Central America, Nederlandse Antillen en Aruba (Nederlands West-Indië)

List of Settlements Central America

Still Dutch

Nederlandse Antillen en Aruba (Nederlands West-Indië):

Aruba (1636-1805/1815-)
Curaçao (1634-1805/1815-)
Bonaire (1633-1805/1815-)
Sint Maarten (Ned.) en St. Martin (Fr.) (1620-1633/ 1644-1648
Sint Eustatius (1636-)
Saba (1620s/1640-1816-)
 

Aruba (1636-1805/1815-)

Fragments and cave paintings found on the island are widely considered remnants of the island’s earliest inhabitants, the Arawak Caquetios Indians from South America, and date as far back as 1000 A.D. The Europeans arrived in 1499, when Spanish explorers found the island. The Spanish then controlled Aruba until the Dutch took over in 1636 and made the island, along with its neighbors Bonaire and Curacao, part of the Netherlands Antilles. Since then, with the exception of a brief period of English possession in 1805, Aruba has remained under Dutch control.

Early on, Aruba became a ranch economy with horse and cattle breeding supporting crops of mango, millet, coconut and aloe. In 1824, the discovery of gold set off a short-lived gold rush, which was soon exhausted and later followed by the rise of the Aruban aloe industry. In the 1920s, Standard Oil built a refinery near the town of San Nicolas and became the island’s largest employer. This new industry attracted an influx of immigrants from North America, Europe and the rest of the Caribbean, creating a diverse cultural mix. Soon, English was widely spoken, and it remains so today, although Aruba’s official languages are Dutch and Papiamento.

Papiamento, the local Afro-Portuguese Creole language, is only spoken in Aruba, Bonaire, and Curacao, and dates back some 300 years. Papiamento began as a simple pidgin language and evolved upon an African linguistic structure with a vocabulary made up mostly of variations on Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch words.

Although the first cruise ship arrived in Aruba in 1957, the tourism industry began to develop in earnest at the end of the 20th century and is now the island’s primary economy. Today, approximately 100,000 people live on Aruba, an island roughly the size of Washington, DC. The official currency is the Aruban gilder, but U.S. dollars are widely accepted.

Fragments and cave paintings found on the island are widely considered remnants of the island’s earliest inhabitants, the Arawak Caquetios Indians from South America, and date as far back as 1000 A.D. The Europeans arrived in 1499, when Spanish explorers found the island. The Spanish then controlled Aruba until the Dutch took over in 1636 and made the island, along with its neighbors Bonaire and Curacao, part of the Netherlands Antilles. Since then, with the exception of a brief period of English possession in 1805, Aruba has remained under Dutch control.

Early on, Aruba became a ranch economy with horse and cattle breeding supporting crops of mango, millet, coconut and aloe. In 1824, the discovery of gold set off a short-lived gold rush, which was soon exhausted and later followed by the rise of the Aruban aloe industry. In the 1920s, Standard Oil built a refinery near the town of San Nicolas and became the island’s largest employer. This new industry attracted an influx of immigrants from North America, Europe and the rest of the Caribbean, creating a diverse cultural mix. Soon, English was widely spoken, and it remains so today, although Aruba’s official languages are Dutch and Papiamento.

Papiamento, the local Afro-Portuguese Creole language, is only spoken in Aruba, Bonaire, and Curacao, and dates back some 300 years. Papiamento began as a simple pidgin language and evolved upon an African linguistic structure with a vocabulary made up mostly of variations on Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch words.

Although the first cruise ship arrived in Aruba in 1957, the tourism industry began to develop in earnest at the end of the 20th century and is now the island’s primary economy. Today, approximately 100,000 people live on Aruba, an island roughly the size of Washington, DC. The official currency is the Aruban gilder, but U.S. dollars are widely accepted.

