Arctictis-binturong, Binturong

Arctictis-binturong

 Binturong

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The Binturong (Arctictis binturong), alsoArctictis-binturong, Binturong known as the Asian Bearcat, the Palawan Bearcat, or simply the Bearcat, is a species of the family Viverridae, which includes the civets and genets. It is neither a bear nor a cat, and the real meaning of the original name has been lost, as the local language that gave it that name is now extinct, Its natural habitat is in trees of forest canopy in rainforest of Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.It is nocturnal and sleeps on branches. It eats primarily fruit, but also has been known to eat eggs, shoots, leaves, and small animals, such as rodents or birds. Deforestation has greatly reduced its numbers. When cornered, the Binturong can be vicious. The Binturong can make chuckling sounds when it seems to be happy and utter a high-pitched wail if annoyed. The Binturong can live over 20 years in captivity; one has been recorded to have lived almost 26 years.
Being burly and omnivorous, the Binturong is sometimes compared to a bear, but is closer in size to a large cat. Its average length is usually between 60–96 cm (24–38 in), and average weight ranges between 9–14 kg (20–31 lb), although some exceptional individuals have been known to weigh 22 kg (49 lb) or more. Its body is covered with coarse and thick black fur. The tail, bushy and fully prehensile, can act as a fifth hand and is nearly as long as the animal’s own length. The ears of the Binturong are small and rounded, and it has small eyes.

Reproduction

The estrous period of the Binturong is 81 days, with a gestation of 91 days. The Binturong is one of approximately 100 species of mammal believed by many husbandry experts to be capable of embryonic diapause, or delayed implantation, which allows the female of the species to time parturition to coincide with favorable environmental conditions. Typical birthing is of two offspring, but up to six may occur.

The Bearcat climbs trees and leaps from branch to branch, using its tail and claws to cling while searching for food. It can rotate its hind legs backwards so that its claws still have a grip when climbing down a tree head first. The Binturong also uses its tail to communicate, through the scent gland located under it. The scent of Binturong musk is often compared to that of warm buttered popcorn [3] and cornbread. This comparison was made by zoologist Ron McGill on the Today Show, when he presented a bearcat along with several other animals.[citation needed] The Binturong brushes its tail against trees and howls to announce its presence to other Binturongs.

The Orang Asli of Malaysia keep Binturong as pets.

Ecological significance

The Binturong an important animal for seed dispersal, especially those of the Strangler Fig, because of its ability to scarify the seed’s tough outer covering.

Arctogalidia trivirgata, Small-toothed palm civet

Arctogalidia trivirgata

 Small-toothed palm civet

Arctogalidia-trivirgata

The Small-toothed Palm Civet (Arctogalidia trivirgata), also known as the Three-striped Palm Civet, is a civet. It lives in dense forests of southeast Asia, from the Assam district of India to Indochina and the Malay Peninsula and on Sumatra, Bangka, Java, Borneo, and numerous small nearby islands of Indonesia.

The Small-toothed Palm Civet is mid-sized by the standards of its family, weighing 2.4 kg (5.3 lbs) and measuring 53 cm (21 in) long along the body, plus a tail of 58 cm (23 in). It has short fur that is generally a tawny or buff color while the head is a darker greyish tawny. Its muzzle is brown with a white streak that extends from the nose to the forehead. The back has three distinct black or dark brown stripes running along the length of the body. Only the females have the perineal scent gland, located near the vulva.

The diet is varied and omnivorous, and usually consist of insects, small mammals, nesting birds, fruits, frogs and lizards. Matching the habits of other palm civets, this species is solitary, arboreal and nocturnal. Its gestation period is 45 days, and the average litter size is 3, which are born in dens made in the trees. Young open their eyes at 11 days and are weaned at two months. It can have two litters a year and there is no set mating season. It can live for 11 years. It is threatened primarily by deforestation, as are many Southeast Asian forest animals.

Cynogale-benettii, Otter Civet

Cynogale-benettii

 Otter Civet

The OttCynogale-benettii, Otter Civeter Civet, Cynogale bennettii, is a semi-aquatic civet found in forests, primarily lowland, near rivers and swampy areas of the Thai-Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. An additional population, only known from single specimen, occurs in northern Vietnam (with likely – but unconfirmed – records from adjacent parts of Thailand and Yunnan, China). The latter population has sometimes been considered a separate species, the Lowe’s Otter Civet (C. lowei), in which case the common name of C. bennettii has been modified to the Sunda Otter Civet (a reference to its then entirely Sundaic distribution).

The Otter Civet possesses several adaptions to its habitat, including a broad mouth and webbed feet with naked soles and long claws. Its muzzle is long with numerous long whiskers.

