-Suriname-1695

Brittish Gyana

7 Forts

Brittish Gyana, Demerarygh

Demerarygh

fort Nassau, Berbice

Map-and-view-of-the-fort-of-Nassau-at-Berbice

South America, Dutch former Colonies, Colombia, Venezuela

South America, Dutch former Colonies, Colombia, Venezuela

COLOMBIA
Santa Marta:Dutch: 16 Feb. 1630 – 21/22 Feb. 1630 abandoned to Spain

Venezuela

VENEZUELA
Punta de Araya:
Isla Tortuga:Unare River

Venezuela: Caracas Punta de Araya

Throughout the centuries, salt has been an important trade commodity. In early Roman days, the soldiers were paid their wages in salt – salarium- hence the English work for pay became salary. Salt was no less important to the sixteenth century Dutch- they had cornered the European market with salt that came mostly from Portugal.

Arround 1550, Portugal came under the rule of Spain, a country with whom the Netherlands was already at war. Faced with the loss of their salt source, the Dutch sailors began to explore the Caribbean in search of a new supply. One of the first places they explored was Punta de Araya, Venezuela, on the South American coast. A Salt industry soon developed there, and the area became major supply center. The Dutch sailors continued to explore the Caribbean islands that lay off the South American continent, Bonaire being one of them.

In 1623, the first Dutch ships landed on Bonaire, and in 1636 the Dutch occupied the islands and began to develop the salt, dyewood and mutton industries.

Venezuela

Venezuela

Dutch former Colonies, South America

Dutch former Colonies, South America

Paramaribo, Nieuw-Middelburg

The Story

In 1600, according to Ioannes De Laet, the Dutch possessed two wooden forts (Fort Nassau and Fort Oranije) on the eastern shore of the Xingu River. These had been built by colonists from Zeeland. In 1616, a Zeeland expedition under the command of Pieter Adriaenszoon Ita sailed with 150 men. They arrived on the shore of the Ginipape River where they built a fort on a peninsula. This colony survived for six years. Historical information about these settlements is incomplete, but for the first twenty years of the XVII century the Dutch held some forts in this region. Here they traded with the natives. THE EARLY ATTEMPT

After the foundation of the WIC (West Indische Compagnie) in 1621 the Dutch set their eyes on the most important town of Portuguese Brazil: Salvador da Bahia de Todos os Santos. The expedition for the conquest of Salvador da Bahia started in December 1623. It totaled 26 sailing ships, 450 guns and 3300 men. The Admiral was Jacob Willekens, the commander of the troops was Jan Van Dorth. The Admiral arrived off Salvador on 8 May 1624. On the morning of 9 May 1624 the Dutch troops landed a few miles from Salvador, advanced and entered the town in the morning of 10 May 1624. The Portuguese governor, Diogo de Mendonça surrendered. This conquest turned out to be short lived. Indeed, on Easter Eve 1625, a Portuguese fleet of 52 ships, 1185 guns and 12566 men appeared off Salvador. The Dutch were demoralized and capitulated on 30 April 1625, the day after the Portuguese entered the town. This was the end of the first, but not the last, Dutch attempt to capture Portuguese Brazil. “NIEUW HOLLAND”

