Nepenthes vogelii

Nepenthes vogelii

Nepenthaceae
 

Nepenthes vogelii

http://en.wikipedia.org
Nepenthes vogelii  is a tropical pitcher plant endemic to Borneo. It is thought to be most closely related to N. fusca.
Description

Rosette and lower pitchers are cylindrical throughout and have a small horizontal mouth Unusually, they lack ventral wings. The lid is broadly triangular and lacks appendages. Pitchers are yellowish with dark speckles and a striped peristome.

Upper pitchers are generally infundibular, although their shape may vary from narrowly funnel-shaped to distinctly bulbous in the upper portion. This bulbous portion corresponds to the upper waxy zone of the inner surface.
Upper pitchers of N. vogelii in the Kelabit Highlands
Ecology

Despite only being recorded from several scattered localities, N. vogelii appears to be more widespread in Borneo than previously thought. Initially believed to be endemic to northern Sarawak,[5] it is now known from southern Sabah and West Kalimantan. The species has an altitudinal distribution of 1000[5] to 1500  m above sea level.

Nepenthes vogelii typically occurs as an epiphyte in submontane or tall lower montane forest. The type specimen was found growing terrestrially among moss in wet kerangas forest. The plant was sympatric with N. stenophylla[a] and N. veitchii. Despite this, no natural hybrids involving N. vogelii have been recorded.

On Mount Mulu, N. vogelii occurs in a narrow altitudinal band (1200 to 1500 m) where its distribution does not overlap with those of the likewise epiphytic N. fusca and N. hurrelliana, which grow below 1200 m and above 1500 m, respectively.

Nepenthes ventricosa

Nepenthes ventricosa

Nepenthaceae
 
Nepenthes ventricosa
http://en.wikipedia.org
Nepenthes ventricosa , from New Latin: ventricosus = having a swelling on one side) is a species of pitcher plant, native to the Philippines, where it is a highland species, growing at an elevation of 1000–2000 m in montane forest. It is an epiphyte often growing scrambling through shrubs. It is a medium-sized species. The pitchers are numerous, growing up to 9 inches tall, pale green or streaked with red, or red in some cultivars.

Nepenthes ventricosa is very closely related to both N. burkei and N. sibuyanensis, but can be distinguished by a more waisted middle to the pitchers, a smaller mouth, and, generally, a thinner peristome.

 
Nepenthes ventricosa is a highland plant from the Phillippines.

Cultivating Ease – Very Easy

Type – This plant is a highland. It can live in a wide range of temperatures.

Temperature – Although it is a highland plant, it actually grows as well as an intermediate. It can grow as a lowland as well, but growth will slow and it will refuse to pitcher, resembling a summer dormancy.

Humidity – This plant pitchers better if the humidity is kept above 70%.

Light – Bright light to full (diffused) sunlight. It grows very well in a large chamber under lights.

Moisture – Keep the plant moist. Do not keep the roots very wet for long periods of time.

Soil – Long Fiber Sphagnum

Size – The plant grows on a compact stem until its ready to flower, and even then the nodes are not highly separated from each other. It’s a relatively compact climber.

Details: Ventricosa produces a beautiful array of pitchers, and displays well in a hanging basket.

Propagation – The plant grows relatively quickly from small tissue culture plants. Cuttings are also viable. The plant will send up many offshoots from its stems, and separating these and potting them up also works.

Forms – There are several forms I am aware of:
“Typical” – The pitchers are bronze colored.
“Red” – The pitchers are a totally deep red color
“Cream” – The pitchers and peristome are light green to white in color.
“Black/Purple Peristome” – The pitchers are identical to the “cream”, but the peristome in developed plants can have a peristome that is so darkly colored purple that it can appear black.

Nepenthes villosa

Nepenthes villosa

Villose Pitcher-Plant

Nepenthaceae
 
Villose Pitcher-Plant, Nepenthes villosa
http://en.wikipedia.org
Nepenthes villosa , or the Villose Pitcher-Plant, is a tropical pitcher plant endemic to Mount Kinabalu and neighbouring Mount Tambuyukon in northeastern Borneo. It grows at higher altitudes than any other Bornean Nepenthes species, occurring at elevations of over 3200 m. Nepenthes villosa is characterised by its highly-developed and intricate peristome, which distinguishes it from the closely related N. edwardsiana and N. macrophylla.

The specific epithet villosa is Latin for “hairy” and refers to the dense indumentum of this species.

