Pardofelis-marmorata, Marbled Cat, Luwak

Pardofelis-marmorata

 Marbled Cat

The MarblePardofelis-marmorata, Marbled Cat, Luwakd Cat (Pardofelis marmorata) is similar in size to the Domestic Cat, with a longer, more thickly furred tail, an indicator of an arboreal life-style, where the tail is used as a counterbalance. The weight is about 4.5 kg (10 lbs), 53 cm (21 in) and the tail is 45 cm (18 in). Its fur pattern is blotched and banded like a marble, usually compared to the markings of the much larger Clouded Leopard. In colour, the base fur ranges from pale yellow through to brownish grey with lighter under parts being a lighter variation.

The Marbled Cat is closely related to the Asiatic Golden Cats (Catopuma). It has two generally recognised subspecies, P. marmorata marmorata and P. m. charltoni.

Distribution and Habitat

The range of the Marbled Cat extends from Assam in northeast India, with the P. m. chartoni subspecies in Nepal, through southeast Asia including Borneo and Sumatra, which were linked to the mainland of Asia during the Pleistocene ice ages. It is probable that the forest canopies provide the Marbled Cat with much of its prey: birds, squirrels, other rodents and reptiles; there are reports that the cat also hunts on the ground in parts of its range. It is rarely sighted in its densely forested habitat, and little studied or understood. Its population is estimated at below 10,000 mature individuals. Its forested habitats have been shrinking, accounting for its vulnerable listing in IUCN.

The only captive Marbled Cat registered by ISIS is a male kept in the Khao Kheow Open Zoo in Thailand.

Neofelis-nebulosa, Clouded Leopard, Harimau dahan

Neofelis-nebulosa

 Clouded Leopard, Harimau dahan

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The Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is a medium-sized cat found in Southeast Asia. It has a tan or tawny coat, and is distinctively marked with large, irregularly-shaped, dark-edged ellipses which are said to be shaped like clouds. This unique appearance gave the mammal both its common and scientific species name (Nebulosus is the Latin for “cloudy”). The Clouded Leopard was a confusion to scientists for a long time because of the appearance and skeleton. It was what seemed to be a cross in between a big cat and a small cat. The scientific name of the genus, Neofelis, originates from neo, which means “new”, and felis, which means “small cat”, so it literally means new kind of small cat.
The average Clouded Leopard typically weighs between 15 and 23 kg (33 to 50 lb) and has a shoulder height of 25 to 40 centimeters (10 to 16 inches). This medium sized cat has a large build and, proportionately, the longest canine teeth (2 in, about the same as a tiger’s) of any living feline.These characteristics led early researchers to speculate that it preyed on large land-dwelling mammals. However, while remarkably very little is known about the natural history and behavioral habits of this species in the wild, it is now thought that its primary prey includes arboreal and terrestrial mammals, particularly gibbons, macaques, and civets supplemented by other small mammals, deer, birds, porcupines, and domestic livestock. Clouded Leopards that are held in captivity also eat eggs and some vegetation.

As might be expected from the fact that some of its prey lives in trees, the Clouded Leopard is an excellent climber. Short, flexible legs, large paws, and sharp claws combine to make it very sure-footed in the canopy. The Clouded Leopard’s tail can be as long as its body, further aiding in balance giving it a squirrel-like agility similar to the Margay of South America. Surprisingly, this arboreal creature can climb while hanging upside-down under branches and descend tree trunks head-first. In captivity, the Clouded Leopard routinely hangs by its hind legs using its long tail for balance and runs head-first down tree trunks. Little is known about its behaviour in the wild, but it is assumed from this behavior that a favored hunting tactic is to drop on prey from the trees.

Subspecies

The Clouded Leopard, despite its name, is not closely related to the Leopard. The Clouded Leopard is regarded as a monotypic genus with three subspecies:

* Neofelis nebulosa macrosceloides: Nepal to Myanmar (Burma)
* Neofelis nebulosa nebulosa: Southern China to eastern Myanmar
* Neofelis nebulosa brachyura: Taiwan (extinct)

The Bornean Clouded Leopard, Neofelis diardi, is a separate species found on the Sumatra, Borneo and the Batu Islands. Because of their distinct skull structure, the two species are considered sufficiently different to be the only members of their genus.

