Morelia viridis, green tree python

Morelia viridis, green tree python

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Morelia viridis, the green tree python, is a species of python found in New Guinea, islands in Indonesia, and Cape York Peninsula in Australia.

Trimeresurus fasciatus, Banded Pit Viper

Trimeresurus fasciatus, Banded Pit Viper


Trimeresurus fasciatus is a venomous pitviper species endemic to Djampea Island Indonesia. No subspecies are currently recognized.[4]


Scalation includes 21 rows of dorsal scales at midbody, 158-160/159-163 ventral scales in males/females, 63-65/61 subcaudal scales and 9 or 10 (11) supralabial scales.[2]

Geographic range

Endemic to Djampea Island Indonesia. The type locality given is “Jampea Island” (Djampea, Indonesia). The catalogue of the British Museum of Natural History lists the type locality as “Jampea Id., between Celebes and Flores

Naja sputatrix, Javan spitting cobra

Naja sputatrix, Javan spitting cobra 

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The Javan spitting cobra (Naja sputatrix) also called the Indonesian cobra, is a stocky and highly venomous species of spitting cobra native to Indonesia.


Naja sputatrix was first described by German zoologist Friedrich Boie in 1827. The generic name Naja is a Latinisation of the Sanskrit word nāgá (नाग) meaning “cobra”. The specific epithet sputatrix is the feminine version of sputator, which is Latin for “spitter”.[2]


The Javan spitting cobra is a medium to large, heavy-bodied species which, like other cobras, has long cervical ribs capable of expanding to form a hood when threatened. The body of this species is compressed dorsoventrally and subcylindrical posteriorly. The average length of this species of cobra is approximately 1.3 m (4.3 ft), but they may grow to a maximum of about 1.85 m (6.1 ft). The head is elliptical, depressed, slightly distinct from the neck with a short, rounded snout and large nostrils. Its eyes are moderate in size with round pupils. Dorsal scales are smooth and strongly oblique. Dorsal scale count is usually 25-19.[3] Some colouration and pattern differences occur between Javan specimens and those from the other islands where this species occurs. Javan adults are usually uniform yellowish, brown or blackish in colour, while juveniles often have throat bands and lateral throat spots. Specimens do not always have hood marks, but when there is a mark, it is most often chevron-shaped.[4] [5]


This species of cobra is native to the Indonesian islands of Java and the Lesser Sunda Islands of Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Komodo, Flores, Lomblen, and Alor. They may possibly occur in the other islands in the group. Verification is still required as to whether or not this species of cobra also occurs in the islands of Timor and Sulawesi. Although a single specimen was observed in the island of Sulawesi, it is thought that the specimen may have originated from the island of Java, as it was indistinguishable from Javan specimens.[6][7] Scientist De Hass did research on this species in two districts of western Java: in Nandjoeng Djaja, where it was relatively uncommon and in Bandjarwangi, where the altitude is 900 metres (3,000 ft), it was not recorded. A 1998 study by FB Yuwono found the species was abundant in Java.[7]

Habitat, behavior & ecology

The Javan spitting cobra is found mostly in tropical forests and wet forest, but the species adapts incredibly well to a wide variety of habitats across its range on the islands, including more arid regions,[3] dry woodlands, and cultivated hill country.[6] In the island of Komodo, it has been observed in a variety of habitats including dry savanna and deciduous monsoon forest.[7] It is also been reported that specimens in the island of Komodo are reluctant to spit, but field observations and suggests the opposite. This species is easy prey for the Komodo dragon.[6] Naja sputatrix is very defensive and readily spits out venom when it feels threatened. It is a terrestrial snake that’s nocturnal in nature. It preys predominantly on small mammals such as small rats and mice, but it will also feed on frogs, other snakes,[3] and lizards. Herpetologist Shine Boeadi, in a study published in 1998, measured and dissected 80 Javan specimens of this species and found that most prey items were mammals.[7]


Mating occurs during the dry season (August to October). Females often lay eggs at the end of the dry season in November or the very beginning of the wet season. As many as 13 to 19 eggs may be laid in a clutch,[6] the average is about 16 eggs. Javan females may produce and lay up to 36 eggs, but on average only 25 eggs are produced. The incubation period is about 88 days according to Kopstein.[7] Like other elapids, hatchlings are completely independent from birth.