The Otter Civet is nocturnal species that obtains most of its food from the water, feeding on fish, crabs, freshwater mollusks, as well as being able to climb to feed on birds and fruit. Given its rarity and secretive nature it is a very poorly known species. It is listed as endangered by the IUCN.

Hemigalus-derbyanus, Banded Palm Civet

Hemigalus-derbyanus

 Banded Palm Civet

Hemigalus-derbyanus

The Banded Palm Civet (Hemigalus Hemigalus-derbyanus, Banded Palm Civetderbyanus) is a civet found in the tall forests of Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand.Though it lives in the forests, it spends much of its time on the ground.

The Banded Palm Civet has a long pointed face, reminiscent of insectivorous mammals. It has a long body set on short legs, and five toes on each foot with retractable claws. It looks very similar to Owston’s Palm Civet (Chrotogale owstoni), except that it lacks spots on its body, and the hair on its neck points upwards instead of down along the neck. It has short, dense fur that is generally a dark cream/buff color with four to five dark bands on its back. Its tail has two dark bands and the latter half of the tail is dark brown to black. There is a dark brown stripe that extends down the length of the top of the muzzle, and two stripes that extend from the top middle of the eye to the inside corner of the ears. There are two areas of white above and below each eye, and the muzzle is darker than the rest of the face.

Macrogalidia-musschenbroekii, Sulawesi Palm Civet

Macrogalidia-musschenbroekii

Sulawesi Palm Civet

The Macrogalidia-musschenbroekii, Sulawesi Palm CivetSulawesi Palm Civet (Macrogalidia musschenbroekii), also known as the Sulawesi Giant Civet, the Giant Civet and the Celebes Palm Civet, is a mammal that lives solely on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, particularly the North and Central regions.

The Sulawesi Palm Civet is a fairly large palm civet at 5 kg (11 lb) and 69 cm (27 in), plus a tail of 49 cm (19 in). It looks like a mongoose but with a smaller body. It is tan or tawny with lighter underside and some light spots. Its palm feet are very large and can be used to grasp which is helpful in climbing as the animal often climbs trees to prey upon the Sulawesi Hornbill and other smaller animals.

This animal, and all civets and palm civets, are sometimes called civet cats or genet cats, but, although they are in the same half of the Carnivora order as cats, they are not members of the cat family Felidae. It is the only member of the genus Macrogalidia.

Paguma larvata, Masked palm civet

Paguma larvata

 Masked palm civet

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The Masked Palm Civet or Himalayan Palm Civet (Paguma larvata) is a species of civet spread across the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia, which in recent times was considered to be a likely vector of SARS.
In appearance the Masked Palm Civet resembles other civets. Its fur is orange-brown to gray, and has no spots or stripes, unlike most other related species. Only the feet are darker, often black. The face has a black and white variation: a white strip stretches from the forehead to the nose, surrounded by two black stripes, but the eyes are surrounded by white spots. The cheeks and the sides of the nose are black. The main body varies from 51 to 76 cm (20 to 28 in) in length, to which is added a tail of 51 to 63 cm (20 to 25 in). It was between 3.6 and 6 kg (8 and 13.2 lb).
Habitat and range

The Masked Palm Civet lives in forests, especially tropical rainforest and temperate deciduous forest. It ranges from Northern India to Southeast Asia and China. It is also found on several islands, such as Borneo, Sumatra, Taiwan, and the Andaman and Nicobar chains. It is not native to Japan, but it was brought there at the beginning of the 20th century.

The principal danger for the Masked Palm Civet is continued habitat destruction. However, because of its large range, it is not considered endangered.
[Life

The Masked Palm Civet is a nocturnal solitary predator, which stays principally in trees. During the day, it sleeps in the treetops. When alarmed, the animal sprays a secretion from its anal gland against the predator. The spray is similar in function to that of a skunk, and its conspicuousness serves to deter other predators.

The Masked Palm Civet is an omnivore, but the largest component of its diet is fruit. In addition it eats small vertebrates (such as squirrels and birds) as well as insects.

The female can bear young twice per year, in litters of one to four. The young grow to the size of an adult in about three months. Otherwise little detail is known about the reproductive cycle.
Connection with SARS

In parts of China the Masked Palm Civet is hunted for its meat and eaten. Through this, according to many virologists,[citation needed] the SARS coronavirus was first brought to humans. In May 2003 the virus was isolated in several Masked Palm Civets.[citation needed] There remains the possibility that the Masked Palm Civets were not the original carriers of the virus either, but received it from other, unknown animals. A paper by Daniel Janies, et al., in a February 2008 edition of the journal “Cladistics”, posits that human SARS is descended from a very similar bat coronavirus, and that the civets actually got the virus from the human epidemic.