Distribution and Habitat

The Clouded Leopard is found only in Southeast Asia and ranges through southern China (at least as far north as Wuyi Shan), the eastern Himalayas, Nepal, northeast India, Bangladesh, and Indochina. It is thought to be extinct in Taiwan. The last confirmed sighting of a Clouded Leopard in Taiwan was in 1989 when the skin from a small leopard was found in the Taroko area. This subspecies was characterized by its relatively much shorter tail.

Preferred habitat is tropical and subtropical forests at altitudes up to about 2,000 meters (6,500 ft); however it is sometimes found in mangrove swamps and grassland. It lives in temperatures from 65 to 120 degrees Fahrenheit.

Breeding and Behaviour

The behaviour of the Clouded Leopard in the wild are virtually unknown to man because of the animal’s reclusive nature. With a lack of evidence for a pack- or pride-society like that of the lion, it is assumed that it is a generally solitary creature.

Females give birth to a litter of 2 to 4 cubs after a gestation period of about 85 to 93 days[3]. Initially, the young are blind and helpless, much like the young of many other cats. Unlike adults, the kittens’ spots are “solid”—completely dark rather than dark rings. The young can see within about 10 days of birth, are active within 5 weeks, and probably become independent at about 10 months of age. The Clouded Leopard reaches sexual maturity at two years of age and females are able to bear one litter each year. Adults in captivity have lived as long as 17 years: in the wild, they have an average 11 year lifespan.

Captive breeding programs met with little success in their early stages, largely due to ignorance of courtship activity among these cats in the wild. Experience has taught keepers that introducing pairs of Clouded Leopards at a young age gives opportunities for the pair to bond and breed successfully. Introducing pairs together as older adults may cause the animals such stress that the male may kill the female. Normally, the Clouded Leopard is not an aggressive animal.

Carefully regulated introductions between prospective mating pairs and breeding programmes that take into account the requirements for enriched enclosures. Providing these animal with adequate space to permit climbing stimulates natural behaviour and minimizes stress. This, combined with a feeding programme that fulfills the proper dietary requirements, has shown to promote more successful breeding in recent years. Cats born in captivity may one day supplement and bolster threatened populations in the wild.

Conservation and threats

Because the Clouded Leopard’s habits make it difficult to study, reliable estimates of its population do not exist. The World Conservation Union estimates that fewer than 10,000 individuals exist, and warns that the population is declining.Habitat loss due to widespread deforestation and hunting for use in Chinese medicinal preparations are thought to be causing populations of the Clouded Leopard to decline Only six Clouded Leopards have ever been radio collared and their territorial movements monitored and recorded by scientists using radio telemetry. All of these cats were studied within Thailand. Almost all that is known of the Clouded Leopard today comes from studies of the cats in captivity. Apart from anecdotal accounts very little is known of the Clouded Leopard’s natural history, ecology and behaviour in the wild throughout its range.

The World Conservation Union, the organization that maintains the global Red List of endangered species, lists the Clouded Leopard as Vulnerable. In addition, CITES, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, lists the Clouded Leopard as an Appendix I species, meaning that international trade in Clouded Leopards is banned. The United States also lists the Clouded Leopard under the Endangered Species Act, further prohibiting trade in the animals or any parts or products made from them in the United States. In the countries of its native range, hunting of the Clouded Leopard is prohibited; however, these bans are poorly enforced.

Cultural influence

The Lukai people of Thailand consider the Clouded Leopard to be their spiritual ancestor who led them to their homeland.

Prionailurus-viverrinus, Fishing Cat, Kucing bakau

Prionailurus-viverrinus

 Fishing Cat, Kucing bakau

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The FishPrionailurus-viverrinus, Fishing Cat, Kucing bakauing Cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) is a medium-sized cat whose disjunct global range extends from eastern Pakistan through portions of India, Nepal and Sri Lanka, throughout Bangladesh and Mainland Southeast Asia to Sumatra and Java. Its fur has an olive-grey color with dark spots arranged stripe-like running along the length of the body. The face has a distinctly flat-nosed appearance. The size varies between locations. While Indian specimens grow to 80 cm (32 in) plus 30 cm (12 in) tail, Indonesian fishing cats only reach 65 cm (26 in) plus 25 cm (10 in) tail. Indian individuals weigh up to 11.7 kg (26 lbs), while in Indonesia adult fishing cats weigh in at up to approximately 6 kg (13 lbs). They are stocky of build with medium short legs, and a short muscular tail of one half to one third of the length of the rest of the animal.
Like its closest relative, the Leopard Cat, the Fishing Cat lives along rivers, brooks and mangrove swamps. It is well adapted to this habitat, being an eager and skilled swimmer.