Conservation status

This species is listed as Appendix II by CITES meaning this species is not threatened with extinction, but may become so unless trade in specimens of such species is subject to strict regulation in order to avoid utilization incompatible with the survival of the species in the wild. They are commonly harvested for their skins. They are also occasionally found in the pet trade.[8]


The most significant constituents of the venom include high-molecular-weight proteins and enzymes, phospholipase A2 enzymes, postsynaptic neurotoxins and polypeptide cardiotoxins, meaning although the venom may be potent, but it may not be particularly rapid-acting.[9] Like all cobra species, this species’ venom also consists of postsynaptic neurotoxins.[3] However, its venoms main components are cardiotoxins with cytotoxic activity.[10] In fact, polypeptide cardiotoxins make up 60% of the venom (dry weight), while postsynaptic neurotoxins make up only 4.5%. The two main neurotoxins, sputa-neurotoxin 1 (SN1) and sputa-neurotoxin 2 (SN2) isolated from the venom, are “short” neurotoxins, with 62 and 61 amino acid residues, respectively. The IV LD50 of the two toxins are 0.09 mg/g and 0.07 mg/g, respectively, and they possess amino acid sequences similar to those of other cobra venom neurotoxins.[9] The venom was also found to exhibit an in vitro anticoagulant activity much stronger than most common cobra (genus Naja) venoms. The anticoagulants, phospholipase A2 enzymes, with a molecular weight of approximately 14 kDa, make up 15% of the venom (dry weight).[9][11] Very few human fatalities are attributed to this species.

Cylindrophis aruensis, Aru cylinder snake

Cylindrophis aruensis, Aru cylinder snake

Cylindrophis aruensis, or the Aru cylinder snake, is a species of snake in the Cylindrophiidae family.Cylindrophis-aruensis

Geographic range

It is endemic to Indonesia.


The Aru cylinder snake is reddish brown, with white transverse spots forming two alternating series on the back and crossbars on the belly, some of which are complete, others interrupted and the two halves alternating; a pair of large white blotches on the nape of the neck; lower surface of tail white.

No enlarged ventrals. Scales in 24 rows. Subcaudals 6

Xenochrophis vittatus, Striped Keelback

Xenochrophis vittatus, Striped Keelback 


Striped Keelback Xenochrophis vittatus is a species of snake found mainly in Indonesia (Bangka, Java, Sumatra, We, Sulawesi); and Singapore (introduced).

Terra typica: “America” (in error).


A diurnal snake that loves paddyfields, ponds, small ditches and sometimes wandering around backyard and home garden. This rear-fanged and mildly venomous snake is considered harmless and typically feeds on amphibians, fish, and small lizards.

In captivity

In central Java its also not uncommon for Striped Keelbacks to be kept by children pets. It has a reputation for being very mild-mannered and rarely bites. In the United States, wildcaught Striped Keelbacks are frequently imported and sold as “garter snakes”, typically “Canadian garter snakes” or “Indonesian garter snakes”, but they are not related to thamnophis.

Morelia tracyae, Halmahera python

Morelia tracyae, Halmahera python


Morelia tracyae, more commonly known as the Halmahera python, is a species of python found only on the Indonesian island of Halmahera. It belongs to the Pythonidae family and the Morelia genus. This snake was previously believed to have belonged to the Morelia amesthistina species; however, studies in recent years have caused scientists to distinguish between the two types of snakes, resulting in the reclassification of the Halmahera python as its own species.