 

Aruba-1910

Aruba-1910

Salt Shipping

Salt Shipping

 

Oranjestad

Oranjestad,-Aruba-1910

 

Curaçao (1634-1805/1815-)

http://www.paradisebymarriott.com/feeds/vacation.php?include=137478

During the colonial period, Curacao was one of the Dutch Kingdom’s most treasured Caribbean outposts. As a result, the Dutch worked for more than three centuries to secure the island and protect their interests. While forts were constructed along the entire coastline, the Dutch were especially concerned with Willemstad and its harbor. With Fort Amsterdam serving as the island’s primary protecting structure, the Dutch built several smaller forts to protect individual sections of the capital city. Despite being under constant attack from pirate ships and competing British and French forces, this complex of forts was able to protect the Dutch colony for nearly 400 years. Today, eight of these forts still remain and most have found exciting new uses in modern Curacao.

Fort Amsterdam is the most significant of Curacao’s remaining forts. Located on the strategic point known as Punda, Fort Amsterdam once served as the defender of Curacao’s main harbor. Originally constructed in 1635, the imposing structure was able to protect the Dutch settlement throughout the colonial period. Today, Fort Amsterdam is one of the Caribbean’s most recognizable UNESCO World Heritage sites and serves as an important government center for modern Curacao. In addition to housing the Governor’s home, the island’s Ministry and numerous government offices, Fort Amsterdam also features a historic museum and the United Protestant Church, both of which remain open to the public. The museum at Fort Amsterdam also offers tours of the facility that allow visitors to learn about the structure’s unique history, take in breathtaking views from atop the walls and witness some truly odd sights such as the cannonball embedded in the fort’s southwestern wall.

While Fort Amsterdam is unquestionably Curacao’s most significant fort, Fort Beekenburg is one of the island’s best preserved colonial structures. Fort Beekenburg was built in 1703 on picturesque Caracas Bay. From the time of its construction until the the mid-19th century, the fort successfully fought off attacks from French and British fleets, as well as several bands of pirates. Visitors to Caracas Bay will find a charming beach with shallow, warm water perfect for water sports. After playing in the water or simply relaxing in the sun, visitors can tour the entire fort and learn about its important role in Curacao’s history.

In addition to Curacao’s largest forts, there remain a number of well-preserved colonial forts throughout Willemstad. In each case, these forts within Curacao’s historic capital protected strategic points of the island’s harbor and populated coastline and now house restaurants and shops. Two such examples are Fort Nassau and Fort Waakzaamheid, a pair of smaller forts built near the beginning of the 19th century.

Fort Nassau was constructed in 1797 to defend the small St. Anna Bay and parts of Willemstad. Today, the fort is home to a restaurant, but is usually recognized by tourists as the control tower that opens and closes Curacao’s famous pontoon bridge. Fort Waakzaamheid was built in 1803 and fell only one year later during a siege by Captain William Bligh and his British troops. As Fort Waakzaamheid offers an incredible view over the Otrobanda neighborhood and the shoreline, American troops mounted new guns and used the structure as an observation post and barracks during World War II. Today, Fort Waakzaamheid also houses a popular restaurant.

Another pair of forts in Willemstad have been converted into even more impressive destinations. The Riffort – a fort built in 1828 to protect a portion of the Otrobanda area – is now home to the Riffort Village, an impressive collection of shops, restaurants, bars and scenic terraces. Prior to its use as one of Curacao’s premier shopping and dining destinations, Riffort was home to everything from police and public works offices to Curacao’s boy scouts. Likewise, the Waterfort – an imposing fort with 136 turrets that was rebuilt in 1827 after the original 17th century structure was destroyed – is now home to some of Punda’s most popular eateries.

As Curacao is home to a wealth of historic architecture and exciting tourism opportunities, these forts serve as wonderful representations of the island’s unique allure. When staying in Willemstad, it is certainly hard to miss the forts that once protected this colonial city. Likewise, with so much now offered within these once-imposing buildings – from museums and historic tours to upscale shops and restaurants – Curacao’s forts are also hard to forget.

 Click to Enlarge !
Landhuis-Santa-Martha-800

Landhuis Santa Martha

 Click to Enlarge !

