Calanthe zollingeri

Calanthe zollingeri Zollinger’s Calanthe

Zollinger's Calanthe, Calanthe zollingeri

Calanthe zollingeri Rchb. f. 1857 SECTION Calanthe Photo courtesy of Donald Tan and his Webpage

Part sun Hot To Warm Fall

Common Name or Meaning Zollinger’s Calanthe [Swiss Botanist and Orchid Collector mid 1800’s – SE Asia]

Flower Size .8″ [2 cm]

Found in Java, Sumatra and Borneo in moist humus alongside rivers at elevations of 100 to 1250 meters as a large sized, hot to warm growing terrestrial with close set pseudobulbs enveloped by 4 to 5 leaf bearing sheaths and carrying elliptic, acuminate, petiolate base leaves that blooms in the fall on a 2′ [60 cm] long, 20 to 30 flowered, racemose inflorescence with ovate acute floral bracts and has flowers that are white with a dot of yellow on the lip and turn orange with age

Synonyms Alismorchis zollingeri (Rchb.f.) Kuntze 1891; Calanthe mutabilis Ridl. 1903

Synonyms Calanthe mutabilis Ridl. 1903

Calanthe vestita

Calanthe vestita Calanthe that is Surrounded by Bracts

Calanthe vestita Lindl. 1833 SECTION Preptanthe Photo courtesy of Nik Fahmi and his Vortex Orchid Page.

Part sun Cool To Warm Winter

Common Name The Calanthe that is Surrounded by Bracts

Flower Size up to 2 1/2″to 3″ [6.25 to 7.5 cm]

A medium sized, hot to cool growing, terrestrial or occasional lithophytic orchid found in Myanamar, Vietnam, Lower Thailand, Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo and Sulawesi in forests on limestone in hill forests at elevations of 600 to 1000 meters with subconical bluntly angled, pale greenish grey pseudobulbs carring broadly lanceolate, acuminate, prominently ribbed underneath, deciduous leaves that narrow basally into a channeled and winged petiole and blooms in the winter on a basal, suberect and then nodding 3′ [90 cm] long, 6 to 15 flowered, racemose inflorescence with the peduncle pubescent and the bracts, ovate-lanceolate, and the fragile textured, long-lived flowers all arising before the leaves. This terrestrial species needs a dry winter rest as the leaves yellow and fall off and then, after the plant has bloomed, repot and wait for the new growth to appear to resume watering.

Synonyms Alismorchis vestita (Lindl.) Kuntze 1891; Amblyglottis pilosa de Vriese ex Lindl. 1854; Calanthe grandiflora Rolfe 1901; Calanthe melinosema Schltr. 1925; Calanthe padangensis Schltr. ex Mansf. 1934; Calanthe pilosa (de Vriese ex Lindl.) Miq. 1859; Calanthe regnieri Rchb.f 1883; Calanthe turneri Rchb.f. 1883; Calanthe vestita var. sumatrana Schltr. 1911; Calanthe vestita var. turneri Veitch in ?; Calanthe violacea Rolfe 1913; Cytheris griffithii Wight 1852; Phaius vestitus (Wall. ex Lindl.) Rchb.f. 1867; Preptanthe vestita Rchb.f 1852-3; Preptanthe villosa Rchb.f 1857

Calanthe triplicata

Calanthe triplicata Thrice Folded Calanthe

Thrice Folded Calanthe, Calanthe triplicata

Calanthe triplicata [Rumph.]Ames 1907 SECTION Calanthe Photo courtesy of Dale and Deni Borders.

Part shade Cool To Hot spring THROUGH Fall

Common Name The Thrice Folded Calanthe – The Christmas Orchid [Australia] – In China San Zhe Xia Ji Lan

Flower Size 1″ [2.5 cm]

Found from Mauritus, Madagascar, Seychelles, Assam, eastern Himalayas, lower India, Sri Lanka, Myanamar, Thailand, Malaysia Laos, Cambodia, south China, Vietnam, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Moluccas, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Bismark Islands, New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Norfolk Island, New South Wales, and Queensland Australia, Fiji, New Caledonia, Samoa, Vanuatu, Wallis & Futna, Marquesas, Santa Cruz Islands, Caroline Islands, the Marianas Islands, Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands as a medium to giant sized, warm growing terrestrial in braodleafed, humid, primary forests in crevasses in karst limestone with rich humus soil in humid, shady conditions at elevations of 500 to 1500 meters with ovoid psuedobulbs carrying 3 to 6, ovate-lanceolate, to elliptic-lanceolate, plicate, prominently ribbed, long petiolate leaves that are pubescent beneath and blooms from a mature pseudobulb as a new one arises in the spring through fall on a minutely pubescent, 7′ [210 cm] long, racemose inflorescence with successive opening flowers that are congested at the apex and much longer than the leaves.