Taxonomy and Etymology

Until recently, Morelia tracyae was considered to be part of the species Morelia amesthistina. Previously, the scientific community believed that this species, despite the large varieties in appearance and wide range of habitat, was thought simply to have “exceptional dispersal abilities.” [1] However, more recent scientific studies have indicated Morelia amesthistina’s lack of mobility between habitats, leading to the realization that this type of snake is “more prone to speciation than other pythons.” [2]

David G. Barker, an avid python collector, suspected that the high level of variety of Indonesian pythons indicated the presence of multiple species. In 1995, David G. Barker and Michael B. Harvey, herpetological expert and professor at the University of Texas, conducted a study of various specimens of Indonesian snakes. By examining both live specimens and museum specimens, these scientists observed morphological differences and phylogenetically analyzed the snakes’ molecular DNA sequences. In its molecular sequencing, Morelia tracyae showed a 6-7% divergence in from all other scrub pythons in the surrounding area. The resultant conclusions of this study led to the identification of three new species: M. clastolepis, M. nauta, and M. tracyae.[1]

The Halmhera python has been recognized by the scientific community as a separate species since Barker and Harvey’s publication of their data in 2000.[2][3]

The Morelia tracyae species was named for David G. Barker’s wife, Tracy M. Barker, who is also a python enthusiast.[1]


Morelia tracyae is a large species of python, and can range anywhere from 2.5 meters to 4 m in length (8–13 ft).[4][5] It is described as “heavy-bodied,” [1] and more closely resembles the boa than any other species of python. The Halmahera python is recognized by its distinct red irises, as compared to the typical brown or gold irises of other closely related species. Other facial features include its rounded snout, black tongue, and pale blueish grey oral mucosa. One way to distinguish the sex of a Halmahera python is by noticing the snout: females have a somewhat shorter snout, which leads to the appearance of having a wider head. Morelia tracyae is also marked by two or three pairs of enlarged parietal scales on either side of its head.

The Halmahera python is marked by a distinct scale pattern; there have never been any patternless specimens observed. There are anywhere from 48-56 dark brown or black bands on the body, with the stripes reaching their darkest point on the snake’s back and lighter towards the sides. The stripes are 4-11 dorsal scales in length, and are separated by 3-7 dorsal scale lengths. In addition to the dorsal stripes, a well-defined postocular stripe and one to two thick black stripes around the neck are often present. The Halmahera python is unusual because of the pattern’s consistency across the species, with very little variation. This snake is also unique in that the adult snake has the same pattern as it did in adolescence; there is little to no change in design as the Halmahera python develops.[1]


The Halmahera python changes color over a short period of time; however, scientists are unable to determine what circumstances cause the color change. At the darker end of the color spectrum, morelia tracyae could be medium brown, orangish-brown, or russet. These colors could change to be a greenish-straw, grey-tan, yellowish-tan, or tan on the lighter end of the spectrum. Though the base color of the snake changes, the pattern of thick dorsal stripes remains the same. The stripes could be dark brown, charcoal-brown, brownish black, charcoal, or black at the dark end of the color continuum and become a medium greenish brown or medium reddish brown as the python shifts to the lighter end of the continuum. However, if a stripe is pure black it will remain black despite any other color changes. Though no newly-hatched Halmahera pythons have been observed, Barker and Harvey of the 2000 python study “would predict that hatchlings are very dark reddish-brown in color.” [1]


Though scrub pythons in general are found above the ground in canopies, locals of Halmahera have most often encountered Morelia tracyae crawling on the ground. [6] However, this species certainly has the ability to travel through the trees as it is often found near fruit bat roosts.[4]

According to local collectors, the Halmahera python feeds on fruit bats and presumably other small mammals and birds.[6] There have also been reports by natives of Halmahera pythons carrying off large numbers of domestic chickens.[5] Like other pythons, the Halmahera python will swallow its victims whole or defeat larger prey through constriction.[4] This snake is non-venomous.

Geographic Range

Morelia tracyae is only found in the northwestern area of Halmahera, Indonesia. Specimens have been seen as far south as Jailolo and have been sighted near Galela and Tobelo in the north. Morelia tracyae has evolved as a separate species because of its secluded location on Halmahera.[1]


This python’s main habitat is the evergreen rainforest of northern Halmahera, where it moves equally comfortable on the ground and in the trees.[5]


No specimen of Morelia tracyae have been hatched in captivity to date,[1][5] so information regarding their reproduction, clutch size, and development are extremely limited. In general, scrub pythons do not tend to do well in captivity, due in part to their reputation for biting, and have been described as “heat-seeking guided missiles tipped with teeth.”