 
Description
Nepenthes villosa is a weak climber, rarely exceeding 60 cm in height, although the stem may grow to 8 m in length and 10 mm in diameter. Internodes are cylindrical and up to 10 cm long.[

Leaves are coriaceous and petiolate. The lamina is spathulate to oblong and may be up to 25 cm long and 6 cm wide. The apex of the lamina is emarginate. The petiole is canaliculate, up to 10 cm long, and bears an amplexicaul sheath. One to three longitudinal veins are present on either side of the midrib. Tendrils may reach 50 cm in length
Lower and upper pitchers are very similar. They are urceolate to ovate in shape. The pitchers grow up to 25 cm high and 9 cm wide. A pair of fringed wings (≤15 mm wide) runs down the front of the pitcher, although it may be reduced to ribs in aerial traps. The pitcher mouth is oblique and elongated into a neck at the rear. The glands on the inner surface are overarched and occur at a density of 200 to 1300 per square centimetre. The peristome is cylindrical in cross section and up to 20 mm wide. It bears well developed teeth and ribs. The lid or operculum is cordate and has a pointed apex. An unbranched spur (≤20 mm long) is inserted at the base of the lid.
Unusual elongated upper pitcher

Nepenthes villosa has a racemose inflorescence. The peduncle may be up to 40 cm long, while the rachis grows to 20 cm in length. Pedicels are filiform-bracteolate and up to 15 mm long. Sepals are round to elliptic and up to 4 mm long. A study of 490 pollen samples taken from two herbarium specimens (J.H.Adam 1124 and J.H.Adam 1190, collected at an altitude of 1800–3400 m) found the mean pollen diameter to be 37.2 μm (SE = 0.2; CV = 6.7%).[14]

The species has a dense indumentum of long, brown hairs that covers all parts of the plant.

 

Nepenthes tobaica

Nepenthes tobaica

Nepenthaceae
 
Nepenthes tobaica
http://en.wikipedia.org
Nepenthes tobaica  is a tropical pitcher plant endemic to Sumatra. It is particularly abundant around Lake Toba, after which it is named.

Nepenthes tobaica is closely related to N. angasanensis, N. gracilis, N. mikei, and N. reinwardtiana.
Description

Nepenthes tobaica is a climbing plant. The stem can attain a height of up to 7 m and is up to 6 mm in diameter. Internodes are up to 25 cm long and often round in cross section. However, mature plants may have angular stems because of a groove that originates at the node and extends across most of the internode’s length.
Robust rosette plants with dark purple lower pitchers and leaves showing a sub-peltate tendril insertion

Leaves are coriaceous in texture and range from sessile to sub-petiolate. The shape of the lamina, or leaf blade, varies from oblong to spathulate. It measures up to 20 cm in length by 4 cm in width. The apical end of the lamina is typically rounded, but may be narrowed and obtuse. Robust plants sometimes have a sub-peltate tendril insertion. The lamina may be gradually or abruptly contracted towards the amplexicaul base, which clasps the stem for around half of its circumference. One to three longitudinal veins are present on either side of the midrib, although they are only prominent in robust specimens. Pinnate veins are indistinct. Tendrils grow to 30 cm in length.

Rosette and lower pitchers are ovoid in the lower portion and cylindrical above. They are up to 20 cm high by 4 cm wide. A pair of wings runs down the pitcher’s ventral surface, often bearing fringe elements either throughout the whole length or only in the upper part. The glandular region of the pitcher’s inner surface is confined to the ovoid portion. A pair of “eye spots” is sometimes present on the inner surface, below the lid attachment. The pitcher mouth is ovate and has an oblique insertion. The narrow peristome (≤5 mm wide) is cylindrical or slightly expanded and bears indistinct teeth. The pitcher lid or operculum is ovate to sub-orbicular and has a somewhat cordate base. It lacks appendages. A spur measuring up to 5 mm in length is inserted near the base of the lid. It may be unbranched, bifid, or trifid.
Upper pitchers on a climbing stem

Upper pitchers are typically somewhat infundibular in the lowermost part, becoming narrowly ovoid in the lower third, and finally cylindrical and slightly narrower above. They may be quite large, reaching 25 cm in height by 5 cm in width. A pair of remnant ribs is present in place of the ventral wings. Other parts of aerial pitchers are similar to their lower counterparts.

Nepenthes tobaica has a racemose inflorescence. The peduncle and rachis can each grow to 20 cm in length. Partial peduncles are two-flowered and lack bracteoles. In male inflorescences, the sepals are elliptic-obtuse, being slightly narrower in female ones. Around the town of Prapat, plants have been observed to come into flower in April, although mature fruits are not common at this time.

Nepenthes tobaica is characterised by an uneven indumentum. Most mature vegetative parts are glabrous, although the midrib may bear persistent hairs. Groups of white, stellate hairs are often present in the leaf axils. The sepals of this species are densely tomentose, but the rest of the inflorescence has a sparser covering of short hairs.

In some forms, the underside of the lid is a vivid red, making the plants particularly easy to spot amongst other vegetation.
Ecology
Nepenthes tobaica is endemic to Sumatra. Its natural range was once thought to stretch from the Gayo Lands of Aceh in the north to Tarutung in the south. Towards the end of the 20th century, new locations of this species were discovered further south. These include Mount Sorik Merapi and a unique high altitude peat swamp habitat near Lake Kerinci in Jambi. Charles Clarke cites its altitudinal range as 380 to 1800 m above sea level, with a habitat near the port town of Sibolga constituting the lower extreme and Mount Pangulubao the upper extreme. However, according to Matthew Jebb and Martin Cheek, N. tobaica can grow as high as 2750 m.
This species typically grows terrestrially in exposed areas. Nepenthes tobaica commonly grows in forest edges, where it is often sympatric with species of Leptospermum and Rhodomyrtus.