Landhuis-Brievengat_t-800

Landhuis Brievengat

 Click to Enlarge !

Landhuis-Groot-Davelaar_to-800

Landhuis Groot Davelaar

 Click to Enlarge !

Landhuis-De-Grote-Knip.-800

Landhuis ‘De Grote Knip’.

Landhuis-Habaai_to

Landhuis Habaai

Landhuis-Dokterstuin_ton

Fort Amsterdam, curacao Fort Amsterdam, curacao
Fort Amsterdam Fort Amsterdam
Fort Amsterdam, curacao Rif Fort
Fort Amsterdam Rif Fort
Rif Fort Rif Fort
Rif Fort Rif Fort
Fort Beekenburg Fort Beekenburg
Fort Beekenburg Fort Beekenburg
Water Fort, curacao
Water Fort Water Fort
Water Fort, curacao Water Fort, curacao
Water Fort Water Fort
 

Bonaire (1633-1805/1815-)

Located just off the northern tip of South America, Bonaire was originally home to the Caquetios Indians, who colonized the island in 1000 AD.

Bonaire is one of the many small, charming islands that have seemingly slipped out of the breakneck pace of the modern world and embraced the slowed down lifestyle of a tropical paradise.

Here’s a picture of some slave huts in Bonaire.

While the culture has long since disappeared, their cave and rock art lives on to this day for all of us to see. It is good to be reminded of the past so we don’t make the same mistakes in the future.

European colonization brought dark times to the local inhabitants of this beautiful island, as they were first subjugated and enslaved by the Spanish in 1499 and for the next hundred years or so the island stood largely empty except for cattle and their tenders.

As a result of the constant conflict between the Spanish and the Dutch, the Netherlands took control of Bonaire in 1633 and shifted the economic focus of the island from livestock to agriculture, employing slave labor to support the Dutch West India Company.

Bonaire’s generous salt beds gave the small territory a prominent role for several hundred years in the production of this mineral.

The Dutch West India Company dissolved in 1791, and most of the island was nationalized by the government of the Netherlands, with slavery eventually being abolished in 1862.

Finally freedom was returned to the the Caquetios Indians. A happy part of Bonaire history.

Dutch control of Bonaire remained shaky during the 1800’s, as constant war and conflict with Britain caused the island to see several shifts in power, most notably in 1800 and in 1807.

The Netherlands eventually regained control of the territory, however, and continued to develop its naturals resources.

This picture shows you the salt pans in Bonaire. See how the salt makes the water pink? They call this area Pink Beach.

The timber and salt trade were bolstered by the further installation of military forts designed to keep marauding colonial powers at bay.

While no longer slaves, the Caquetios Indian population of Bonaire had a difficult time finding a role in the local economy, enduring poverty and hardship at the hands of European landowners until the South American oil industry enabled an investment in infrastructure that led to greater prosperity for all of the island’s inhabitants.

While the right to vote was granted in 1936, Bonaire did not become self-deterministic until 1954 when the Dutch royal family granted its citizens their independence.

Over the past 70 years, Bonaire has worked hard to put the past behind it and has transformed from an industrial economy into the tourist-oriented, beautiful exotic travel destination that it is today.

 

 Kralendijk

The ” Skyline “of Kralendijk

 

 Kralendijk

The Government’s Residence

 Kralendijk

Kralendijk, Bonaire-1910

 

Sint Maarten (Ned.) en St. Martin (Fr.) (1620-1633/ 1644-1648

Before Columbus arrived here during his second voyage in 1493, the island had already been inhabited for some one thousand years. The first people to settle here were a tribe of Arawak Indians who left their homeland in the Orinoco basin of South America and kept migrating upwards along the chain of islands in the Caribbean. They gave it the name “Sualouiga” meaning “Land of Salt” for the salt-pans and the brackish water they found here in great abundance. The few fresh water springs around Paradise Peak, Mount William, Billy Folly, and in the Lowlands could only support a small population, and this is where they mainly tended to congregate. A number of artifacts from this period are to be found preserved in the St.Martin Museum: On the Trail of the Arawaks. The Arawaks were later supplanted by a more aggressive tribe of Indians, the Caribs, who came down from North America and for whom the entire Caribbean is named.