The second and more durable attempt started in the Summer of 1629. This time the objective was Pernambuco, the best sugar colony in Brazil. The commander of the Dutch fleet was Hendrick Corneliszoon Loncq. He arrived at Pernambuco on February 1630 with a fleet of 67 ships, 1170 guns and 7000 men. They launched their attack on 15 February 1630 and the action was successful. By the evening of 16 February 1630 the Dutch were in possession of Olinda; by the 3rd of March all Portuguese resistance was over and the Dutch were masters of Recife, Olinda and the island of Antonio Vaz. From 14 March 1630 the Dutch governed their conquests through a political council. Meanwhile, the Portuguese governor Mathias de Albuquerque organized the resistance. Some fortified camps were built all around Recife, the most important (called Arraial do Bom Jesus) only about three miles from Recife. In May 1631, the Dutch occupied a small island near that of Itamaracá where they built a fort called Oranje that was garrisoned by 366 men under the command of Crestofle d Artischau Arciszewski, a Polish captain. The Portuguese raids stopped the Dutch in developing theirs forts. In November 1631 the Dutch abandoned Olinda and tried to conquer the Fort of Cabedello on Paraíba, the Rio Grande, the Rio Formoso and Cabo de Santo Agostinho but all these attempts failed. On 20 April 1632 a Portuguese Mulatto, Domingo Fernandes Calabar deserted to the Dutch. He was born at Porto Calvo (Alagoas) and he knew the country very well; his desertion was very useful for the Dutch. On 1 May 1632 the Dutch occupied the little town of Igaraçu near the island of Itamaracá. In February 1633, the fort on the Rio Formoso was conquered by the Dutch and in March 1633 the “arraial” of Afogados was also conquered and a fort was built there. In June 1633 the island of Itamaracá was occupied and a settlement was found there; in December 1633 Van Ceulen captured the Fort of Reis Magos (Dutch Fort Ceulen) at the mouth of the Rio Grande. In March 1634 the Dutch occupied a foothold at the “Pontal” of Cabo Santo Agostinho. After a short siege, the Fort Cabedello at Paraìba surrendered on 19 December 1634 and the town of Paraíba surrendered a few days later. Now the Dutch controlled the entire coastline from Cabo de Santo Agostinho to Rio Grande. In March 1635 the Dutch attacked and conquered Porto Calvo. On 8 June 1635, after a siege of three months, the “arraial do Bom Jesus” was also conquered and, a month later, the Fort of Nazaré at Cabo de Santo Agostinho. The Portuguese Governor with over 7000 persons escaped to the south, but encountered about 500 Dutchmen in the fort at Porto Calvo that barred his way. He had to attack this place and after a brief siege the Dutch capitulated. In this attack the Portuguese captured Domingo Fernandes Calabar that was put to death as a traitor. Calabar’s death was a heavy blow to the Dutch. On 24 July 1635 the Dutch reoccupied Porto Calvo that had been abandoned by the Portuguese on 22 July. At the beginning of 1636, reinforced by 2500 men from Portugal, the Portuguese took the initiative. They advanced on Porto Calvo but its Dutch commander, Von Schoppe, evacuated the town. The conquest of Porto Calvo gave the Portuguese the possibility to carry out many raids against Pernambuco that became rather unsafe for the Dutch. At this time the WIC directorate decided to put a Colonial Governor at the head of the Brazilian colony or Nieuw Holland. Johan Maurits, count of Nassau – Siegen was the man selected for this office; this was a good choice.

THE GOVERNMENT OF JOHAN MAURITS VAN NASSAU-SIEGEN (1637–1644)