As the name implies, fish is the main prey of this cat, of which it hunts about 10 different species. It also hunts other aquatic animals such as frogs or crayfish, and terrestrial animals such as rodents and birds. The inter-digital webs on its paws help the cat gain better traction in muddy environments and water, like other mammals living in semi-aquatic environments.

Conservation
The Fishing Cat is endangered due to its dependence on wetlands, which are increasingly being settled and converted for agriculture, and also due to human over-exploitation of local fish stocks. It is believed extinct in Afghanistan, it may already be gone from Malaysia and China, and it has become rare throughout its remaining distribution.

As of December 2005 72 Captive Fishing Cats could be seen at 22 different North American institutions.

Fishing Cat in Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka, the Fishing Cat is known as Handun Diviya or Kola Diviya.The terms ‘Handun Diviya’ and ‘Kola Diviya’ are also used by the local community to refer to the Rusty-spotted Cat (Prionailurus rubiginosus), another little-known small cat in suburban habitats of Sri Lanka. Both animals are nocturnal and elusive and therefore distinct identity as to which one is referred as ‘Handun Diviya’ is arguable.

Prionailurus-planiceps, Flat-headed Cat

Prionailurus-planiceps

 Flat-headed Cat

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The FPrionailurus-planiceps,  Flat-headed Catlat-headed Cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is a small wild cat from forested areas, mainly near water, in Peninsular Thailand, Malaysia (both East and West), Brunei, and Indonesia (Kalimantan and Sumatra). It is considered endangered by IUCN due to habitat loss and pollution. It is very rare in captivity, with only two individuals – both in zoos in Malaysia – recorded by ISIS in early 2008. Like most other small cats, it has often been placed in the genus Felis.

It has a head-and-body length of 41-50 cm (16-20 in), and a short tail of 13-15 cm (5-6 in).[4] It weighs 1.5-2.5 kg (3.5-5.5 lbs). The thick fur is generally dark reddish-brown tinged grey, with a more reddish head and whitish underparts. Except for the relatively faint facial streaks, it is rather unpatterned. The legs are fairly short, and the ears are short and round. The inter-digital webs on its paws help the cat gain better traction in muddy environments and water, and are even more pronounced on this cat than those on the paws of the Fishing Cat. The shape of the head is atypical for a cat; the skull is fairly long, while the skull roof, as suggested by both its common and scientific name, is rather flat.

Behavior and habitat

It occurs in both secondary and primary forest, and most records are from near water. It mostly hunts for frogs, fish and crustaceans, but will also catch rats and chickens. It has relatively long premolars, and is one of the few cats that is unable to retract its claws (the others being the cheetah, fishing cat, and the Iriomote cat). These adaptions combined with its behavior have resulted in comparisons with semi-aquatic mustelids, and it is known for readily entering water. Overall, however, little is known about its wild behavior, but a gestation period of about 56 days, and a litter size of 1-2 kittens have been reported in captivity. Captive individuals have lived for 14+ years. It is generally considered a nocturnal animal, but observations of captives suggests it is crepuscular.

Status

The Flat-headed Cat is considered endangered by IUCN and listed on appendix 1 by CITES. The total population is believed to be less than 10,000 adults, with no single sub-population containing more than 1000 adults. While habitat loss and water pollution are serious threats, sightings from oil palm plantations suggests it is less specialized than generally believed. The Flat-headed Cat is fully protected throughout its natural range, except in Brunei, where this species lacks legal protection. Sightings are generally very rare.

Prionailurus-bengalensis, Leopard Cat, Meong congkok, Kucing batu

Prionailurus-bengalensis

 Leopard Cat, Meong congkok ,Kucing batu

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The Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bePrionailurus-bengalensis, Leopard Cat, Meong congkok,Kucing batungalensis) is a small wild cat of Southeast Asia.

On average, the Leopard Cat is as large as a Domestic Cat, but there are considerable regional differences: in Indonesia the average size is 45 cm (18 in), plus 20 cm (8 in) tail, while it is 60 cm/40 cm (24/16 in) in the Amur region. The shoulder height is 41 cm (16 in) and the weight is 4.5-6.8 kg (10-15 lbs), similar in size to a Domestic Cat. The fur color is also variable: it is yellow in the southern populations, but silver-grey in the northern ones. The chest and the lower part of the head are white. The Leopard Cat bears black markings that may be spotted or rosetted, depending on the subspecies. It has litters of 2 to 4 kittens and the gestation period can vary from 65 to 70 days.