Columbus never actually set foot on the island, but rather claimed it for Spain as he was passing by. He sighted the island on November 11, 1493, the feast of St.Martin, thus giving the island its name. Aside from asserting title to the place, the Spanish never took much interest in St.Martin, so the Dutch, seeking an outpost halfway between their colonies in Brazil and Nieue Amsterdam (now New York), occupied the island in 1631. The Dutch West India Company installed Jan Claeszen van Campen as governor, erected their first fort on the site of Fort Amsterdam, and began to mine salt. Before long, however, the Spanish, who wished to maintain their state monopoly in this essential preservative, became aware of the incursion and in 1633 they recaptured the island, expelling all of the Dutch, who then moved on to occupy Curaçao.

Over the next fifteen years, a number of abortive attempts were made by the Dutch to reclaim their lost possession, notably an assault led by Peter Stuyvesant in 1644 in which the future governor of Nieue Amsterdam lost his leg. The Spanish Commander, who was regularly besieged during this period, asked permission after his last victory to abandon the island, and in 1647 this right was finally conceded to him by the King of Spain. Laborers were brought in from Puerto Rico to dismantle the fortress, and the Spanish set sail, leaving behind, according to legend, a small contingent of French and Dutch who hid on the island and then sent out to neighboring colonies for reinforcements.

How the Dutch and French finally partitioned the island makes for a great story. Supposedly, the two groups held a contest. Starting at Oysterpond on the east coast, they would walk westwards — the French along the northern edge, the Dutch along the southern — and where they met they would draw a dividing line across the island. The French set off, having fortified themselves with wine, the Dutch with gin. The ill effects of the gin, however, caused the Dutchmen to stop along the way to sleep off their drunk; consequently, the French were able to cover a much greater distance. In truth, though, the French had a large navy just off shore at the time the treaty was being negotiated, and they were able to win concessions by threat of force. The treaty was signed on top of Mount Concordia in 1648, but despite the reputation for peaceful cohabitation, the border was to change another 16 times until 1815 when the Treaty of Paris fixed the boundaries for good.

The cultivation of sugar cane introduced slavery onto the island, and hundreds of African men, women, and children were imported for this purpose. The French finally abolished slavery on July 12, 1848 — a date now celebrated as Schoelcher Day. The Dutch slaves were emancipated 15 years later. Following the end of slavery, the island entered a serious depression that lasted until 1939, when the island was declared a duty-free port. The Dutch began developing a tourist industry in the 1950’s, but the French didn’t take advantage of this opportunity until the 1970’s. St.Martin continued its large-scale construction projects throughout the 1980’s, but now most of the development has been completed, and great care has been taken to preserve the island’s natural resources.

Today, St.Martin is a commune of Guadeloupe which is an overseas department of France. Islanders are entitled to vote in French elections.

 

Philipsburg, Sint-Maarte, 1910

Philipsburg-Sint-Maarten-1910

 

Sint Eustatius (1636-)

Statia was discovered in 1493 by Christopher Columbus. Throughout a swaggering colonial era that followed, the island had changed hands at least 22 times.

In 1636, near the close of the 80 year war between Holland and Spain, the Dutch took possession. During the 17th and 18th century, Statia was a major trading center with some 20,000 inhabitants and thousands of ships calling at her shores.

CannonIt is hard for present day visitors to imagine that this tiny island once had one of the busiest ports in the region.

During the latter part of the 18th century, St. Eustatius was the major supplier of arms and ammunition to the rebellious British Colonies in North America and the subject of conflict among the most powerful seafaring nations of the time.

