Ornithoptera tithonus, Tithonus Birdwing

Ornithoptera tithonus, Tithonus Birdwing

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The Tithonus Birdwing (Ornithoptera tithonus) is a species of birdwing butterfly found in the Australasia / Indomalaya ecozone.

Ornithoptera tithonus is, like all other birdwing butterflies, a strictly protected species. It is listed in the appendix II from CITES.

There are six subspecies:

  • O. t. cytherea [Kobayashi & Koiwaya, 1980]
  • O. t. dominici [Schäffler, 2001]
  • O. t. makikoae [Morita, 1998]
  • O. t. misoolana [Deslisle, 1985]
  • O. t. misresiana [Joicey & Noakes, 1916]
  • O. t. waigeuensis [Rothschild, 1897]

Description

The fore wings are black. At the wing tip there is a green stripe and one golden spot. In the middle of the wing there is a large, green band. The rear edge is green. The underside of Ornithoptera tithonus is black. At the outer edge and in the middle of the wing there is green area. The veins are black and they cleave the green areas. The golden spot at the wing tip is tansparent like a window.

The hind wings of Ornithoptera tithonus are multicoloured. The inner part of the wing and the edge are black. The other part of the wing is green. The green area contains some golden spots and three black spots. The underside is green. Some golden spots and some black spots are on the wing. The inner edge is very hairy.

The body (abdomen) is yellow. Head and thorax are black. The underside of thorax has a red hair-coat.

Sex differences: The female covers the upper range of the wing-span. It is significant-larger than the male. The basic colour of the female is dark-brown. At the outer edge and in the middle of the wing there are some white spots. On the hind wings there is a big white area. The outer edge of the white area is yellow. Between the white part and the yellow part there is a chain of black spots. The underside is a copy from upside, but all colours are stronger.

Distribution

Ornithoptera tithonus is a butterfly from the Australasia / Indomalaya (Australia) ecozone. The distribution is restricted on Irian and other islands in the neighbourhood.

Ornithoptera rothschildi, Rothschild’s Birdwing

Ornithoptera rothschildi, Rothschild’s Birdwing

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Rothschild’s Birdwing (Ornithoptera rothschildi) is a large birdwing butterfly, endemic to the Arfak Mountains in Western New Guinea.

This species was first recognized by entomologist Carl Brenders Pratt and described by George Kenrick in 1911. It was named in honour of Lord Walter Rothschild who financed most of the expeditions. The females can reach a wingspan up to 15 centimetres (5.9 in). The forewings are dark brown to blackish brown with creamy white to greyish spots. The hindwings rimmed with black scales and have a central patch of golden with black tips. The abdomen has hairy black rings. The wingspan of the males is approximately 13 cm (5.1 in) and the body length up to 13 cm (5.1 in). The forewings of the males are surrounded with black scales and in the central area with blackish, yellowish-green and yellow scales. The hindwings have black scales on the edge. The central patch is yellow with black tips abutting with smaller spots which are coloured lime green. The abdomen is golden.

Rothschild’s Birdwing has the most restricted distribution of all birdwings. Its habitat are flowering meadows in an altitude of 2,000–2,700 metres (6,600–8,900 ft) above sea level.

Ornithoptera croesus, Wallace’s Golden Birdwing

Ornithoptera croesus, Wallace’s Golden Birdwing

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Ornithoptera croesus, commonly known as Wallace’s Golden Birdwing is a species of birdwing butterfly found in northern Maluku in Indonesia.

It is a member of the Ornithoptera priamus species-group which, including croesus, is only found east of Weber’s Line. The larval foodplant is Pararistolochia. Matsuka (2001) illustrates the early stages (from N. Maluku; see also Igarashi, 1979).

Alfred Russel Wallace wrote In his book (The Malay Archipelago, 1869): “The beauty and brilliancy of this insect are indescribable, and none but a naturalist can understand the intense excitement I experienced when I at length captured it. On taking it out of my net and opening the glorious wings, my heart began to beat violently, the blood rushed to my head, and I felt much more like fainting than I have done when in apprehension of immediate death. I had a headache the rest of the day, so great was the excitement produced by what will appear to most people a very inadequate cause.”

Conservation

Ornithoptera croesus was formerly considered Vulnerable by the IUCN, but is now listed as Endangered.

Ornithoptera aesacus

Ornithoptera aesacus

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Ornithoptera aesacus is a species of birdwing butterfly endemic to Indonesia.

It is only found on the heavily logged island of Obi. It is seriously endangered but commercially bred.

Graphium androcles, Giant Swordtail, Graphium

Graphium androcles, Giant Swordtail, Graphium

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Graphium androcles, common name Giant Swordtail, is a butterfly of the genus Graphium belonging to the Papilionidae family.

Graphium androcles has a wingspan reaching about 80–120 millimetres (3.1–4.7 in). Females are relatively larger than males. The base of the upper wings is white with three black diagonal parallel stripes. The other half of the upper wings is black, crossed by two thin white stripes. The hind wings are white, with black markings on the lower margin. The underside is similar to the upside, but the white is partially greenish. The hind wings terminate in a very long “tail”, which is the longest among all members of the relevant family. Body is black, with white sides of the abdomen.

Distribution

Graphium androcles can be found in Indonesia (Sulawesi, Sula Islands).

Atrophaneura priapus

Atrophaneura priapus

Atrophaneura priapus (Boisduval, 1836) is a swallowtail butterfly found in Burma, Malaysia , Sumatra, and Java. The subspecies hageni was named to honour Hermann August Hagen.

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Atrophaneura dixoni , Papilionidae

Atrophaneura dixoni , Papilionidae

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Atrophaneura dixoni is a species of butterfly from the Papilionidae family that is found in Indonesia.

The wingspan is 130–150 mm. The wings are black. The underside of the hind wings have red patches which are more numerous in females than males. The wing veins are bordered in white

Ideopsis vitrea, Blanchard’s Wood Nymph, Nymphalidae

Ideopsis vitrea, Blanchard’s Wood Nymph, Nymphalidae

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Blanchard’s Wood Nymph (Ideopsis vitrea) is a butterfly of the Nymphalidae family. It is found on Sulawesi, the Moluccas and New Guinea.

Subspecies

  • Ideopsis vitrea vitrea (West Irian: Arfak Mountains)
  • Ideopsis vitrea chloris (C. & R. Felder, 1860) (Morotai, Halmahera, Ternate, Bachan, Buru)
  • Ideopsis vitrea obiana Fruhstorfer, 1910 (Obi)
  • Ideopsis vitrea inuncta (Butler, 1865) (Gebe Island, Waigeu)
  • Ideopsis vitrea onina Talbot, 1940 (West Irian: Onin Peninsula)
  • Ideopsis vitrea serena Joicey & Talbot, 1916 (West Irian: Wandammen Mountains)
  • Ideopsis vitrea oenopia (C. & R. Felder, 1859) (Sulawesi)
  • Ideopsis vitrea arachosia Fruhstorfer, 1910 (southern Sulawesi)
  • Ideopsis vitrea iza Fruhstorfer, 1899 (Sula Islands)
  • Ideopsis vitrea ribbei Röber, 1887 (Banggai Islands)