Synonyms Alismorchis angraeciflora (Rchb.f.) Kuntze 1891; Alismorchis diploxiphion (Hook.f.) Kuntze 1891; Alismorchis furcata O.Ktze. 1891; Alismorchis gracillima (Lindl.) Kuntze 1891; Alismorchis veratrifolia [Willd.] Kuntze 1891; Amblyglottis veratrifolia Blume 1825; Bletia quadrifida Hook.f. 1890; Calanthe angraeciflora Rchb.f. 1876; Calanthe bracteosa Rchb.f. 1882; Calanthe brevicolumna Hayata 1911; Calanthe catilligera Rchb.f. 1857; Calanthe celebica Rolfe 1899; Calanthe comosa Rchb. f. 1847; Calanthe diploxiphion Hook.f. 1890; Calanthe furcata Bateman ex Lindley 1838; Calanthe furcata f. albolineata K.Nakaj. in ?.; Calanthe furcata f. albomarginata K.Nakaj. 1969; Calanthe furcata f. brevicolumna (Hayata) M.Hiroe 1971; Calanthe furcata f. textori (Miq.) M.Hiroe 1971; Calanthe gracillima Lindl. 1855; Calanthe matsamurana Schltr. 1906; Calanthe megalophora Franch. 1888; Calanthe nephroglossa Schltr. 1911; Calanthe orthocentron Schltr. 1912; Calanthe perrottetii A. Rich. 1841; Calanthe proboscidea Rchb.f. 1884; Calanthe pubescens Ridl. 1923; Calanthe rubicallosa Masam. 1975; Calanthe triplicata f. albomarginata (K.Nakaj.) K.Nakaj. 1973; Calanthe triplicata var. angraeciflora (Rchb.f.) N.Halle 1977; Calanthe triplicata var. gracillima (Lindl.) N.Hallé 1998; Calanthe triplicata [Willem.]Ames 1907 var minahassae Schltr. 1925; Calanthe veratrifolia [Willd.]R. Br. 1823; Calanthe veratrifolia var. australis Linden 1851; Calanthe veratrifolia var denisimma J.J.Sm. 1931; Calanthe veratrifolia [Willd.]R. Br. 1823 var dupliciloba J.J.Sm. 1922; Calanthe veratrifolia var incurvicalca J.J.Sm. 1931; Calanthe veratrifolia var. kennyi F.M.Bailey 1912; Calanthe veratrifolia [Willd.]R. Br. 1823 var lancipetala J.J.Sm. 1930; Calanthe veratrifolia var. stenochila Rchb.f. 1897; Calanthe veratrifolia var timorensis J.J.Sm. 1934; Flos triplicata Rumph 1750; Limodorum ventricosum Steud. 1821; Limodorum veratrifolium Willd. 1805; Orchis triplicata Willem. 1796; Paracalanthe megalophora (Franch.) Miyabe & Kudô 1932

Calanthe tricarinata

Calanthe tricarinata Three Keeled Calanthe


Calanthe tricarinata Lindl. 1833 SECTION CalanthePhoto courtesy of Natsui from Japan and his Japan Orchids Page

Part shade Cool To Cold Spring

Common Name or Meaning The Three Keeled Calanthe – In China San Leng Xia Ji Lan

Flower Size .8 to 1.4″ [2 to 3.5 cm]

Found in Pakistan, western Himalayas, eastern Himalayas, Nepal, Myanamar, Southern China, Taiwan, Korea, Ryukyu Islands and Japan on damp grassy banks in mixed forests, in clumps on downed, rotting tree trunks in open forests, on steep open grassy slopes and in bamboo scrub at elevations of 1500 to 3300 meters as a small to medium sized, cool to cold growing terrestrial orchid with short, ovoid pseudobulbs carrying [2 to 3] several, basally sheath clasping, plicate, elliptic to lanceolate-elliptic, acute, petiolate or sessile base leaves that blooms in the spring on an erect, 12 to 20″ [30 to 50 cm] long, densely several [8 to 12] flowered, shortly pubescent inflorescence arising on a newly developing pseudobulb with lanceolate bracts that cover half of the pubescent ovary

Synonyms Alismorchis tricarinata (Lindl.) Kuntze 1891; Calanthe lamellata Hayata 1914; Calanthe occidentalis Lindl. 1855; Calanthe pantlingii Schltr. 1919; Calanthe torifera Schltr. 1919; Calanthe undulata Schltr. 1912; Paracalanthe lamellata (Hayata) Kudô 1930; Paracalanthe torifera (Schltr.) Kudô 1930; Paracalanthe tricarinata (Lindl.) Kudô 1930

Calanthe transiens

Calanthe transiens Blooming Fleetingly Calanthe

Blooming Fleetingly Calanthe , Calanthe transiens

Calanthe transiens J.J.Sm. 1922 SECTION Calanthe

Part shade Cool

Common Name or Meaning The Blooming Fleetingly Calanthe

Flower Size .8″ [2 cm]

Found in Sumatra and Borneo in montane forests at elevations of 2100 to 2400 meteres as a medium szied, cool growing terrestrial with close set pseudobulbs carrying 3 to4, plicate, lanceolate, acute, acuminate, 7 to 9 nerved, gradually anrrowing below into the 4.8″ [12 cm] long, petiolate base leaves that blooms on an erect, finely pubescent, to 25.2″ [to 63 cm] long, many flowered inflorescence with narrowly ovate-lanceolate, shortly pubescent floral bracts.

