Tragulus-napu-borneanus, Larger Malay mouse deer, Napu

Tragulus-napu-borneanus

 Larger Malay mouse deer, Napu

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The greater mouse deer, Tragulus napu, is one of the world’s smallest ungulates with a standing shoulder height of 300–350 mm (Francis, 2008) and a head-body length of 500–600 mm (Corbet & Hill, 1992). Francis (2008) described the animal as having an upper pelage coarsely mottled orange-buff, grey-buff and blackish with variation in intensity of colouration between individuals. Its underparts are white, usually without brown stripes on the belly. There is a pattern of brown and white markings on the upper chest and underside of the neck, typically with a triangular white stripe in the centre that is bordered by dark brown stripes and two separate diagonal white stripes on each side—one originating near the chin and in the middle of the throaTragulus.

Cervus-timorensis, Rusa Deer, Sunda Sambar, Rusa Timur

Cervus-timorensis

 Rusa Deer, Sunda Sambar, Rusa Timur

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The Rusa Deer or Sunda Sambar, Cervus timorensis, are native to the islands of Java eastwards towards Bali, and Timor in Indonesia. This species of deer is similar in ecology to the Chital of India, occupying open dry and mixed deciduous forests, parklands, and savannas. Rusa deer are also found as an introduced species on the Australian mainland and are a close relative to the larger Sambar deer.

Rusa Deer are moderately hunted in eastern Australasia and they have also established populations in remote islands probably brought by Indonesian fishermen. There are two subspecies of the Rusahighear; the more common and larger Javan Rusa, a large stag (male deer) weighing in at around 136 kg with does(females) being much smaller tipping the scales at around 96 kg. The second species of Rusa deer is the less common and slightly smaller Mollucan Rusa which on average are 20 kg lighter than their Javan cousins.

Rusa Deer are predominantly active around the early morning and late afternoon rarely being seen in the open and being very difficult to approach due to their keen senses and naturally cautious instincts. These deer have shown a very good sense of adaptation; living as comfortably in the dry Australian bush as they do in their tropical homelands. This trait is shown well in the more frequent encounters on the fringes of Wollongong and Sydney, and in particular, the Royal National Park, indicating steadily growing numbers and strong herds.

Rusa Deer are recognised by their large ears , the light tufts of hair above the eyebrows, the typical antlers seeming overly large for their body size. If you get get close to a free ranging Rusa stag and spook him, he will let out an extremely loud honk. This is a form of alarm and will alert any other deer in the vicinity of the unrecognised danger.

Rusa Deer are very sociable and you will rarely find one on its own; it may seem to be alone but these animals are masters of camouflage. Rusa Deer are so adept at hiding themselves that they may sometimes let you walk right past.

These animals breed around July and August in a period known as the rut. At this time stags battle for dominance and breeding rights of the females and contest these bouts through calling in a loud shrill bark or physical contact with the antlers.

The females calf at the start of spring and animals are mature in aroung 3 to 5 years depending on conditions and habitat.

Subspecies:

* Cervus timorensis djonga Muna and Butung Islands.
* Flores Rusa Deer Cervus timorensis floresiensis Lombok and other islands.
* Celebes Rusa Deer Cervus timorensis macassaricus Celebes.
* Moluccan Rusa Deer Cervus timorensis moluccensis Molucca Islands.
* Javan Rusa Deer Cervus timorensis rusa Java.

Cervus-unicolor, Sambar, Rusa sambar

Cervus-unicolor

 Sambar, Rusa sambar

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Sambar (also sambur, sambhur, Tamil: Kadaththi maan, AssamCervus-unicolor, Sambar, Rusa sambarese: Xor Pohu), is the common name for several large dark brown and maned Asian deer, particularly for the Indian species (Cervus unicolor), which attains a height of 102 to 160 cm (40 to 63 in) at the shoulder and may weigh as much as 546 kg (1200 pounds), though more typically 162-260 kg (357-574 pounds). The coat is dark brown with chestnut marks on the rump and underparts. The large, rugged antlers are typically rusine, the brow tines being simple and the beams forked at the tip. In some specimens the antlers exceed 101 cm (40 in).
Sambars are primarily browsers that live in woodlands and feed mainly on coarse vegetation, grass, and herbs. They are diurnal animals who live in herds of 5-6 members, grazing on grass, sprigs, fruit and bamboo buds.
These deer are seldom far from water and, although primarily of the tropics, are hardy and may range from sea level up to high elevations such as the mixed coniferous/deciduous forest zone in the Himalayan Mountains sharing its range with the Himalayan musk deer. These deer are found in habitats ranging from tropical seasonal forests (tropical dry forests and seasonal moist evergreen forests), subtropical mixed forests (conifers, broadleaf deciduous, and broadleaf evergreen tree species) to tropical rainforests. Their range covers a vast majority of territory that is classified as tropical rainforest, but their densities are probably very low there. In these areas, the deer probably prefer clearings and areas adjacent to water. They live as far north, according to Wild China, as the southern slopes of the Qinling Mountains in Central China. In Taiwan, sambar along with sika deer have been raised on farms for their antlers, which they drop annually in April to May. Sambars are a favorite prey item for tigers. They also can be taken by crocodiles, mostly the sympatric Mugger Crocodiles. More rarely, leopards and dholes will take young or sickly deer.
Lifestyle and reproduction

Though they have no specific mating season, sambars commonly mate from September and on to January in the Northern hemisphere. Males defend rutting territories and attempt to attract females by vocal and olfactory displays. The males are solitary and highly aggressive toward other males during this time. Females may live in groups of eight. A male may have one whole group of females in his territory.

