Bos javanicus, Banteng

Bos javanicus

 Banteng

Click to Enlarge !

Bos-javanicus-01-800

The Banteng (Bos javanicus), also known as Tembadau, is a species of wild cattle found in SBos javanicus, Bantengoutheast Asia. Banteng have been domesticated in several places in Southeast Asia, and there are around 1.5 million domestic Banteng, which are called Bali cattle. These animals are used as working animals, and for their meat.
Bali cattle have also been introduced to Northern Australia, where they live wild.
Distribution and subspecies

* Java Banteng (B. j. javanicus): Java; Males are black, females buff.
* Borneo Banteng (B. j. lowi): Borneo; Smaller than Java Banteng and the horns are steeper, bulls are chocolate-brown.
* Burma Banteng (B. j. birmanicus): Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam; Males and females are usually buff, but in Cambodia 20 % of the bulls are blackish, and on the Malayan Peninsula in Thailand most of the bulls are black. This subspecies is classified as Critically Endangered by the IUCN.

Characteristics

The banteng is similar in size to domestic cattle, being 1.55 to 1.65 m (61 to 65 in) tall at the shoulder, and weighing 600 to 800 kg (1,300 to 1,800 lb).[4] It exhibits sexual dimorphism, allowing the sexes to be readily distinguished by colour and size. In mature males, the short-haired coat is blue-black or dark chestnut in colour, while in females and young it is chestnut, with a dark dorsal stripe. Both males and females have white stockings on their lower legs, a white rump, a white muzzle, and white spots above the eyes. The build is similar to that of domestic cattle, but with a rather slender neck and small head, and a ridge on the back above the shoulders. The horns of females are short and tightly curved, pointing inward at the tips, and those of males arc upwards, growing 60 to 75 cm (24 to 30 in) long, and being connected by a horn-like bald patch on the forehead.

Behaviour
Banteng live in sparse forest where they feed on grasses, bamboo, fruit, leaves and young branches. The Banteng is generally active both night and day but in places where humans are common they adopt a nocturnal schedule. Banteng tend to gather in herds of two to thirty members.

Cloning

The Banteng is the second endangered species to be successfully cloned, and the first to survive for more than a week (the first was a Gaur that died two days after being born).[5][6] Scientists at Advanced Cell Technology in Worcester, MA, U.S. extracted DNA from Banteng cells kept in the San Diego Zoo’s “Frozen Zoo” facility, and transferred it into eggs from domestic cattle, a process called somatic cell nuclear transfer. 30 embryos were created, sent to Trans Ova Genetics, which implanted the fertilized eggs in domestic cattle. Two were carried to term and delivered by caesarian section.[7] The first was born on April 1, 2003, and the second two days later. The second was euthanized[8], but the first survived and, as of September 2006, remains in good health at the San Diego Zoo

Bubalus-bubalis, Water Buffalo

Bubalus-bubalis

 Water Buffalo

Click to Enlarge !

Bubalus-bubalis-01-800

The Water BuffBubalus-bubalis, Water Buffaloalo or domestic Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is a large bovine animal, frequently used as livestock in Asia, and also widely in South America, southern Europe, north Africa and elsewhere. In 2000, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimated that there were approximately 158 million water buffalo in the world and that 97% of them (approximately 153 million animals) were in Asia.
There are established feral populations in northern Australia but the dwindling true wild populations are thought to survive in India, Nepal, Bhutan and Thailand. All the domestic varieties and breeds descend from one common ancestor, the Wild Water Buffalo, which is now an endangered species.

Buffalo are used as draft, meat and dairy animals. Their dung is used as a fertilizer and as a fuel when dried. In Chonburi, Thailand, and in South Malabar Region in Kerala, India, there are annual water buffalo races. A few have also found use as pack animals carrying loads even for special forces.

American bison are known as buffalo in parts of North America, but not normally in other usages; bison are more closely related to cattle, gaur, banteng, and yaks than to Asian buffalo. The water buffalo genus includes water buffalo, tamaraw and anoas—all Asian species. The ancestry of the African buffalo is unclear, but it is not believed to be closely related to the water buffalo.