For a while, Statia was the only link between Europe and fledgling American colonies. Even Benjamin Franklin had his mail routed through Statia to ensure its safe arrival. Statia remembered as the emporium of the Caribbean, was nicknamed “The Golden Rock”, reflecting its former prosperous trading days and wealthy residents.

On November 16, 1776 the American Brig-of-War, the “Andrew Doria”, sailed into the harbor of Statia firing its 13-gun salute indicating America’s long sought independence. The 11-gun salute reply, roaring from the canons at Fort Oranje under the command of Governor Johannes de Graaff, established Statia as the first foreign nation to officially recognize the newly formed United States of America.

Lower Town RuinsEach year, thousands of ships anchored on the roadstead of Oranjestad and the shore of the Bay was lined with hundreds of warehouses packed with goods. More trade (both legal and illegal) transpired here after the end of the American Revolution than on any other Caribbean island until Statia reached its economic peak around 1795.

As the eighteenth century drew to a close St. Eustatius gradually lost its importance as a trading center and most merchants and planters left the Island, leaving their homes and warehouses. Through the nineteenth- and early twentieth-centuries Statia became and remained a quiet island waiting to be discovered by history minded visitors.

Fortunately, in the 1960’s and 70’s, the people of Statia became increasingly aware of the cultural value of their unique heritage and initiatives were taken to preserve and maintain it.

 

Sint Eustatius

English Pirates

Sint Eustatius

French Pirates 1781

Sint Eustatius

Slaves Trade

Sint Eustatius

Slaves Trade

Sint Eustatius

1910

 

Saba (1620s/1640-1816-)

Because of Saba’s precipitous terrain, settling was difficult and left for the hardy and the adventurous. Having been under English, French, Spanish and Dutch rule for many years, peace came with the Dutch Crown in 1816. The cultures of the variety of settlers are now uniquely blended into a hard-working people. Their history of farming, fishing and seamanship account for their keen knowledge of their nature. Many locals are well travelled and well educated; conversations are easy and interesting. The Saba museums house many artifacts and photographs which tell the stories of settling this remote island with its dramatic landscape.
 
SabaSaba

Central America, List of Settlements, Formerly Dutch

The Dutch former Colonies, Central America

List of Settlements

Formerly Dutch

Porto Rico San Juan (1625)
Sint Kruis (1625-1650)
Thortolleneiland (Tortola) (1648-1672)
Anegada (16??-1680)
Anguilla
Trinidad en Tobago: Nieuw Walcheren (Tobago)
Honduras: Trujillo (1623) Baai-eilanden

Porto Rico San Juan (1625)

The Netherlands was a world military and commercial power by 1625, competing in the Caribbean Sea with the British. The Dutch wanted to establish a military stronghold in the area, and dispatched Captain Balduino Enrico (also known as Boudewijn Hendricksz/Bowdoin Henrick) to capture Puerto Rico. On September 24, 1625, Enrico arrived at the coast of San Juan with 17 ships and 2,000 men and sent a message to the governor of Puerto Rico, Juan de Haros, ordering him to surrender the island. De Haros refused; he was an experienced military man and expected an attack in the section known as Boqueron. He therefore had that area fortified. However, the Dutch took another route and landed in La Puntilla. De Haro realized that an invasion was inevitable and ordered Captain Juan de Amezquita, plus 300 men stationed at “San Felipe del Morro Castle” (also known as “El Morro”) and the city of San Juan evacuated. He also had former governor Juan de Vargas organize an armed resistance in the interior of the island. On September 25 Enrico attacked San Juan, besieging El Morro Castle and La Fortaleza (the Governor’s Mansion). He invaded the capital city and set up his headquarters in La Fortaleza. The Dutch were counterattacked by Captain Juan de Amezquita and 50 members of the civilian militia on land and by the cannons of the Spanish troops in El Morro Castle. The land battle left 60 Dutch soldiers dead and Enrico with a sword wound to his neck which he received from the hands of Amezquita[2]. The Dutch ships at sea were boarded by Puerto Ricans who defeated those aboard. After a long battle, the Spanish soldiers and volunteers of the city’s militia were able to defend the city from the attack and save the island from an invasion. On October 21, Enrico set La Fortaleza and the city ablaze. Captains Amezquita and Andre Botello decided to put a stop to the destruction and led 200 men in an attack against the enemy’s front and rear guard. They drove Enrico and his men from their trenches and into the ocean in their haste to reach their ships. Enrico, upon his retreat, would leave behind him one of his largest ships stranded and over 400 of his men dead. He then tried to invade the island by attacking the town of Aguada. He was again defeated by the local militia and abandoned the idea of invading Puerto Rico