Calanthe sylvatica

Calanthe sylvatica Forest-Dwelling Calanthe

Forest-Dwelling Calanthe , Calanthe sylvatica

Calanthe sylvatica (Thouars) Lindl. 1833 SECTION Calanthe Photo by © Dominique Karadioff

Part shade Cool TO Hot Spring and Summer

Common Name The Forest-Dwelling Calanthe – In China Chang Ju Xia Ji Lan

Flower Size 1 to 2″ [2.5 to 5 cm]

Found in Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Sao Tome e Principe, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Comoros Islands, Madagascar and the Mascarenes, India, Myanamar, Thailand, Vietnam, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Vietnam and southeastern China at elevations of 400 to 2700 meters in broadleafed, evergreen, humid primary forests in soils dampened by mists and splash along steep watercourses in humus and deep shade, as a medium sized, cool to hot growing terrestrial with small, 2 to 4 noded, ovoid pseudobulbs enveloped by basal leaf sheaths and carrying several, broad, elliptic-lanceolate, plicate, longitudinally ribbed, dark green, sulcate, softly pubescent, acuminate, gradually narrowing below into the petiolate base leaves that are narrowed below into a petiole that blooms in the spring and summer on an erect, successively opening, 20 to 28″ [50 to 70 cm] long, racemose, slightly pubescent, few to many flowered inflorescence.

Calanthe masuca is often cited as a synonym of this species and I have left its synonyms here as Calanthe sylvatica but you can refer to see Calanthe masuca and its cited synonyms. In the main index Calanthe masuca synonyms are shown as its synonyms but may actually be Calanthe sylvatica.

Synonyms Alismorchis centrosis (Thouars) Steud. 1840; Alismorchis emarginata [Bl] Kuntze 1891; Alismorchis masuca (D.Don) Kuntze 1891; Alismorkis natalensis (Rchb.f.) Kuntze 1891 ; Alismorkis plantaginea (Thouars) Kuntze 1891; Alismorkis purpurea (Lindl.) Kuntze 1891 -; Alismorkis textori (Miq.) Kuntze 1891; Amblyglottis emarginata Blume 1825; Bletia masuca D. Don 1825; Bletia sylvatica (Thouars) Bojer 1837; Calanthe albolongicalcarata S.S.Ying 1974; Calanthe candida Bosser 1989; Calanthe corymbosa Lindl. 1862; Calanthe curtisii Rchb.f. 1884; Calanthe delphinioides Kraenzl. 1893; Calanthe emarginata [Bl] Lindl. 1833; Calanthe furcata f. masuca (D.Don) M.Hiroe 1971; Calanthe furcata f. textori (Miq.) M.Hiroe 1971; Calanthe humbertii H.Perrier 1955; Calanthe longicalcarata Hayata ex Yamam. 1930; Calanthe masuca (D. Don) Lindl. 1833; Calanthe masuca Thwaites 1884; Calanthe masuca f. albiflora (Ida) K.Nakaj. 1971; Calanthe masuca var. purpurea (Lindl.) Rao & S.R.Rathore 1984; Calanthe natalensis (Rchb. f.) Rchb. f. 1856; Calanthe neglecta Schltr. 1915; Calanthe okinawensis f. albiflora Ida 1969; Calanthe purpurea Lindl. 1833; Calanthe sanderiana Rolfe 1892; Calanthe schliebenii Mansf. 1933; Calanthe seikooensis Yamam. 1931; Calanthe stolzii Schltr. 1915; Calanthe sylvatica var. geerinckiana Stévart 2000; Calanthe sylvatica var. natalensis Rchb.f. 1846 ; Calanthe textori Miq. 1866; Calanthe sylvatica var. pallidipetala Schltr 1924; Calanthe sylvestris Lindl. ex Steud. 1840; Calanthe textori f. albiflora (Ida) Hatus 1971; Calanthe textori var. longicalcarata (Hayata ex Yamam.) Garay & H.R.Sweet 1974; Calanthe versicolor Lindl. 1871; Calanthe violacea Rolfe 1913; Calanthe volkensii Rolfe 1897; Calanthe wightii Rchb.f. 1864; Centrosis corymbosa Thouars 1822; *Centrosis sylvatica Thouars 1852; Zoduba masuca (D.Don) Buch.-Ham. 1825