Nepenthes tobaica is very abundant in the Lake Toba region,[8] to the point where it is “difficult to avoid seeing it there”. N. tobaica is also known to grow in high altitude peat swamp forest near Lake Kerinci, at an altitude of 1100 m. At this location, the species grows alongside N. ampullaria, N. gracilis, N. mirabilis, N. reinwardtiana, and N. spathulata. The Nepenthes species and hybrids at this site exhibit high levels of introgression. The vegetation is dominated by species of the genera Rhododendron and Melastoma, as well as orchids and ferns. It is very stunted and dense, with few trees exceeding 3 m in height. It is somewhat reminiscent of the highland heath forests around Bareo in Sarawak, Borneo.

The conservation status of N. tobaica is listed as Least Concern on the 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species based on an assessment carried out in 2000.
Pitcher infauna

The mite species Creutzeria tobaica was described from the pitchers of a Javanese Nepenthes identified as N. tobaica. However, N. tobaica has not been recorded outside of Sumatra.

Nepenthes tentaculata

Nepenthes tentaculata

Fringed Pitcher-Plant

Nepenthaceae
 
Fringed Pitcher-Plant, Nepenthes tentaculata
http://en.wikipedia.org
Nepenthes tentaculata , or the Fringed Pitcher-Plant, is a tropical pitcher plant with a very wide distribution across Borneo and Sulawesi. It grows at altitudes of 400–2550 m.
The specific epithet tentaculata is derived from the Latin word tentacula, meaning “tentacles”, and refers to the multicellular appendages on the upper surface of the pitcher lid.
 
Description

Nepenthes tentaculata is a climbing plant. The stem may reach a length of 3 m and is up to 5 mm in diameter. Internodes are circular to triangular in cross section and up to 10 cm long.
A rosette plant from Sulawesi

The leaves of this species are sessile. The lamina or leaf blade is lanceolate to elliptic in shape and up to 15 cm long by 3 cm wide. Its apex is rounded to acute, while the base is amplexicaul and cordate, encircling the stem. Up to 4 longitudinal veins are present on either side of the midrib. Pinnate veins are irregularly reticulate. Tendrils are up to 15 cm long.

The pitchers of N. tentaculata are generally quite small, rarely exceeding 15 cm in height.[2] However, in exceptional specimens they may be up to 30 cm high by 8 cm wide. Rosette and lower pitchers are ovoid in the basal third and cylindrical above. Upper pitchers are more cylindrical throughout. A pair of fringed wings runs down the front of lower pitchers, while in upper pitchers these are often reduced to ribs. The pitcher mouth is usually ovate, becoming acute at the front and rear. Its insertion very oblique. The peristome is roughly cylindrical in cross section and up to 5 mm wide. It bears small ribs and its inner margin is lined with tiny teeth. The pitcher lid or operculum is ovate and typically obtuse. Often, numerous filiform appendages are present on the upper surface of the lid, concentrated near the edge.[15] However, some forms of the species lack these structures altogether.

Nepenthes tentaculata has a racemose inflorescence. The peduncle is up to 15 cm long and the rachis up to 10 cm long, although female inflorescences are generally shorter than male ones. Pedicels are bract-less and reach 10 mm in length. Sepals are oblong-lanceolate in shape and up to 3 mm long. A study of 210 pollen samples taken from a herbarium specimen (Mjöberg 49, collected in Borneo at an altitude of 1700 m) found the mean pollen diameter to be 29.8 μm (SE = 0.4; CV = 9.4%).[16]

Nepenthes tentaculata has no indumentum (hairs); all parts of the plant are glabrous.[

Nepenthes tenuis

Nepenthes tenuis

Nepenthaceae
 
Nepenthes tenuis
http://en.wikipedia.org
Nepenthes tenuis , from Latin: tenuis = thin, fine, slender) is a tropical pitcher plant endemic to Sumatra. The species was first collected in 1957, from a remote mountain in the western part of the island. It remained undescribed until 1994, and was only rediscovered in the wild in 2002. Prior to this, N. tenuis was known solely from a single photograph and dried herbarium specimen.
Discovery and naming

Nepenthes tenuis was first collected by Willem Meijer on August 24, 1957. It was discovered near Taram, West Sumatra, in a sandstone region of the river Tjampo. The plants were growing on a ridge at approximately 1000 m above sea level, making N. tenuis an intermediate species. The habitat was described as “light sub-montane forest”.
Prior to the rediscovery of N. tenuis in the wild, this was the only known photograph of the species. It shows a fragment of a climbing stem and an upper pitcher.