Map-of-the-city-and-fort-of-Puerto-Rico

Map-of-the-city-and-fort-of-Puerto-Rico

Map-of-the-city-Puerto-Rico

Map-of-the-city-Puerto-Rico

British Virgin Islands Sint Kruis (1625-1650)

Thortolleneiland (Tortola) (1648-1672)

Anegada (16??-1680)

Discovered by Columbus and claimed for Spain, island chain named Las Islas Once Mil Virgenes.
1621 Dutch settle on Tortola.
1628 Tortola claimed for England (not settled). 1
1648 – 1672 Dutch colony on Tortola Island (on Anegada and Virgin Gorda until 1680).
1665 English occupation of Tortola.
 1672 English colony; part of Antigua. 1672 –
1816 Part of Leeward Islands colony (see Antigua).
1680 English settle Anegada and Virgin Gorda.
1713 British crown colony (British Virgin Islands).
1773 British Virgin Islands administratively united (Tortola, Anegada, Virgin Gorda, Jost Van Dyke, Peter, Norman, Guana, Ginger and Salt Islands).
1816 – 1871 Part St. Christopher, Nevis, Anguilla, and the British Virgin Islands colony (see St. Kitts).
1833 – 1 Jan 1960 Part of Leeward Islands colony (see Antigua). 1 Jan 1960 Separate colony.
18 Apr 1967 Autonomous

Anguilla

The European discovery and naming of Anguilla is often credited to French explorer Pierre Laudonnaire who visited the island in 1565, though according to some it had been sighted and named by Columbus in 1493.

The Dutch claimed to have built a fort on the island in 1631, but no remains have been found and the location of the site is unknown. The first English colonists arrived from Saint Kitts in 1650, and began growing both tobacco and corn crops. The early colonisation was precarious: in 1656 Carib Indians invaded and destroyed the settlements, and in 1666 the island was captured by French forces. However, the British regained control of the island from the French in 1667 under the Treaty of Breda, and despite hardships caused by poor crop yields, drought and famine, the settlers hung on.

In 1744 Anguillans invaded the French half of the neighbouring island of Saint Martin, holding it until the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748). During continuing struggles between the British and the French for control in the Caribbean, the French made further attempts to invade Anguilla in 1745 and 1796 but these failed.

Attempts were made to develop Anguilla into a plantation-based economy employing slaves transported from Africa, but the island’s soil and climate were unfavourable and the plantations were largely unsuccessful. Slaves were permitted to leave the plantations and pursue their own interests, and, with the British abolition of slavery in the 1830s, many plantation owners returned to Europe, leaving Anguilla’s community consisting largely of subsistence farmers and fishermen of African descent. At this time Anguilla’s population is estimated to have fallen from a peak of around 10,000 to just 2,000.

Since the early days of colonisation, Anguilla had been administered by the British through Antigua, with Anguilla also having its own local council. In 1824 the British government placed Anguilla under the administrative control of Saint Kitts, later to become part of the colony of Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla (Saint Christopher being an earlier name for Saint Kitts), itself a member of the Federal Colony of the Leeward Islands. Anguillans protested strongly at this arrangement, perceiving a lack of interest in their affairs on the part of the Saint Kitts administration, and several requests were made for the island to be ruled directly from Britain. These requests went unheeded however, and the Anguillans’ discontent continued to simmer until finally brought to a head in the 1960s.