Calanthe speciosa

Calanthe speciosa Splendid Calanthe

Splendid Calanthe, Calanthe speciosa

Calanthe speciosa [Bl.] Lindl. 1833 SECTION Styloglossum Photo courtesy of Donald Tan and his Webpage

Common Name or Meaning The Splendid Calanthe – In China Er Lie Ye Xia Ji Lan

Flower Size 1.2″ [3 cm]

Found in Penninsular Malaysia, Java, Borneo and Sumatra at elevations around 100 to 1900 meters in primary montane forests as a large sized, hot to cool growing terrestrial with close set pseudobulbs almost completely envelopd by leaf bearing sheaths carrying 4 to 7, lanceolate, acute, petiolate base leaf that blooms in the fall on an erect, to 32″ [to 80 cm] long, densely many successively flowering, racemose inflorescence with 5 sheathing bracts spaced out along it and carrying up to 50 flowers.

Synonyms Alismorchis scortechinii (Hook.f.) Kuntze 1891; Alismorchis speciosa (Blume) Kuntze 1891; *Amblyglottis speciosa Bl. 1825; Calanthe formosana Rolfe 1895; Calanthe patsinensis S.Y.Hu 1972; Calanthe pulchra var. formosana (Rolfe) S.S.Ying 1977; Calanthe scortechinii Hook.f. 1890; Calanthe yushuni K.Mori & Yamam. 1932

Calanthe rubens

Calanthe rubens Reddish Calanthe

Reddish Calanthe , Calanthe rubens

Calanthe rubens Ridl. 1890 Photo courtesy of Kjell Nilsson

Common Name The Reddish Calanthe

Flower Size 1 1/4″ [3 cm]

Found in Thailand, penninsular Malaysia and the Philippines at elevations around 300 meters as a medium sized, hot to warm growing terresrtial with 4 angled pseudobulbs that are constricted towards the apex carrying deciduous plicate leaves and the orchid blooms in the fall on a erect, basal, 20″ [50 cm] long, pubescent, several [12] flowered inflorescence that legnthen with time on mature leafless pseudobulbs.

Synonyms Calanthe elmeri Ames 1908; Calanthe vestita var fournieri Rolfe; Coelogyne rubens Ridl. 1890; Preptanthe rubens Ridl. 1924

Calanthe rosea

Calanthe rosea  Pink Calanthe

 Pink Calanthe , Calanthe rosea

Calanthe rosea (Lindl.) Benth. 1880 Photo courtesy of Igor Zhuravlev

Part shade Hot To Warm Fall and Winter

Common Name The Pink Calanthe

Flower Size 2 1/2″ [6.25 cm]

Found in Myanamar and Thailand at eleations around 100 meters as a small sized, deciduous, hot to warm growing epiphyte or terrestrial orchid with elliptic to fusiform pseudobulbs carrying deciduous, oblong-lanceolate, plicate, glabrous, leaves that blooms in the fall and winter on a erect, 2 1/2′ [75 cm] long, erect then arching, pubescent inflorescence with 7 to 15 flowers in a loose raceme occuring after leaf fall and before the new leaves begin to appear.

Synonyms Alismorchis rosea (Benth.) Kuntze 1891; *Limatodis rosea Lindl. 1852-3

Calanthe lyroglossa

Calanthe lyroglossa Lute-Shaped Lip Calanthe

Lute-Shaped Lip Calanthe, Calanthe lyroglossa

Calanthe lyroglossa Rchb.f. 1878 SECTION Styloglossum Photos courtesy of Peter O’Byrne, André Schuiteman, Dr. E.F. de Vogel and Jaap Vermeulen and Their Netherlands National Herbarium Website. and Flora Malesiana Vol III

Fragrance Full Shade Hot Warm Summer Fall

Common Name or Meaning The Lute-Shaped Lip Calanthe – in Japan – Rengio-ebine – Riukiu-ebine – In China Nan Fang Xia Ji Lan

Flower Size .4″ [1 cm]

Found in China, Japan, Taiwan, India, Myanamar, Thailand, Vietnam, Borneo, Java, Malaysia and the Philippines in lower montane forests at elevations of 700 to 1300[1900] meters as a large sized, hot to warm growing epiphytic orchid with oblong-lanceolate, gradually narrwowing below intothe petiolate base leaves that blooms in the summer and fall on a stout, erect, 18″ [45 cm] long, many flowered inflorescence and has many lanceolate, acute bracts and deciduous floral bracts with all the small, fragrant flowers held in the apical third

Synonyms Alismorchis lyroglossa (Rchb.f.) Kuntze 1891; Calanthe nephroidea Gagnep. 1951