Distribution

The Leopard Cat has the widest geographic distribution of all felines. It can be found in forest areas throughout Indonesia, Philippines, Borneo, Malaysia, Thailand, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, China and Taiwan. The Leopard Cat also can be found in Korea, India, and Pakistan. Their range of habitat is varied, and includes tropical forest, scrubland, pine forest, second-growth woodland, semi-desert, and agricultural regions, especially near water sources, and may be found at heights up to 3000 m.

Habitat and behavior

The Leopard Cat can climb trees skillfully. It is also able to swim, but will seldom do so. This cat is nocturnal, and during the day it spends its time in dens that may be hollow trees, cavities under roots, or caves. It spends time out during the day in areas where there are no humans. The Leopard Cat is solitary, except during breeding season. There is no fixed breeding period in the southern part of its range; in the colder northern parts it tends to breed around March or April, when the weather is nice enough to support newborn kittens. The estrus period lasts for 5-9 days. After a gestation period of 9-10 weeks (60-70 Days), two to three kittens are born in a den, where they remain until they are a month old. The eyes open at ten days old, and start to eat solid food at 23 days. If the kittens do not survive, the mother can come into heat again and have another litter that year.

Diet
Leopard Cats are carnivorous, and feed on variety of small prey, including mammals, lizards, amphibians, birds, and insects. In Northern region, the subspecies of Leopard Cat also eat hares. The diet is often supplemented with grass, eggs, poultry, and aquatic prey.

Reproduction and development

The female usually gives birth to two or three kittens after 60 to 70 days gestation. The kittens weigh about 75 to 130 g at birth and usually double their weight by age of two weeks; at five weeks, they are four times their birth weight. At the age of four weeks, the permanent canines appear, which coincides with their intake of solid food. Leopard Cats usually pair for life and raise their cubs together for about 7 to 10 months. Full maturity is reached at 18 months, but in captivity, the male can become ready to breed at 7 months, and the female at 10 months. Leopard Cats are said to be the most difficult to tame of all the Asian wild cats. The Asian Leopard Cat is often mated with domestic cats to produce hybrid offspring known as the Bengal cat.

Conservation

In Hong Kong, the Leopard Cat is a protected species under the Wild Animals Protection Ordinance Cap 170. The population is well over 50,000 individuals and although declining, the cat is not endangered.[2]

Status: CITES: Appendix II . IUCN: Not listed.

Subspecies

* Prionailurus bengalensis alleni, Hainan Island (China)
* Prionailurus bengalensis bengalensis, India, Bangladesh, Southeast Asian mainland, Yunnan
* Prionailurus bengalensis borneoensis, Borneo
* Prionailurus bengalensis chinensis, China, Taiwan, Philippines
* Prionailurus bengalensis euptailurus, eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Manchuria
* Prionailurus bengalensis heaneyi, Palawan island, Philippines
* Prionailurus bengalensis horsfieldi, Himalaya
* Prionailurus bengalensis javanensis, Java
* Prionailurus bengalensis rabori, Philippines (Negros, Cebu, and Panay)
* Prionailurus bengalensis sumatranus, Sumatra
* Prionailurus bengalensis trevelyani, eastern Pakistan

The Iriomote Cat (P. iriomotensis) was once considered a subspecies of the Leopard Cat and lives exclusively on the tiny island of Iriomote.

The Tsushima Cat lives exclusively on Tsushima Island in the Korea Strait. A fragile population, the Tsushima Cat was estimated to number between 70 and 90 in 1997. This cat was first regarded as a separate species, later as a subspecies of the Leopard Cat, and now as a variety of the Manchurian subspecies, P. b. euptailurus.

Leopard cats as pets

Keeping a Leopard Cat as a pet is possible, though a license is required in most places. License requirements vary by location.

A Bengal cat, which is produced by breeding a Leopard Cat with a house cat (usually another Bengal cat), is permitted as a pet without a license. For the typical pet owner, a Bengal cat kept as a pet should be least four generations (F4) removed from the Leopard Cat. The so-called “foundation cats” from the first three filial generations of breeding (F1-F3) are usually reserved for breeding purposes or the specialty pet home environment.