Nepenthes tenuis was formally described as a species in 1994 by Joachim Nerz and Andreas Wistuba, based on a single specimen deposited by Meijer at the Leiden herbarium and a black and white photograph from 1957 showing the freshly collected plant. After several failed expeditions, the species was finally rediscovered in the wild in late 2002 by a team comprising Andreas Wistuba, Joachim Nerz, Michael Schach, and others.
Description

Nepenthes tenuis is a climbing plant. The stem is slender (2–3 mm thick) and angular to rhomboid in cross section. Internodes are 5-6.5 cm long.

Leaves are sessile and coriaceous. The lamina is lanceolate in morphology, 5–6 cm long, and 1-1.5 cm wide. It has an acute apex and is gradually attenuate towards the base, clasping the stem for two-thirds of its width (without a sheath). The lamina has indistinct nervation. Three or so longitudinal veins are present on either side of the midrib, originating from the basal third of the midrib and running parallel to it in the outer half of the lamina. Pinnate veins are oblique and irregularly reticulate, although they are not easily distinguishable. Tendrils are approximately 1.5 times as long as the lamina, growing to 12 cm in length and 0.5–1 mm in thickness. The tendrils may or may not curl around surrounding objects for support.
Nepenthes tenuis is one of the smallest-pitchered species in the genus, possibly only second to N. argentii. Upper pitchers gradually arise from the ends of the tendrils, forming a 10 mm wide curve. They are widely infundibuliform (funnel-shaped) throughout and contracted below the mouth. These aerial pitchers are usually 2.5-4.5 cm high and 1.5-2.5 cm wide. Both lower and upper pitchers lack wings or fringe elements. Instead, they bear two prominent ribs running down the front, 3–5 mm apart. The glandular region covers the entire inner surface of the pitchers. The glands are small and occur at a density of 600-800 per square centimetre. The pitcher mouth is ovate and almost horizontal. The flattened peristome may be up to 6 mm wide, bearing ribs spaced 1/8 mm apart. The lid is narrow-elliptic, lacks appendages, and possesses two prominent veins, one on each side of the midrib. It is usually 1.5-2.5 cm long and 0.5-0.8 cm wide. Glands are evenly distributed on the underside of the lid. An unbranched, 1 mm long spur is inserted close to the base of the lid.
Most parts of the plant are glabrous, although some may be covered with a sparse indumentum of simple hairs. Herbarium specimens are dark brown in colour. On living plants, the pitchers are yellow-green and often have varying amounts of red-brown blotches. The peristome may be yellow to dark brown.

Nepenthes talangensis

Nepenthes talangensis

Nepenthaceae
 
Nepenthes talangensis
http://en.wikipedia.org
Nepenthes talangensis is a tropical pitcher plant endemic to Sumatra, where it grows in upper montane forest at elevations of 1800–2500 m above sea level.

The specific epithet talangensis is derived from the name of Mount Talang, to which it is endemic, and the Latin ending -ensis, meaning “from”.

Description

Nepenthes talangensis is a climbing plant growing to a height of 3 m. The stem is up to 0.5 cm in diameter and has internodes up to 10 cm long that are cylindrical-angular in cross section.[7] The stem, which may be branched, is yellowish-green in colour.
Leaves are coriaceous and sessile.The lamina (leaf blade) varies in shape and may be linear, lanceolate, or slightly spathulate. It measures up to 16 cm in length by 3 cm in width. The lamina has an acute or obtuse apex and an attenuate base that clasps the stem. Two to three longitudinal veins are present on either side of the midrib. Pinnate veins are irregularly reticulate. Tendrils are up to 30 cm long. The lamina is dark green throughout, whereas the midrib and tendril are yellowish-green like the stem.

Rosette and lower pitchers are only produced briefly before the plant starts to climb. They are either entirely ovate or only ovate in the upper half and infundibular below. They often narrow just below the peristome. Terrestrial pitchers grow to 10 cm in height by 6 cm in width. A pair of fringed wings (≤10 mm wide) usually runs down the ventral surface of the trap, bearing filaments up to 8 mm long, although these wings may be absent altogether or only extend for a portion of the trap’s length. The pitcher mouth is round and positioned horizontally in the front two-thirds, rising at the rear to form a short neck. The peristome is flattened, strongly incurved, and measures up to 15 mm in width. It bears ribs up to 0.8 mm high and spaced up to 1 mm apart. These ribs terminate in distinct teeth (≤3 mm long) on the inner margin of the peristome. The peristome forms a short neck at the rear, where the teeth form two parallel rows. The inner surface is wholly glandular. The pitcher lid or operculum is ovate to elliptic and has a cordate base. It measures up to 6 cm in length by 5 cm in width. It bears no appendages on its lower surface. A flattened spur measuring up to 5 mm in length is inserted near the base of the lid. It may or may not be branched. Lower pitchers are typically light yellow to olive green and speckled with red or purple. The inner surface is a light shade of yellow. The peristome is generally yellow or orange in freshly opened traps, later becoming dark red to purple as the pitcher matures. The upper surface of the lid is often yellow with orange to purple blotches, whereas the underside may be completely red, although this is not always the case.
Intermediate pitchers showing the colour variation exhibited by this species

Upper pitchers are either narrowly infundibular in the basal half of the pitcher cup and swollen above or infundibular throughout. A constriction is present just below the peristome. Aerial traps reach 12 cm in height by 6 cm in width. In upper pitchers, the wings may be partially developed near the pitcher mouth, or they may be reduced to ribs. The peristome reaches up to 24 mm in width and is similarly incurved to that found in terrestrial traps. Other parts of upper pitchers are similar to their lower counterparts. Upper pitchers exhibit a similar pigmentation to lower pitchers, but are typically lighter.