Trinidad and Tobago: Nieuw Walcheren (Tobago)

In 1628 a Dutch ship with 68 colonists landed in the island (called by them Nieuw Walcheren). They founded a fort called Fort Flushing near today’s Plymouth in the Great Courland Bay. In 1629 and 1632 more ships arrived from Zeeland to strengthen the small Dutch settlement that now was populated by about 200 colonists. The history of this first colony had a tragic conclusion on 1 January 1637 when a Spanish expedition destroyed the settlement and massacred the colonists. A few months later, in 1637, a Courlandian (Courland was a dukedom situated in the present Republic of Latvia) ship with 212 colonists attempted to found a colony in the island but both this attempt and a subsequent one, in 1639, ended in failure. In 1639 the English also attempted to found a settlement in Tobago but the colonists were forced to withdraw in 1640. A renewed English attempt in 1642 met the same fate. In 1642 about 300 Courlanders made a third attempt to colonize Tobago but the Caribs attacked and killed many of them. The survivors escaped to the Wild Coast (today’s Guyana). In 1647, a third English attempt also failed. On 20 May 1654, a Courlanders expedition of 80 families and 149 soldiers landed at Great Courland Bay. They renamed the island New Courland and started to build a fort named Fort Jacob. In September 1654, a Zeelandian expedition under Pieter Becquart founded a settlement at Lampsins Bay on the opposite side of the island. This new settlement was named Nieuw Flushing. The Dutch built here three forts. The strongest was called Fort Lampsinsberg, the other two were Fort Beveren and Fort Bellavista. Thus the island was divided between the two nations. In 1657 reinforcements arrived from Courland and about 120 colonists were added. Meanwhile, the Dutch settlement had had a swift growth and in 1658 about 500 Frenchmen settled under Dutch sovereignty. They founded a settlement (named Le Quartier des Trois Rivières) in Little Courland Bay, not far from the Courlanders colony. By 1658, 1.200 men peopled the Dutch colony. The Courlanders were in trouble for there was the Baltic war and no reinforcements came from Courland. On 11 December 1659, the Courlanders surrendered the colony to the Dutch. The Dutch colony flourishing, it counted in 1660 about 1.500 colonists (prevalently Zeelanders and Frenchmen) and 7.000 slaves. There were three churches and six or seven sugar mills. The island produced sugar, rum and cacao. There were about 120 plantations, and 2 rum distilleries. In January 1666, the colony was forced to surrender to the British pirates from Jamaica. A few days later English troops arrived and assumed official English control of Tobago. A garrison of 50 Englishmen was left in the island. This garrison surrendered to the French in August 1666. A short time later the French must have abandoned Tobago. In fact, when the Dutch Admiral Abraham Crijnssen landed in April 1667, he found the island deserted and the forts and the houses of the colony in ruins. He had the fort restored and left a garrison of 29 men. In December 1668 a Courlandian ship made an attempt to occupy the old site of Fort Jacob but the Dutch were watchful and the Courlanders escaped. In 1672, about 500 Dutch colonists arrived. On 18 December 1672, an English expedition totaling 6 ships and 600 men conquered the colony after five or six hours of fight. The British destroyed the colony and the colonists were deported to Barbados. Tobago was again abandoned. The second peace of Westminster in 1674 gave back Tobago to the Dutch, but they reoccupied the island only on 1 September 1676 when an expedition under the command of Jacob Binckes landed at Klip Bay and a new fort was built near were once stood Nieuw Flushing. The new fort was called Fort Sterreschans; it was a star-shaped fort whit four bulwarks. A small outpost was built on a hill overlooking the bay. In February 1677 Dutch reinforcements (about 150 men) landed, but a few days later a French fleet totaling 24 ships and 4.000 men was sighted. The Dutch had 700 soldiers, 100 colonists and 15 ships anchored in the bay. On 21 February 1677, the French landed 1.000 men and attacked the fort but failed. After this, on 3 March 1677, the French Admiral Count D’Estrées decided to attempt a dangerous attack to the Dutch by land and sea. The battle was destructive for both parties and the Dutch remained masters of the fort, but only three Dutch ships and 400 men survived the battle. All the French ships were damaged and four were lost. After this battle the French troops left Tobago. On 6 December 1677, a new French fleet totaling 21 ships under D’Estrées landed in Tobago. The Dutch now numbered only 700 men and 5 ships. The French attacked the Dutch fort from the land side, and a French “fire ball” fell near the powder magazine of the fort that exploded. This terrific explosion killed Bickens and about 250 of his men. As the Dutch survivors surrendered, the French destroyed the remains of the Sterreschans and abandoned the island. This marked the end of the Dutch attempts to make Tobago a Dutch colony.