Panthera-tigris-sondaica, Javan tiger

Panthera-tigris-sondaica

Javan tiger

The JavanPanthera-tigris-sondaica, Javan tigertiger, Panthera tigris sondaica, formerly ranged on the Indonesian island of Java and was last seen in 1972 and has become extinct in the last 30 years. Three tiger subspecies have been declared to be extinct in the past 70 years, the Bali, Caspian and Javan tigers.

Scientific Name: Panthera tigris sondaica
Range: Indonesian Island of Java
Average Weight:
Female: 75-115kg (165 – 253 pounds)
Male: 100-141kg (220 – 310 pounds)
Size (Length):
Female: Unknown
Male: 2480mm (8′-3″)
Diet: All tigers are carnivorous. Tiger prey consists mostly of pigs, deer, antelope, buffalo and other large mammals, although tigers have been known to hunt smaller mammals and birds.
Gestation Period: 100-100 Days (Averaging 103 Days)
Cub Maturity: 18 months – 2 Years
Cubs Per Litter: (Usually 2-3 cubs) Cubs are born blind and weigh 2-3 pounds.
Lifespan: Tigers live for 10-15 Years
Predators: Unknown, Man
Social Structure: Solitary (except during Mating Season)
Territory Size: Unknown. Today tigers occur in parts of India, Manchuria, China, Indonesia and Russia (Siberia).
Conservation Status: Extinct since the 1970’s.

Panthera-pardus-melas, Javan leopard

Panthera-pardus-melas

 Javan leopard

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The Javan leopard (Panthera pardus melas) is a subspecies of the leopard. They are only found on the island of Java. Javan leopards are very distinctive from other subspecies of leopards, genetically speaking. The species is coming in to decline because of hunting for its valuable fur. No one really knows how the Javan leopard came onto the island as there is no real connection with any other leopard inhabited country.It is one of the smallest leopards.

Panthera-pardus, Leopard, Macan tutul

Panthera-pardus

 Leopard, Macan tutul

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The leopard (Panthera pardus) is a member of the Felidae family and the smallest of the four “big cats” in the genus Panthera; the other three being the tiger, lion and jaguar. Once distributed across southern Asia and Africa, from Korea to South Africa, the leopard’s range of distribution has decreased radically due to hunting and loss of habitat, and the leopard now chiefly occurs in sub-Saharan Africa. There are fragmented populations in Pakistan, India, Indochina, Malaysia, and China. Due to the loss of range and declines in population, it is graded as a “Near Threatened” species. Its numbers are greater than other Panthera species, all of which face more acute conservation concerns.

The leopard has relatively short legs and a long body, with a large skull. It resembles the jaguar, although it is smaller and of slighter build. Its fur is marked with rosettes which lack internal spots, unlike those of the jaguar. Leopards that are melanistic, either completely black or very dark, are one of the big cats known as black panthers.

The species’ success in the wild owes in part to its opportunistic hunting behaviour, its adaptability to habitats and its ability to move at up to approximately 58 kilometres (36 miles) an hour.The leopard consumes virtually any animal it can hunt down and catch. Its preferred habitat ranges from rainforest to desert terrains. Its ecological role is similar to the American cougar.

Panthera tigris sumatrae, Sumatran tiger, Harimau sumatera

Panthera tigris sumatrae

 Sumatran tiger, Harimau sumatera

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TheSumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) is a subspecies of tiger found on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. Recent genetic testing has revealed the presence of unique genetic markers, which isolate Sumatran tigers from all mainland subspecies. Currently, there are only 100-400 Sumatran tigers left in the wild.

The Sumatran tiger is the smallest of all extant tiger subspecies. Male Sumatran tigers average 204 cm (6 feet, 8 inches) in length from head to tail and weigh about 136 kg. Females average 198 cm (6 feet, 6 inches) in length and weigh about 91 kg. Its stripes are narrower than other subspecies of tigers’ stripes, and it has a more bearded and maned appearance, especially the males. Its small size makes it easier to move through dense rain forests. It has webbing between its toes that, when spread, makes Sumatran tigers very fast swimmers. It has been known to drive hoofed prey into the water, especially if the prey animal is a slow swimmer.

Sumatran tigers commonly prey on larger ungulates, like wild boar, tapir and deer, and sometimes also smaller animals, like fowl, monkeys, and fish. Orangutans could be prey, but since they spend a minimal amount of time on the ground, tigers rarely catch one.

