Siluriformes, Catfishes

Marine Fishes

Order: Siluriformes (Catfishes)

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Plotosus-lineatus

Plotosus lineatus,
Striped eel catfish

Catfish (order Siluriformes) are a very diverse group of bony fish.
Named for their prominent barbels, which resemble a cat’s whiskers (though not prominent in all members of this order), catfish range in size and behavior from the heaviest, the Mekong giant catfish from Southeast Asia and the longest, the wels catfish of Eurasia, to detritivores (species that eat dead material on the bottom), and even to a tiny parasitic species commonly called the candiru, Vandellia cirrhosa.
There are armour-plated types and also naked types, neither having scales. Despite their common name, not all catfish have prominent barbels; what defines a fish as being in the order Siluriformes are in fact certain features of the skull and swimbladder. Catfish are of considerable commercial importance; many of the larger species are farmed or fished for food. Many of the smaller species, particularly the genus Corydoras, are important in the aquarium hobby.

Holocentridae (Squirrelfishes)

Marine Fishes

Order: Beryciformes (Sawbellies)

Holocentridae (Squirrelfishes)

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Myripristis-berndti

Myripristis berndti,
Bigscale Soldierfish

Beryciformes is an order of ray-finned fishes. This is a very poorly understood group of 16 families, 57 genera, and about 219 species. Most believe that it is probably an artificial assemblage of unrelated taxa that are thrown together for convenience only; there are no convincing characteristics that tie all members together. Most species live in deep marine waters, and avoid bright light, although they may come closer to the surface at night.

Chaetodontidae (Butterflyfishes)

Marine Fishes

Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Chaetodontidae (Butterflyfishes)
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Chaetodon-adiergastos Chaetodon-baronessa Chaetodon-bennetti Chaetodon-ephippium

Chaetodon adiergastos,
Panda Butterflyfish,
Philippine Butterflyfish

Chaetodon baronessa,
Eastern triangular butterflyfish
Chaetodon bennetti , Bluelashed Butterflyfish Chaetodon ephippium, Saddle Butterflyfish
Chaetodon-kleinii Chaetodon-lunula Chaetodon-melannotus Chaetodon-meyeri
Chaetodon kleinii,
Klein’s Butterflyfish
Chaetodon lunula,
Raccoon Butterflyfish
Chaetodon melannotus, Black-backedutterflyfish Chaetodon meyeri,
Meyer’s Butterflyfish
Chaetodon-ornatissimus Chaetodon-rafflesi Chaetodon-speculum Chaetodon-trifascialis
Chaetodon ornatissimus, Ornate Butterflyfish Chaetodon rafflesi, Latticed Butterflyfish Chaetodon speculum, Ovalspot Butterflyfish, Mirror Butterflyfish Chaetodon trifascialis, Chevron butterflyfish
Chaetodon-trifasciatus Chaetodon-unimaculatus Chaetodon-vagabundus Forcipiger-flavissimus
Chaetodon trifasciatus, Melon Butterflyfish,
Redfin B.,

Three-banded B.
Chaetodon unimaculatus, Teardrop Butterflyfish Chaetodon vagabundus,
Vagabond Butterflyfish, Crisscross Butterflyfish
Forcipiger flavissimus, Long-nosed Butterflyfish
Hemitaurichthys-polylepis Heniochus-acuminatus Heniochus-singularius Heniochus-varius
Hemitaurichthys polylepis, Pyramid Butterflyfish Heniochus acuminatus, Longfin Bannerfish, Pennant Coralfish Heniochus singularius, Singular Bannerfish Heniochus varius, Humphead Bannerfish

Carcharhiniformes (Ground Sharks)

Marine Fishes

Carcharhiniformes (Ground Sharks)

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Triaenodon-obesus

Whitetip reef shark,
Triaenodon obesus

The ground sharks, order Carcharhiniformes, are the largest order of sharks; they are also called whaler sharks. With over 270 species, carcharhiniforms include a number of common types, such as the blue shark, catsharks, swellsharks, and sandbar shark.

Members of the orders are characterized by the presence of a nictitating membrane over the eye, two dorsal fins, an anal fin, and five gill slits.

The families of the carcharhiniforms are expected to be revised; recent DNA studies show that some of the traditional groups are not monophyletic.