Johan Maurits left Holland on 25 October 1636 and arrived at Recife on 23 January 1637. He was resolved to waste no time in capturing Porto Calvo, that he attacked with a force of 3000 Dutch soldiers, 1000 sailors and 1000 Amerindians on 18 February 1637; the Neapolitan commander Bagnuoli was defeated and the Dutch captured the fort after two weeks of siege. Johan Maurits, sacked the small town of Penedo and built a fort (Fort Maurits) 18 miles from the mouth of the São Francisco River. With the conquest of their first plantation colony, the Hollanders were in need of slaves. Since 1612 they possessed the small fort at Mouri on the Gold Coast (presently Ghana), but the Portuguese were the masters of this coast. Indeed, since 1482 they possessed the great fortress of São Jorge da Mina, the most important center of the slave trade. For this aim Johan Maurice sent an expedition to attack Elmina (São Jorge de la Mina) the key to the Gold Coast. The fortress capitulated on 28 August 1637. In November 1637 Colonel Von Schoppe invaded the province of Sergipe del Rey, and the Neapolitan commander Bagnuoli escaped. In December 1637 also the province of Ceará and the city of Fortaleza were conquered. Now the Dutch controlled half of the then Brazilian provinces. The Portuguese maintained a tenuous control over Salvador and the southern half of Brazil. However, even Salvador was besieged for a short time in 1638. On 8 April 1638 a Dutch force of 4600 men (3600 Dutch and 1000 Amerindians) attempted capturing Salvador. The Dutch landed, but the garrison of the city was superior in number to the assailants. Johan Maurits decided to risk an assault on 17 and 18 May 1638 that came very near to succeeding. However, this attack turned out as a major defeat for the Dutch and they retreated on 25 – 26 May. For as long as the Portuguese held Salvador in their hands, the Hollanders in Brazil would never be secure. In 1640 Portugal revolted against Spain, restored its independence and the Duke of Bragânça was proclaimed King. When Johan Maurits received the news he celebrated it with festivities. But in spite of this the war continued. In 1641, the Dutch reoccupied São Cristovão (that had been abandoned in 1637), and in November 1641 also the city of São Luis do Maranhão was taken. An expedition for the conquest of key areas of Portuguese Africa: São Tomé, Angola and Benguela was started. On 23 August 1641, a fleet of 21 ships and 3000 men under the command of Jol and Henderson anchored off Luanda (Angola) and, three days later, the city was occupied. Also Benguela (in today’s Angola) was taken, and in October the islands of São Tomé (16 October 1641) and Annobon were captured. Finally, in February 1642, the Fort of Axim on the Gold Coast, the last in Portuguese hands was also taken. With these conquests the WIC became the ruler of all the African West coast. The best slave markets at that time were thus under WIC control. From the beginning, Johan Maurits described Brazil as a beautiful country and he fell in love with it. He was favourably inclined towards the Portuguese planters (moradores), and tolerated the Roman Catholic priests. He gave the colony a form of representative local government, through the creation of municipal and rural councils. He developed the country; built streets, bridges and roads in the city of Recife. On the neighbouring island of Antonio Vaz he founded a new town called Mauritsstad or Mauricia, where the first astronomic observatory and meteorological station in the Americas were built in two large sites (called Boa Vista and Vrijburg) that included zoological and botanical gardens. He was a “Maecenas”. In Nieuw Holland arrived from Holland famous artists (like Frans Post and Albert Eckhout), scientists (like Piso, Marcgraf) etc.

The Dutch were, at this time, the masters of the Atlantic Ocean and Recife was, like Batavia in the East, the capital of the WIC (West Indische Compagnie) empire. In 1642, they were masters of Nieuw Amsterdam (today’s New York) and the Nieuw Netherland colony in North American. In the Caribbean they possessed the islands of Curação (today’s Curaçao), Aruba, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, Sint Maarten, Saba, Tobago, St. Croix. In the Wild Coast (today’s Guiana and Suriname) they possessed colonies on Essequibo River, Berbice River; the islands of St. Helena (a VOC possession) and Fernando de Noronha in the Atlantic; the colony of Nieuw Holland or Dutch Brazil. On the West African coast they held the castles of Arguin (Mauritania), Goerée (Senegal), Axim, Butri, Shama, Elmina, Mouree (all on the Gold Coast), the islands of São Tomé and Annobon on the Gulf of Guinea; the ports of Luanda and Benguela in Angola.

The Dutch subjects in Brazil were divided into two categories: Those employed by the WIC (soldiers, bureaucrats, Calvinist ministers) called “dienaaren” and the others (settlers, merchants, artisans, and tavern keepers) called “vrijburghers” or “vrijluiden”. Many of these were ex–soldiers who had married and settled down but there were people who had emigrated from the Netherlands to seek a new life in Nieuw Holland. The free–burghers and traders were the economic pillar of the colony, and most of the trade was under their control. But notwithstanding this, the Burgher community in Brazil was too scant for the WIC purposes. In the colony there was also a flourishing Jewish community of 1450 souls in 1644. The total white civilian population of “vrijburgher” was about 3000. The Dutch control on Brazil was always tenuous, and the WIC failed in its aim of colonization. The majority of the colonists were Portuguese moradores with a different religion and language that were always ready to revolt against the “heretics”. In October 1642 the province of Maranhão revolted and after one year of fighting the Dutch troops retreated. In April 1642 the directors of the WIC wrote to Johan Maurits informing him to return to Holland in the spring of 1643. He was not happy for that, and postponed his departure until May 1644.