Trinidad and Tobago: Nieuw Walcheren

Trinidad , Tobago,  Nieuw Walcheren

 Honduras Trujillo (1623) Baai-eilanden  ( Bay Islands )

The Bay Islands were first discovered by Christopher Columbus on his fourth voyage to America in 1502. They were later claimed, and successively held, by Great Britain, Spain, and the Dutch United Provinces. Britain finally took control in 1643 and, with the exception of a one-month period of Spanish dominance in 1780, held onto them as a Crown colony, dependent on Jamaica. In 1860, in the aftermath of the William Walker filibustering affair, the British crown recognized Honduran sovereignty and ceded possession of them. The department of Islas de la Bahía was officially incorporated into the nation on 14 March 1872.

Honduras Bay islands

St.-Francisco-de-Campeche

View-of-St.-Francisco-de-Campeche,-depicted-in-the-inset-Yucatan-and-the-Gulf-of-Honduras

Central America, Dutch former Colonies

Dutch former Colonies, Central America

Porto Rico San Juan (1625)
Sint Kruis (1625-1650)
Thortolleneiland (Tortola) (1648-1672)
Anegada (16??-1680)
Virgin Gorda (16??-1680)
Anguilla
Nederlandse Antillen en Aruba (Nederlands West-Indië):
Aruba (1636-1805/1815-)
Curaçao (1634-1805/1815-)
Bonaire (1633-1805/1815-)
Sint Maarten (Ned.) en St. Martin (Fr.) (1620-1633/ 1644-1648
Sint Eustatius (1636-)
Saba (1620s/1640-1816-)
Trinidad en Tobago: Nieuw Walcheren (Tobago) *Honduras:
Trujillo (1623) Baai-eilanden
Dutch Expansion

After losing most of their colonies in Brazil, the Dutch continued fighting for expansion. One of Curaçao’s most important governors, Peter Stuyvesant, led an attack against St. Martin in 1644, and the following year he was made governor of New Amsterdam (present-day New York), as well as retaining his position in Curaçao.

In 1648, the Dutch and the French decided to split St. Martin, and the two countries control the island to this day. The Dutch kept the important salt areas, for which they had claimed the island originally.

A few years earlier in 1640, the Dutch founded Saba. However, this colony was home to so little agriculture that its people remained predominantly white, without much African slave labor. This was very unique among the Caribbean islands.

Curaçao served as the Dutch base for raiding not only the mainland of South and Central America, but Cuba and Puerto Rico. However, it wasn’t until after the war with Spain ended in 1648 that Curaçao became a profitable colony. The Treaty of Muenster recognized the Dutch colonies, but prohibited trade with Spain.

The Dutch controlled most of the trade in the region, but Curaçao’s position in the slave trade was also historically important, and the island became a slave depot. Since the Dutch controlled a majority of the region’s human trafficking as well as other commerce, Spain eventually turned a blind eye to their colonies’ illicit trade with the Dutch.

Although at first the Dutch and the English worked together to wrest control of the Caribbean from Spanish hands, they do not always share the region so easily. Soon, problems between the two come to a head.

 

Dutch Family with Slaves

Dutch Family with Slaves 1725