True wild water buffalo are thought to survive in Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan and Thailand.

The IUCN Red List of threatened species classifies wild water buffalo (Bubalis arnee) [2] as an Endangered species. The total number of wild water buffalo left is thought to be less than 4,000, which suggests that the number of mature individuals will be less than 2,500, and an estimated continuing decline of at least 20% within 14 years (ca. 2 generations) and at least 50% within 21 years seems likely given the severity of the threats, especially hybridization with the abundant domestic Asian water buffalo leading to genetic pollution.

Adult Water Buffalo range in size from 400 to 900 kg (880 to 2,000 lb) for the domestic breeds, while the wild animals are nearly 3 m (9.8 ft) long and 2 m (6.6 ft) tall, weighing up to 1,200 kg (2,600 lb); females are about two-thirds this size.

River buffalo are usually black and have long curled horns, whereas swamp buffalo can be black or white, or both, with gently curved horns.The largest recorded horns are just under 2 metres long.

There are differences between swamp buffalo and river buffalo. Swamp buffalo have swept back horns and are native to the eastern half of Asia from India to Taiwan. All are similar in general appearance. River buffalo generally have curved horns and are native to the western half of Asia.

The rumen (the first chamber of the digestive system of a ruminant) of the Water Buffalo has important differences to that of other ruminants. It consists of essential microorganisms; namely bacteria, protozoa and fungi which digest the food to produce fermentation end-products via anaerobic fermentation or Embden-Myerhof pathway.

The Water Buffalo rumen has been found to contain a larger population of bacteria particularly the cellulolytic bacteria, lower protozoa and higher fungi zoospores. In addition, higher rumen ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and higher pH have been found as compared to those in cattle
Taxonomy

The classification of the water buffalo is uncertain. Some authorities list a single species, Bubalus bubalis with three subspecies, the river buffalo (B. bubalis bubalis) of South Asia, the carabao or swamp buffalo (B. bubalis carabanesis) of the Philippines and Southeast Asia, and the arni, or wild water buffalo (B. bubalis arnee). Others regard these as closely-related but separate species.

The swamp buffalo is primarily found in the eastern half of Asia and has 48 chromosomes. The river buffalo is mostly found in the western half of Asia (and in Europe and Africa), and has 50 chromosomes. The two types do not readily interbreed, but fertile offspring can occur. Buffalo-cattle hybrids have not been observed to occur, and the embryos of such hybrids do not reach maturity in laboratory experiments.

Evolution

Geologically speaking, the Bovidae is much recent group as compared to Cervidae because their members are untraceable in the layers of the earth. The fossil forms of the buffalo provide a definite link between the Indian type and their present extreme representatives and their extinct allies. All Asiatic buffaloes seem to form a closely allied group of species which represent more or less a passage from one variety to another.

Distribution

Type Locality: “Habitat in Asia, cultus in Italia”. Restricted by Thomas (1911a:154) to Italy, Rome, but Linnaeus’ (1758) comment indicates Asia (India?).

Distribution: Bangladesh, Burma, Cambodia, India (survives in Assam and Orissa), Nepal, N Thailand, Vietnam, and possibly at least formerly in Laos; domesticated in N Africa, S Europe, and even England, east to Indonesia and in E South America; supposedly feral populations in Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Philippines and other parts of SE Asia; feral populations resulting from introductions in New Britain and New Ireland (Bismarck Arch., Papua New Guinea), and Australia. Status: CITES – Appendix III (Nepal) as B. arnee (excludes domesticated forms – but see comments below; IUCN – Endangered

Average lifespan in captivity: up to 25 years

Asia
Water Buffalo ploughing rice fields in Java,Indonesia

Asia is the native home of the water buffalo, with 95% of the world population of water buffalo, with about half of the total in India. Many Asian countries depend on the water buffalo as its primary bovine species. It is valuable for its meat and milk as well as the labour it performs. As of 1992 the Asian population was estimated at 141 million. The fat content of buffalo milk is the highest amongst farm animals and the butterfat is a major source of ghee in some Asian countries. Its success in Asia is evident by its extensive range. Both variants occur in Asia. River buffalo are found in elevations of 2,800 m in Nepal, and swamp buffalo are found throughout the lowland tropics. Part of their success is due to their ability to thrive on poor foodstuffs and yet be valuable economically. Moreover they are much better suited to plough the muddy paddy fields as they are better adapted than common cattle (Bos taurus) to move in swamps.