THE END OF A “NIEUW HOLLAND”

Deprived of the leadership of Johan Maurits, the WIC lost the control over the colony. After his departure, the Portuguese planters revolted against Dutch rule, and after the battle of Tabocas (3 August 1645) ended with a Dutch defeat, the Dutch were forced on the defensive. The Portuguese gained control of the “várzea”. The Portuguese forces attacked Serinhaem and the Dutch garrison surrendered on 6 August 1645. On 13 August 1645 the Dutch fortress of the Pontal de Nazaré at Cabo de Santo Agostinho also surrendered. On 2 September 1645 the “moradores” of Paraibá rose against the Dutch and the Fort of Porto Calvo surrendered on 17 September, followed on 18 September also by Fort Maurits on the São Francisco River. On 22 September Sergipe del Rey in turn rose against the Dutch and at the end of the year 1645 the Dutch possessed only Recife and, in its vicinity the Forts of Cabedello (Paraibá) and Ceulen (Rio Grande do Norte), and the islands of Itamaracá and Fernando de Noronha. Due to Recife’s siege by the Portuguese since August 1645, the Johan Maurits palaces and parks and many other buildings at Mauritsstad were razed to the ground for a better defense of Recife. In the besieged capital there were about 8000 men but in June, July and August of 1646 relief Dutch fleets reached Recife. In November 1646 Fort Maurits was reoccupied by the Dutch but the following April the place was abandoned. In February 1647 a Dutch expedition of 26 ships and 2400 men, occupied the island of Itaparica in the Bay of Todos os Santos. This was to be the last “coup de main”. A new Portuguese fleet of 15 ships and 3800 men left Portugal on 18 October 1647, under the command of Antonio Telles de Menezes, Count of Villa–Pouca de Aguiar and governor of Brazil. On 7 November 1647 another Portuguese fleet of 7 ships and 600 men left Lisbon under the command of Salvador Correia de Sá e Benavides (although his final objective was Luanda). On 13 December 1647 the Dutch evacuated Itaparica. A new Dutch fleet under Witte de With left Holland on the day after Christmas 1647 and arrived at Recife in March 1648. On the night of 17–18 April 1648 a Dutch squadron of 5000 men under Commander Von Schoppe attacked the Portuguese forces in the “várzea” and scored a first success. However, in the morning of 19 April 1648 the Portuguese (only 2200 men) launched an attack at the Guararapes that was an overwhelming victory. The Dutch left 500 dead and 556 wounded. Short thereafter the Portuguese reoccupied Olinda. The Dutch at Recife were again besieged. On 12 May 1648 Salvador Correia de Sá with 15 ships and 2000 men left Rio for Luanda in an attempt to retake it. He did succeed in retaken Luanda on 24 August 1648. At the end of the year 1648 the Dutch forces in Brazil totaled about 6000 white men and 600 Amerindians. On 18 February 1649 a Dutch force of 3500 men occupied the Guararapes. The Portuguese commander Francisco Barreto marched against them with a force of 2600 men and the subsequent battle of 19 February was a overwhelming victory for the Portuguese, and the Dutch left 957 dead. A Dutch expedition under Mathias Beck landed in April 1649 at Ceará (that had been abandoned at the end of 1643) and founded a new fort called Schonenburgh. In February 1650, the situation of the Dutch at Recife, closely besieged by land, was very precarious, and the 3000 men garrison demoralized. There were about 8000 civilians, of which roughly 3400 were vrijburgher, 600 were Jewish and 3000 to 4000 were Amerindians or Negroes. The shortage of food and provisions was the worst enemy. The strength of the garrisons of Nieuw Holland was about 4000 men including the garrisons at Paraìba and in Rio Grande do Norte. On 20 December 1653 a Portuguese fleet of 77 ships appeared off Recife. Meanwhile, and unlike the situation during 1650 the depots of the town were full of provisions, but, at this time, the garrison was quite unprepared to offer resistance. On 22 January 1654 the Dutch asked for terms of surrender, and on 26 January 1654 the capitulation was signed. Not only Recife but all the places still in Dutch hands were included (Paraìba, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Itamaracá, Fernando de Noronha). The Portuguese made their triumphal entry into Recife on 28 January 1654. And the WIC never recovered from the loss of Nieuw Holland.