Families

* Carcharhinidae (requiem sharks)
* Hemigaleidae (weasel sharks)
* Leptochariidae (barbeled houndshark)
* Proscylliidae (finback cat sharks)
* Pseudotriakidae (false cat shark)
* Scyliorhinidae (cat sharks)
* Sphyrnidae (hammerhead sharks)
* Triakidae (hound sharks)

Carangidae (Jacks and Pompanos)

Marine Fishes

Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Carangidae (Jacks and Pompanos)
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Caranx-sexfasciatus Gnathanodon-speciosus Trachinotus-baillonii
Caranx sexfasciatus,
Bigeye Trevally
Gnathanodon speciosus,
Golden Trevally
Trachinotus baillonii,
Smallspotted Dart,
Silver Pompano

Caesionidae (Fusiliers)

Marine Fishes

Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Caesionidae (Fusiliers)
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Caesio-caerulaurea Caesio-teres
Caesio caerulaurea,
Blue and Gold Fusilier,
Scissor-tailed Fusilier
Caesio teres,
Yellow and Blueback Fusilier 

Cirrhitidae Hawkfishes

Marine Fishes

Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Cirrhitidae (Hawkfishes)
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Cirrhitichthys-oxycephalus--01-200 Paracirrhites-forsteri-01-200
Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus,
Coral Hawkfish,
Spotted Hawkfish
Paracirrhites forsteri,
Freckled Hawkfish,
Blackside Hawkfish
 
 

Acanthuridae, Surgeonfishes, Tangs, Unicornfishes

Marine Fishes

Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Family: Acanthuridae (Surgeonfishes, Tangs, Unicornfishes)
Acanthurus-leucosternon-01-200 Acanthurus-lineatus-01-200 Acanthurus-nigricans-01-200 Acanthurus-olivaceus-01-200
Acanthurus leucosternon, Powderblue Surgeonfish, Powder Blue Tang Acanthurus lineatus, 
Blueline Surgeonfish
Acanthurus nigricans , Whitecheek Surgeonfish Acanthurus olivaceus,  Orange Shoulder Tang, Orangespot Surgeonfish
Acanthurus-triostegus-01-200 Acanthurus-xanthopterus-01-200 Ctenochaetus-striatus-01-200 Paracanthurus-hepatus-01-200
Acanthurus triostegus,
 Convict Tang,
Convict Surgeonfish
Acanthurus xanthopterus,  Yellowfin Surgeonfish Ctenochaetus striatus , Common Bristle-toothed Tang,
Striated Surgeonfish
Paracanthurus hepatus, 
Blue Tang
Naso-lituratus-01-200 Naso-unicornis-01-200 Naso-vlamingii-01-200 Zebrasoma-scopas-01-200
Naso lituratus,
Orangespine Unicornfish
Naso unicornis ,
Unicornfish
Naso vlamingii,
 Bignose Unicornfish,
Vlamingii Tang
Zebrasoma scopas ,
Brown Tang
   

Anguilliformes, Eels and Morays

Marine Fishes

Anguilliformes, Eels and Morays

Echidna-nebulosa-200 Gymnothorax-javanicus-200 Heteroconger-hassi-200 Myrichthys-colubrinus-200
Echidna nebulosa, snowflake moray Gymnothorax javanicus ,
Giant Moray
Heteroconger hassi,  Spotted garden-eel Myrichthys colubrinus,
 Banded Snake Eel
Ophichthus-polyophthalmus-200
Ophichthus polyophthalmus ,
Many-eyed Snake Eel

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True eels (Anguilliformes; are an order of fish, which consists of four suborders, 19 families, 110 genera and approximately 600 species.
Most eels are predators.
The term “eel” is also used for some other similarly shaped fish, such as electric eels and spiny eels, but these are not members of the Anguilliformes order.
True eels are elongated fishes, ranging in length from 5 centimetres (2.0 in) in the one-jawed eel (Monognathus ahlstromi) to 3.75 metres (12.3 ft) in the giant moray. They possess no pelvic fins, and many species also lack pectoral fins.
The dorsal and anal fins are fused with the caudal or tail fin, to form a single ribbon running along much of the length of the animal.
Most true eels prefer to dwell in shallow waters or hide at the bottom layer of the ocean, sometimes in holes.
These holes are called eel pits.
Only the Anguillidae family regularly lives in fresh water, and returning to the sea to breed.
Some eels dwell in water as deep as 4,000 metres (13,000 ft), or are active swimmers (the family Nemichthyidae — to a depth of 500 metres (1,600 ft).
Eels possess a flat and transparent larva, called a leptocephalus.
These drift in the surface waters of the sea feeding on dissolved nutrients, before developing first into glass eels and then into a young eel, referred to as an elver, and seeking out the adult habitat.

 

Apogonidae, Cardinalfishes

Marine Fishes

Order: Perciformes (Perch-likes)
Apogonidae, Cardinalfishes
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Apogon-aureus-200 Apogon-chrysopomus-200 Apogon-properuptus-200 Sphaeramia-nematoptera-200
Apogon aureus,
Ring-tailed Cardinalfish
Apogon chrysopomus, Spotted-gill Cardinalfish Apogon properuptus, Southern orange-lined Cardinalfish Sphaeramia nematoptera, Pajama Cardinalfish