Nepenthes talangensis has a racemose inflorescence up to 14 cm long, of which the peduncle constitutes up to 5 cm and the rachis up to 9 cm. The peduncle has a basal diameter of 2 mm. Flowers are borne solitarily on pedicels (≤10 mm long) with simple bracts. Tepals are elliptic and up to 4 mm long. Female and male inflorescences have a similar structure.

A sparse but persistent indumentum of simple, white hairs is present on most parts of the plant. The density of hairs on the pitchers may be so low that they appear glabrous. The laminar margins are lined with red, brown or white hairs measuring up to 3 mm.

Nepenthes talangensis varies little across its restricted range and has no infraspecific taxa.
Ecology
Nepenthes talangensis growing in mossy upper montane forest

Nepenthes talangensis is thought to be endemic to the area around Mount Talang in the Indonesian province of West Sumatra; it has been recorded from Mount Talang itself and from nearby Bukit Gombak. A population of apparently tetraploid plants is known. Although Nerz and Wistuba wrote in their formal description that N. talangensis is restricted to elevations above 2200 m,[1] the species is now known to have a wider altitudinal distribution of 1800–2500 m.

The typical habitat of N. talangensis is mossy upper montane forest, where it is almost exclusively terrestrial, but rarely may also be found as an epiphyte. It may grow in shady conditions under dense tree cover or among open, stunted shrubs where it is exposed to strong or even direct sunlight.[7][8] At lower elevations of as little as 1800 m, N. talangensis is found in dense mossy forest, where it is sympatric with N. gymnamphora and N. inermis.[7] Nepenthes talangensis is seldom sympatric with N. bongso, despite the latter being common on Mount Talang. This is because the two species occupy distinct ecological niches; N. bongso is typically an epiphyte in lower montane forest, whereas N. talangensis usually grows terrestrially in upper montane forest. Natural hybrids with all three sympatric Nepenthes species have been recorded.

The conservation status of N. talangensis is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List, based on an assessment carried out in 2000.[13] This agrees with an informal assessment made by Charles Clarke in 2001, who also classified the species as Endangered based on the IUCN criteria. Since the species appears to be restricted to a single mountain, it would normally fall under the category of Critically Endangered.

Stewart McPherson considered the species “not seriously threatened” in his 2009 monograph, describing extant wild populations as “extensive”.[8] A substantial number of plants persist on Mount Talang despite its recent volcanic activity, which has included large eruptions. Due to its status as an active volcano, Mount Talang receives few visitors and is not a major target for development.
Carnivory

Nepenthes talangensis produces extremely thick, mucilaginous pitcher liquid, which coats the entire inner surfaces of the traps in a thin film. The pitchers of this species appear to function at least in part as flypaper traps, with the sticky inner walls trapping flying insects above the surface of the fluid.

Similarly viscous pitcher fluid is also found in seven other closely allied Sumatran species: N. aristolochioides, N. dubia, N. flava, N. inermis, N. jacquelineae, N. jamban, and N. tenuis. Together with N. talangensis, these species all share infundibular pitchers that are wholly glandular or almost so.

Nepenthes surigaoensis

Nepenthes surigaoensis

Nepenthaceae
 
Nepenthes surigaoensis
http://en.wikipedia.org
Nepenthes surigaoensis is a tropical pitcher plant endemic to the Philippine island of Mindanao, where it grows at elevations of at least 800–1200 m above sea level.

The species is named after Surigao Peninsula, where the type specimen was collected. It is closely related to N. merrilliana and was for a long time considered a heterotypic synonym of this species.
Description

Nepenthes surigaoensis is a climbing plant growing to a height of 5 m. The stem, which may be branched, is up to 1.25 cm in diameter and has internodes up to 14 cm long. It often scrambles through vegetation, sometimes leaning against slanted tree trunks, but may also grow prostrate along the ground.