Genetics and evolution

Analysis of DNA is consistent with the hypothesis that the Sumatran Tigers have been isolated after a rise in sea level at the Pleistocene to Holocene border (about 12,000-6,000 years ago) from other tiger populations. In agreement with this evolutionary history, the Sumatran Tiger is genetically isolated from all living mainland tigers, which form a distinct group, closely related among each other.[2]

Habitat
The Sumatran tiger is only found naturally in Sumatra, a large island in western Indonesia. It lives anywhere from lowland forests to mountain forest and inhabits many unprotected areas. Only about 400 live in game reserves and national parks, The largest population of about 110 tigers lives in Gunung Leuser National Park. Another 100 live in unprotected areas that will soon be lost and the rest are spread out in areas that are quickly being lost to agriculture. The reserves are not safe because, despite conservation efforts, many tigers are killed by poachers each year. The Sumatran tiger is found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra in habitat that ranges from lowland forest to sub mountain and mountain forest including some peat moss forests. According the Tiger Information Centre and the World Wildlife Fund there are no more than 500 of these tigers left in the wild with some estimates considerably lower.

The continuing loss of habitat is intensifying the crises to save this tiger.

Conservation

In 2007, the Indonesian Forestry Ministry and Safari Park established cooperation with the Australia Zoo for the conservation of Sumatran Tigers and other endangered species. The cooperation agreement was marked by the signing of a Letter of Intent on ‘Sumatran Tiger and other Endangered Species Conservation Program and the Establishment of a Sister Zoo Relationship between Taman Safari and Australia Zoo’ at the Indonesian Forestry Ministry office on July 31, 2007. The program includes conserving Sumatran Tigers and other endangered species in the wild, efforts to reduce conflicts between tigers and humans and rehabilitating Sumatran Tigers and reintroducing them to their natural habitat.

The Biblical Zoo in Jerusalem, Israel is part of an international matchmaking program designed to mate Sumatran tigers and save them from extinction.

Felis-planiceps, Flat-headed Cat

Felis-planiceps

 Flat-headed Cat

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The FlaFelis-planiceps, Flat-headed Cat t-headed Cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is a small wild cat from forested areas, mainly near water, in Peninsular Thailand, Malaysia (both East and West), Brunei, and Indonesia (Kalimantan and Sumatra). It is considered endangered by IUCN due to habitat loss and pollution. It is very rare in captivity, with only two individuals – both in zoos in Malaysia – recorded by ISIS in early 2008.Like most other small cats, it has often been placed in the genus Felis.
It has a head-and-body length of 41-50 cm (16-20 in), and a short tail of 13-15 cm (5-6 in).It weighs 1.5-2.5 kg (3.5-5.5 lbs). The thick fur is generally dark reddish-brown tinged grey, with a more reddish head and whitish underparts. Except for the relatively faint facial streaks, it is rather unpatterned. The legs are fairly short, and the ears are short and round. The inter-digital webs on its paws help the cat gain better traction in muddy environments and water, and are even more pronounced on this cat than those on the paws of the Fishing Cat. The shape of the head is atypical for a cat; the skull is fairly long, while the skull roof, as suggested by both its common and scientific name, is rather flat.

Behavior and habitat

It occurs in both secondary and primary forest,and most records are from near water. It mostly hunts for frogs, fish and crustaceans, but will also catch rats and chickens.It has relatively long premolars, and is one of the few cats that is unable to retract its claws (the others being the cheetah, fishing cat, and the Iriomote cat). These adaptions combined with its behavior have resulted in comparisons with semi-aquatic mustelids, and it is known for readily entering water. Overall, however, little is known about its wild behavior,but a gestation period of about 56 days, and a litter size of 1-2 kittens have been reported in captivity. Captive individuals have lived for 14+ years.It is generally considered a nocturnal animal, but observations of captives suggests it is crepuscular.

Status

The Flat-headed Cat is considered endangered by IUCN and listed on appendix 1 by CITES. The total population is believed to be less than 10,000 adults, with no single sub-population containing more than 1000 adults. While habitat loss and water pollution are serious threats, sightings from oil palm plantations suggests it is less specialized than generally believed. The Flat-headed Cat is fully protected throughout its natural range, except in Brunei, where this species lacks legal protection. Sightings are generally very rare.