Morelia clastolepis, Mollucan python

Morelia clastolepis, Mollucan python


Morelia clastolepis, also known as the Mollucan python, is a species of python found in Indonesia. They can grow to be 8-9 feet in length, so this is enough to kill an adult human.


As hatchlings they have a red in color, which then turns from brown to yellow, then as adults, will get black along their spine. They can also be patternless or striped.

Anomochilus weberi, Weber’s pipe snake

Anomochilus weberi, Weber’s pipe snake

Anomochilus weberi, or Weber’s pipe snake, is a species of snake in the Anomochilidae family.Anomochilus-weberi--400

Frontal quadrangular, nearly twice as large as the supraocular. No enlarged parietals. Four upper labials, third largest and in contact with eye. Dorsal scales in 21 rows. Ventrals 244, scarcely larger than dorsal scales; anal divided; subcaudals 8. Dorsally it is brown, with each scale edge lighter. There is a light spot on each prefontal and on the frontal. On each side of the back there is a series of round light spots, in pairs or alternating. Along the middle of each side there is an interrupted whitish line. Ventrally it has irregular light spots arranged in pairs and sometimes confluent

Gonyosoma oxycephalum, Red-tailed Green Ratsnake

Gonyosoma oxycephalum, Red-tailed Green Ratsnake 

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The Red-tailed Green Ratsnake (Gonyosoma oxycephalum) is a species of snake found in Southeast Asia. It is a thin snake with powerful and rough scales on its belly, ideal for climbing and moving in trees. It has smaller, smooth scales on its back.

As its name indicates, the snake has a green body with a red tail (usually brownish), and it also has a dark line horizontally across its eye. On the sides of its black tongue there may be a blue colour.

The red-tailed green ratsnake lives and spends its life in the trees and in cavities in trees. It seldom descends to the ground. It feeds almost exclusively on birds, but in captivity it can be trained to feed on small mammals . The female can reach a length of up to 2.4 m (almost 8 feet), while the male is generally a little bit smaller. Its average life span is 15 years. It reaches sexually maturity at the age of 4 years, and its eggs have a hatching time from 13 to 16 weeks. The female lays on average between 3 and 8 eggs usually between September and January and the hatchlings are about 45 cm (18 inches) long.

When the snake is stressed, it may inflate a bag of air in its neck, making it appear larger in size.

In captivity, it has quite the ‘attitude’ and may strike at or bite an unwary handler.

– Snakes, Kraites and Vipers Indonesia

29 Snakes, Kraites and Vipers

Snakes, Kraites and Vipers
Acanthophis antarcticus Death Adder Opslaan a/reptiles-of-indonesia/4164-acanthophis-antarcticus-death-adder.html
Acrochordus granulatus Indian Wart Snake
Ahaetulla prasina Green Whip Snake
Boiga cynodon Dog-toothed Cat Snake
Boiga dendrophila Mangrove Cat Snake
Bungarus fasciatus Banded Krait
Cerberus rynchops Dog-faced Water Snake
Chrysopelea paradisi Paradise Flying Snake
Crysopelea Flying Tree Snake
Dendrelaphis pictus Painted Bronze-back
Elaphe subradiata Indonesian Ratsnake
Elaphe-janseni Jansen’s Rat snake
Laticauda colubrina Colubrine Sea Snake
Lycodon capucinus Common Wolf Snake
Maticora bivirgata  Blue Malaysian Coral Snake
Maticora intestinalis Banded Coral Snake
Naja sumatrana  Equatorial Spitting Cobra
Naja-naja-sputatrix  Black Spitting Cobra Kobra
Ophiophagus hannah  King Cobra
Oxyuranus scutellatus  Taipan
Phyton-timorensis Timor python Piton Timur
Psammodynastes pictus Painted Mock Viper
Psammodynastes pulverulentus Mock Viper
Python-reticulatus Python Piton
Trimeresurus puniceus  Flat-nosed Pit-Viper
Trimeresurus-albolabris white-lipped green pit viper
Vipera-russelli Daboia