Leaves are coriaceous and petiolate. The lamina (leaf blade) varies in shape from linear to slightly lanceolate. It reaches up to 40 cm in length by 5 cm in width. It has an acute or obtuse apex and a slightly attenuate base that narrows to form a winged petiole. This petiole is strongly decurrent down the stem. In some specimens the laminar margins may meet the midrib at different points along its length, resulting in asymmetrical apices located up to 4 mm apart; this is also common in N. merrilliana. Another trait shared by these two species is the occasional difference in size between the laminar halves, with one being clearly wider than the other. The tendrils of N. surigaoensis are among the longest in the genus, reaching up to 120 cm.
Rosette and lower pitchers are typically wholly cylindrical or ellipsoidal, but may be slightly swollen in the basal portion. They can reach 24 cm in height by 9 cm in width, although they are more commonly up to 16 high by 7.5 cm wide. A pair of fringed wings up to 20 mm wide runs down the ventral surface of the pitcher cup, with filaments up to 16 mm long.The peristome is more-or-less cylindrical and up to 2.5 cm wide, becoming broader towards the sides and rear. It bears ribs up to 1.5 mm high and spaced up to 2 mm apart, which terminate in very narrow teeth up to 2.5 mm long. The peristome is elongated into a very short neck at the rear, where the two peristome lobes are typically separated by a gap of several millimetres. Its outer margin is recurved and may be slightly undulate. The pitcher lid or operculum varies in shape from elliptic to ovate and measures up to 8 cm in length by 6 cm in width. It does not bear any appendages on its lower surface. An unbranched spur measuring up to 22 mm in length is inserted near the base of the lid.
An aerial offshoot from an old climbing stem with lower pitchers borne on long tendrils

Upper pitchers are broadly infundibular in the basal third to half of the pitcher cup and cylindrical to slightly swollen in the upper portion. They are smaller than lower pitchers, reaching 15 cm in height by 6.5 cm in width. Aerial pitchers are noted for retaining highly developed wings, which may be up to 15 mm wide with fringe elements up to 13 mm long. The peristome is rarely crenellated in upper pitchers. Otherwise, aerial traps are morphologically similar to their terrestrial counterparts.

Nepenthes surigaoensis has a racemose inflorescence. It measures up to 40 cm in length and has a maximum basal diameter of 6 cm, flowers included. The peduncle itself is up to 18 cm long, whereas the rachis reaches up to 25 cm. Most flowers are borne in pairs on partial peduncles measuring up to 8 mm in length, with pedicels up to 16 mm long. The first flowers bear narrow bracts. Tepals are oblong and up to 5 mm long. They are noted for occasionally being of unequal width. The androphore is up to 6 mm long by 1 mm wide.

The majority of mature plants on Mount Masay bear an indumentum of coarse orange to brown hairs (≤1.8 mm long) on the pitchers and tendrils. Most of the remainder of the vegetative parts are more-or-less glabrous. Further field work is needed to determine whether this indumentum is typical of the species as a whole.

The stem and tendrils are yellow to green, as is the midrib, although the latter may also be a very light orange (particularly the basal portion near the stem). The lamina is always green, even in young leaves; this feature separates N. surigaoensis from N. merrilliana. Rosette and lower pitchers are generally green, yellow, or light orange, but can turn wholly red with age. The inner surface of the pitcher is yellow to orange, often blotched with purple or black. The lid and peristome colours often match the rest of the pitcher exterior, although the latter can be as dark as purple in older traps. Upper pitchers are typically of a lighter pigmentation, being predominantly yellowish-green, occasionally with traces of red or purple speckles on the inner surface.

No infraspecific taxa of N. surigaoensis have been described.
Ecology

Nepenthes surigaoensis is endemic to the Philippine island of Mindanao. It is presently known from only two locations: the Mount Masay massif of the Mabaho Range in northern Mindanao and a “minor peak” of the Pantaron Range in central Mindanao. Further populations of this species may be present in the Diuata Mountains and other adjacent highland areas. Recent field observations place the altitudinal distribution of N. surigaoensis at 800–1200 m above sea level, although Elmer’s original description gives an elevation of approximately 1750 m (“5750 feet” in the original).

Nepenthes surigaoensis grows terrestrially on mountain ridges. It appears to be restricted to lower montane forest, where it is found in shady conditions among dense vegetation up to 8 m high.[6] Stewart McPherson has suggested that the exceptionally long tendrils of this species are an adaptation to its dense habitat. They allow the lower pitchers to rest on the ground even when produced on higher parts of the stem, thus maximising their chances of catching insect prey. No natural hybrids involving N. surigaoensis have been recorded.

Current knowledge of this species is insufficient to properly assess its conservation status. In 2009, Stewart McPherson described the populations from the two known localities as “widely distributed, numerous and seldom visited”. Copper extraction operations in the Mabaho Range are restricted to lower elevations and therefore do not represent a direct threat to this species.

Nepenthes spectabilis

Nepenthes spectabilis

Nepenthaceae
 
Nepenthes spectabilis
http://en.wikipedia.org
Nepenthes spectabilis is a tropical pitcher plant endemic to Sumatra, where it grows at elevations of between 1400 and 2200 m above sea level. The specific epithet spectabilis is Latin for “visible” or “notable”.
This new species has only been found on the G. Sibajak and the G. Pinto, two tops of the same mountain ; the Bt. Semaik too certainly belongs to the same group. N. spectabilis grows above 1800 m elevation ; the habitat is alpine forest and scrub. It seems to be most closely related to N. sanguinea by the characters of the vegetative parts, but the inflorescences are quite different. Lörzing says of his number 8297 that it was a monoeceous [sic] plant ; since, however, in H. B. there is no stem fragment both with male and female flowers, I call this record into question.