The gestation period for the females is around 9 months with one fawn born at a time. Sambar fawns have brown hair with light spots which they lose very shortly. Fawns stay with their mothers for up to two years.

Species distribution

The Indian Sambar (Cervus unicolor syn. Cervus aristotelis) inhabit much of southern Asia (as far north as the south-facing slopes of the Himalayan Mountains), mainland Southeast Asia (Burma, Thailand, Indochina, the Malay Peninsula), southern China (including Hainan Island), Taiwan, and the islands of Sumatra and Borneo in Indonesia. This deer has been seen congregating in large herds in protected areas such as national parks and reserves in India, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The subspecies of Indian sambar in India and Sri Lanka are the largest of the genus with the largest antlers both in size and in body proportions. The South China sambar of Southern China and Mainland Southeast Asia is probably second in terms of size with slightly smaller antlers than the Indian sambar. The Sumatran sambar, that inhabits the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, and the Bornean sambar seem to have the smallest antlers in proportion to their body size. The Formosan sambar is the smallest Cervus unicolor with antler-body proportions more similar to the South China sambar.

There are two small, separate but similar species, the Philippine Sambar (Cervus mariannus) and the Philippine Spotted Deer (also known as the Visayan Spotted Deer or Alfred’s Sambar) (Cervus alfredi), that inhabit the Philippine Islands. Both deer are smaller than the Formosan sambar.
Sambar

The Rusa Deer, or Sunda Sambar (Cervus timorensis), is slightly smaller than the Indian Sambar and inhabits the islands of Java and Bali in Indonesia and, unlike the latter three species, it is predominantly a grazer and forms the largest herds. This deer probably originated in Java but was widely introduced to several adjacent islands as well as the Molucca Islands and Lesser Sunda Islands. Herds gather in open savannas but will retreat to adjacent dry deciduous woodlands or seasonal mixed deciduous monsoon forests for cover. This deer is a favorite prey of the Komodo Dragon.

There is also a small herd of sambar located on St. Vincent Island in Florida. These were brought in by the former owner, before he sold the island to the Nature Conservancy.

Subspecies

* Cervus unicolor apoensis Mindanao, Philippines.
* Cervus unicolor barandanus Mindoro, Philippines.
* Basilan Sambar Deer Cervus unicolor basilanensis Basilan, Philippines
* Bonin Sambar Deer Cervus unicolor boninensis Bonin Islands (extinct).
* South China Sambar Deer Cervus unicolor deejeani Southern and Southwestern China.
* Malayan Sambar Deer Cervus unicolor equinus Sumatra, Malaya, and Burma.
* Cervus unicolor francianus Mindoro, Philippines.
* Hainan Sambar Deer Cervus unicolor hainana Hainan Island, China.
* Cervus unicolor nigellus Mindanao, Philippines.
* Indian Sambar Deer Cervus unicolor niger India.
* Philippine Sambar Deer Cervus unicolor philippinus Philippines.
* Formosan Sambar Deer Cervus unicolor swimhoi Taiwan.
* Sri Lankan Sambar Deer Cervus unicolor unicolor Sri Lanka.

Muntiacus atherodes, Bornean yellow muntjac

Muntiacus atherodes

 Bornean yellow muntjac

The BoMuntiacus atherodes, Bornean yellow muntjacrnean yellow muntjac (Muntiacus atherodes) is restricted to the moist forests of Borneo where it lives alongside the common muntjac. It is similar to its much more common cousin and was only recently recognised as a separate species. Apart from the color difference, its antlers, which are just 7 cm (2.8 in) in length, are smaller than those of the common muntjac. It has not been extensively studied and has been described a relict species.

Muntiacus-puntoensis, Muntjac Deer, Muntjac Kijang

Muntiacus-puntoensis

Muntiacus-puntoensis, Muntjac Deer, Muntjac Kijang

Muntiacus-puntoensis

The leaf muntjac, leaf deer or Putao muntjac (Muntiacus putaoensis) is a small species of muntjac.[3] It was discovered in 1997 by biologist Alan Rabinowitz during his field study in the isolated Naungmung Township in Myanmar. Rabinowitz discovered the species by examining the small carcass of a deer that he initially believed was the juvenile of another species; however, it proved to be the carcass of an adult female.[3] He managed to obtain specimens, from which DNA analysis revealed a new cervid species. Local hunters knew of the species and called it the leaf deer because its body could be completely wrapped by a single large leaf

Tragulus Javanicus, Lesser Mouse Deer, Kancil

Tragulus Javanicus

 Lesser Mouse Deer, Kancil

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The Java mouse-deer (Tragulus javanicus), is a species of even-toed ungulate in the Tragulidae family. At maturity it is about the size of a rabbit, making it one of the smallest ungulates. It is found in forests in Java and perhaps Bali. It formerly included the more widespread T. kanchil and the poorly known T. williamsoni as a subspecies