Bubalus-depressicornis, Anoa, Anoa besar

Bubalus-depressicornis

 Anoa, Anoa besar

Click to Enlarge !

Bubalus-depressicornis-01-800

Anoa Bubalus-depressicornis, Anoa, Anoa besarare a subgenus of buffalo comprising two species native to Indonesia: the Mountain Anoa (Bubalus quarlesi) and the Lowland Anoa (Bubalus depressicornis). Both live in undisturbed forest, and are essentially miniature water buffalo, are similar in appearance to a deer, weighing 150–300 kg (330–660 lb). They live in deep rainforests.

Both are found on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia; the Mountain Anoa is also found on the nearby island of Buton. They apparently live singly or in pairs, rather than herds, except when the cows are about to give birth. One young is born per year.
A Lowland Anoa

Both species of anoa have been classified as endangered since the 1960s and the population continues to decrease. It is believed unlikely that there are more than 5000 animals of each species remaining. Reasons for the decline of the anoa include hunting for hide, horns and meat by the local peoples (though they were rarely hunted in their native range before the introduction of modern firearms); and loss of habitat due to the advancement of settlement. Currently, hunting is the more serious factor in most areas.

Mountain Anoa are also known as Anoa de Montana, Anoa de Quarle, Anoa des Montagnes, Anoa Pegunungan, and Quarle’s Anoa. Lowland Anoa are also known as Anoa de Ilanura or Anoa des Plaines. They are also called sapiutan (or sapi utan).

Lowland Anoa stand barely over 90 cm at the shoulder, and is the most diminutive of all wild cattle. It is most closely allied to the larger Asiatic buffaloes, showing the same reversal of the direction of the hair on the back. The horns are peculiar for their upright direction and comparative straightness, although they have the same triangular section as in other buffaloes. White spots are sometimes present below the eyes, and there may be white markings on the legs and back; and the absence or presence of these white markings may be indicative of distinct races. The horns of the cows are very small. The nearest allies of the anoa appear to be certain extinct buffaloes, of which the remains are found in the Siwalik Hills of northern India. In habits the animal appears to resemble the Indian buffalo.

Bubalus-quarlesi, Mountain anoa Anoa kecil

Bubalus-quarlesi

 Mountain anoa  Anoa kecil

Bubalus-quarlesi-01-800

Anoa are only found on theBubalus-quarlesi, Mountain anoa M Anoa kecil island of Sulawesi in Indonesia. The lowland anoa is found in swampy forests, and the mountain anoa is found in higher-altitude forests. Unlike most cattle, anoas don’t live in herds but, rather, live solitary or in pairs and only will meet in groups when a female anoa is about to give birth. They are active most often in the morning and evening when it is still relatively cool, and they rest in the shade when the temperature rises in the afternoon. They will also bathe in mud or water to keep cool.
Mountain anoas have essentially the same appearance, but they keep their wooly coats through adulthood, and their horns are somewhat smaller. They also are a more solid color without the throat and leg markings that the lowland anoas have.

Anoas are grazers, eating mostly grasses, saplings, ferns, and fallen fruit. They also appear to get additional minerals that they need by drinking sea water. Relatively passive and shy animals, Anoas will, however, attack violently if cornered or threatened, disemboweling their enemies with their sharp, pointed horns, and they seem to be especially violent towards humans.

The anoa reach sexual maturity at about two to three years of age and will mate and give birth once a year. There doesn’t appear to be an obvious breeding season. After a gestational period of about 275-315 days, the mother will give birth to one baby, and very seldom will birth two. The young anoas are weaned after six to nine months, and they are reported to live approximately 15-20 years in the wild.

Since so much is unknown about the anoa, experts are still unsure whether the males are territorial or not. Males have been seen marking trees with their horns and scratching the soil after they urinate. No one is sure if they are marking their territories or just showing aggression.