The next major taxonomic treatment of N. spectabilis came only in 1986, when Rusjdi Tamin and Mitsuru Hotta covered the species in their monograph on the Nepenthes of Sumatra.

An article authored by Bruce Lee Bednar and published in a 1987 issue of the Carnivorous Plant Newsletter mentions a plant known as N. spectabilis in the horticultural trade. Taxonomist Jan Schlauer considers this plant conspecific with N. curtisii, which in turn is treated as a junior synonym of N. maxima.

In their 1997 revision of the genus, Matthew Jebb and Martin Cheek treated specimens of N. lavicola as belonging to N. spectabilis. They also designated Lörzing 7308 as the lectotype of N. spectabilis.The subsequent monograph of Charles Clarke treats these taxa as distinct species.
[edit] Description

Nepenthes spectabilis is a climbing plant. The stem can reach lengths of 6 m and is up to 7 mm in diameter. Internodes are cylindrical in cross section and up to 10 cm long.
A lower pitcher

Leaves are coriaceous and sessile. The lamina is oblong and up to 16 cm long by 6 cm wide. It has a rounded-acute apex and is gradually attenuate towards the base. Up to 6 longitudinal veins are present on either side of the midrib. Pinnate veins are usually indistinct. Tendrils are up to 25 cm long.

Rosette and lower pitchers are narrowly ovoid in the lower third to half of the pitcher cup. Above the hip, they are cylindrical and somewhat narrower. Terrestrial pitchers are relatively small, growing to 12 cm in height and 4 cm in width. A pair of fringed wings (≤4 mm wide) runs down the front of the pitcher. The glandular region covers the ovoid portion of the pitcher’s inner surface. The mouth is round and flat at the front, becoming oblique towards the lid. The peristome is cylindrical in cross section and up to 4 mm wide. Its inner margin is lined with small but distinct teeth. The pitcher lid or operculum is sub-orbicular in shape, lacks appendages, and has a strongly cordate base. The spur is very long (≤30 mm) and unbranched. It is inserted near the base of the lid.
Upper pitchers arise gradually from the end of the tendril. They are very narrowly infundibular in the lower half to three-quarters. Above the hip, they are either cylindrical or narrowly infundibular. Aerial pitchers are much larger than their terrestrial counterparts, growing to 26 cm in height and 4.5 cm in width. They usually have ribs in place of wings, although fringe elements may be present near the peristome. The glandular region covers the inner surface below the hip. The pitcher mouth is round and has a steeply oblique insertion. The peristome is cylindrical and up to 3 mm wide. Other parts of the upper pitchers are similar to those of the lower pitchers.

Nepenthes spectabilis has a racemose inflorescence. The peduncle grows to 12 cm in length. The rachis may be up to 15 cm long, although it is usually shorter and denser in female inflorescences. Partial peduncles are bracteolate and two-flowered. Sepals are elliptic-oblong in shape and up to 5 mm long.

Nepenthes spectabilis exhibits considerable variation in the development of its indumentum. In most plants, developing parts are covered in short, stellate reddish-brown hairs, although many of these are caducous. Inflorescences and the margins of the lamina bear dense, stellate reddish-brown hairs that are persistent. A dense covering of short, persistent hairs is also present on the lower surface of the midrib.

The stem and lamina are green. Pitchers are characteristically light green with numerous dark brown speckles. The peristome is often yellowish-green with brown stripes.
Ecology

Nepenthes spectabilis is endemic to the Indonesian provinces of North Sumatra and Aceh. Its natural range stretches from the Lake Toba region in the south to Mount Kemiri in the north. It has an altitudinal distribution of 1400 to 2200 m above sea level. Nepenthes spectabilis grows in mossy forest and stunted upper montane forest. It usually occurs terrestrially, but may also be epiphytic.

Certain populations of N. spectabilis differ considerably in morphology. Plants from the type locality produce relatively broad upper pitchers, while those from Mount Pangulubao are much narrower. A particularly gracile form has been recorded from the west side of Lake Toba. Plants from Mount Siluatan are different still, producing pitchers that are green throughout. The species also exhibits great variability in the extent of the indumentum; some plants have a dense covering of hairs, while others are virtually glabrous.

The form of N. spectabilis from Mount Bandahara is very large and has an unusual flared peristome. Plants grow in Sphagnum moss. In 1996, Paul Harwood, Heiko Rischer and Andreas Wistuba observed that the majority of prey in both lower and upper pitchers of this form consisted of beetles. They also found infaunal mosquito larvae in the pitchers.