Paguma-larvata

Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Asian Palm Civet

Paradoxurus hermaphroditus

 Asian Palm Civet

Paradoxurus-hermaphroditus

TheAsian Palm Civet, is a cat-sized mammal in the family Viverridae native to South-east Asia and southern China.

The Asian Palm Civet averages 3.2 kg (7 lb), has a body length of 53 cm (21 in) and a tail length of 48 cm (19 in). Its long, stocky body is covered with coarse, shaggy hair that is usually greyish in color, with black on its feet, ears and muzzle. It has three rows of black markings on its body. The markings on its face resemble a raccoon’s. Its tail does not have rings, unlike similar civet species.

Feeding and diet

The Asian Palm Civet is a nocturnal omnivore. Ecologically, they are frequently compared to as filling a similar niche in Asia that the Common Raccoon fills in North America. Its primary food source is fruit such as chiku, mango, rambutan and coffee. It will also eat small mammals and insects. It also has a fondness for palm flower sap which, when fermented, becomes toddy, a sweet liquor (habit which earns one of its alternate names the ‘toddy cat’). It inhabits forests, parks and suburban gardens with mature fruit trees, fig trees and undisturbed vegetation. Its sharp claws allow it to climb trees and house gutters.

In most parts of Sri Lanka, civets are considered a nuisance since they litter in ceilings and attics of common households, and make loud noises fighting and moving about at night, disturbing the sleep of the householders.

Dispersion

It is found in southern India, Sri Lanka, South-east Asia and southern China.

Interactions with Humans

Oil extract

The oil extracted from small pieces of the meat kept in linseed oil in a closed earthen pot and regularly sunned is used indigenously as a cure for scabies.

Coffee

Kopi Luwak is coffee that is prepared using coffee cherries that have been eaten by the animal, partially digested, and harvested from its feces.

Motit Coffee is coffee prepared from coffee beans harvested from the faeces of the Motit (Philippine Civet). Prices for this delicacy in 2009 ranged from USD$300 in the Philippines, to USD$1400 in the US, per pound weight clean.

SARS

The SARS virus was thought to have entered the human population from masked palm civets captured in the wild and improperly prepared for human consumption. However, a paper by Daniel Janies, et al. (February 2008) of the journal “Cladistics”, uses evidence from the sequences of many SARS genomes to show that the civets’ cases of SARS were just one part of the family tree of SARS viruses in humans – probably humans got SARS from bats, then humans gave it to pigs once and to small civets once, and then these small carnivores may have given the disease back to humans once or twice. All the cases of SARS associated with the outbreak appeared to be part of the bat branch of the coronavirus phylogeny.

Viverra tangalunga, Malay civet

Viverra tangalunga

Malay civet

Viverra-tangalunga

The MaViverra tangalunga, Malay civetlayan Civet (Viverra tangalunga), also known as the Oriental Civet, is a civet found on the Malay Peninsula and the islands of Sumatra, Bangka, Borneo, the Rhio Archipelago, and the Philippines.

The Malay civet was found on the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, Maluku Islands and the Philippines , where it occurs in a wide variety of habitats including forests, secondary habitats, cultivated land and the outskirts of villages . Other than that, the distribution on hill up to 900m on Gunung Madalan in Sabah and 1100m on Usun Apau and the Kelabit Upland in Sarawak.
Behaviour

Malay civets are nocturnal which means, they active at night from 1800 to 0700. Usually, they are terrestrial but they climb into tree. Despite their cat-like appearance and similar behavior and traits, they are not felines. Their fur may be gray or brown, and may be marked in various patterns. Most of Viverra tangalunga are Carnivores but some of them are solitary, omnivorous and are primarily terrestrial . They feed on others animals including small vertebrate and invertebrate.
Conservation Status

Based on The UICN Red List Threatened Species, Malayan Civet or Viverra tangalunga was one of the species that least concern. This is due to the wide distribution and it occurs in a number of protected areas. A result was reported by Syakirah et al. (2000) where, the Malay Civet Viverra tangalunga was found out only in recently logged forest, and not in forest regenerated after logging in the 1970s. From these data, it can be tentatively concluded that arboreal, frugivorous civets are little affected by logging, whereas terrestrial species, that are carnivorous or feed on insects might be negatively impacted by logging. But then a result by Heyden and Bulloh (1996), Col

Viverricula indica, Small Indian civet

Viverricula indica

 Small Indian civet

The Small Indian Civet (Viverricula indica), is a specieViverricula indica, Small Indian civets of civet found across south and south-east Asia as well as in the Indonesian archipelago.

In India this civet is called Rasse.

In Sri Lanka, this animal is known as Kalawedda by the Sinhala speaking community.