In the wild, N. spectabilis is sympatric with N. flava, N. gymnamphora, N. mikei, N. ovata, N. rhombicaulis, and N. rigidifolia. Natural hybrids with all of these species except N. flava have been recorded.[1][10][11]

Due to the patchy distribution of N. spectabilis, its conservation status is listed as Vulnerable on the 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[12] Upon observing N. spectabilis on Mount Pangulubao in 1995, botanist Charles Clarke wrote that he “got the impression that collectors had taken a bit of a toll on the population, partly because very few immature plants were visible”.

Nepenthes spathulata

Nepenthes spathulata

Nepenthaceae
 
Nepenthes spathulata
http://en.wikipedia.org
Nepenthes spathulata  is a tropical pitcher plant native to Java and Sumatra, where it grows at elevations of between 1100 and 2900 m above sea level. The specific epithet spathulata is derived from the Latin word spathulatus, meaning “spatula shaped”, and refers to the shape of the lamina.
Description

Nepenthes spathulata is a climbing plant. The stem may grow to a height of 5 m but is only up to 8 mm in diameter. Internodes are up to 15 cm long and cylindrical to angular or rhomboid in cross section.

Leaves are sessile to sub-petiolate and coriaceous in texture. As the name suggests, the lamina is spathulate. It may be up to 30 cm long by 10 cm wide and is gradually attenuate towards the base. The apex of the lamina is rounded and shortly acuminate or emarginate. Three to five longitudinal veins are present on either side of the midrib. Pinnate veins are generally indistinct. Tendrils are up to 20 cm long and sometimes have a sub-peltate insertion.

Rosette and lower pitchers gradually or abruptly arise from the end of the tendril. The pitcher cup is ovoid in the lower third to two-thirds, becoming cylindrical and somewhat narrower above. N. spathulata probably produces the largest pitchers of the Sumatran Nepenthes species; they may be up to 30 cm high and 10 cm wide. A pair of fringed wings (≤25 mm wide) runs down the front of the pitcher. The glandular region covers the ovoid portion of the pitcher’s inner surface. The mouth is round, very oblique throughout, and may be elongated into a short neck. The peristome is narrow at the front (≤5 mm wide), becoming much wider towards the rear (≤25 mm wide). It is flared at the sides and may be scalloped, although this feature is somewhat atypical of the species as a whole. The inner margin of the peristome is lined with short but distinct teeth. The pitcher lid or operculum is ovate, lacks appendages, and is often slightly cordate. The spur, located near the base of the lid, is usually branched and may be up to 10 mm long.
Upper pitchers are infrequently produced. They are narrowly ovoid in the lowermost quarter to third of the pitcher cup, becoming cylindrical above. They are much smaller than lower pitchers, only reaching 15 cm in height and 3 cm in width. The mouth is approximately round and is not elongated into a neck. It has an oblique insertion. The peristome is also much thinner (≤7 mm wide) and is often undulate at the margins. Two pronounced ribs are present in place of wings. In other aspects of morphology, upper pitchers are similar to their terrestrial counterparts.

Nepenthes spathulata has a racemose inflorescence. The peduncle is up to 5 cm long. The rachis may be up to 15 cm long, although it is shorter in female inflorescences. Pedicels are up to 10 mm long and have a filiform bracteole. Sepals are obovate to oblong in shape and up to 4 mm long.

Inflorescences have a dense indumentum of short hairs. Developing pitchers are also densely covered with short hairs, but most of these are caducous. The stem, lamina and tendrils are virtually glabrous.

The stem and lamina are green. Lower pitchers range in colour from light green with a dark purple peristome to yellowish-bronze with a bright red peristome.
Ecology

Nepenthes spathulata is native to the islands of Java and Sumatra. In Sumatra, it has been recorded from the Indonesian provinces of Jambi, South Sumatra, Bengkulu, and Lampung. Its natural range stretches from Mount Tanggamus in the south to Lake Kerinci in the north. It has a wide altitudinal distribution, having been recorded from elevations of 1100 to 2900 m above sea level.

Plants growing in mossy forest and lower montane forest usually have an epiphytic habit, while those from stunted upper montane forest on summit ridges generally occur terrestrially. Nepenthes spathulata is also known to grow terrestrially in high altitude peat swamp forest near Lake Kerinci, at an altitude of 1100 m. At this location, N. spathulata grows alongside N. ampullaria, N. gracilis, N. mirabilis, N. reinwardtiana, and N. tobaica. Three natural hybrids of N. spathulata have been recorded there. The Nepenthes species and hybrids at this site exhibit high levels of introgression. The vegetation is dominated by species of the genera Rhododendron and Melastoma, as well as orchids and ferns. It is very stunted and dense, with few trees exceeding 3 m in height. It is somewhat reminiscent of the highland heath forests around Bareo in Sarawak, Borneo.

Due to the patchy distribution of N. spathulata, its conservation status is listed as Vulnerable on the 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. However, Charles Clarke suggests a revised status of Conservation Dependent based on the IUCN criteria.