Capsicum pubescens

Capsicum pubescens, Manzano Peppers, Solanaceae

Capsicum pubescens 1 page

Scoville heat units


Pure capsaicin







C. pubescens    50,000 – 250,000    







Capsicum pubescens   Capsicum pubescens is a species of the genus Capsicum (pepper), which is found primarily in Central and South America. The name component pubescens means hairy, which refers to the hairy leaves of this pepper. The plants, but especially the fruits, are often referred to as rocoto (Quechua: ruqutu) and locoto (Aymara: luqutu). As they reach a relatively advanced age and the roots lignify quickly, sometimes the familiar name is tree chili. Of all the domesticated species of peppers, this is the least widespread and systematically furthest away from all others. A very notable feature of this species is its ability to withstand cooler temperatures than other pepper plants.Vegetative characteristics

Like all other species of the genus Capsicum, plants of the species Capsicum pubescens grow as a shrub, but sometimes as climbing plants. They grow into four-meter ....  read more

Capsicum frutescens

Capsicum frutescens, Chili peppers, Solanaceae

3 pages
Piri piri pepper Bird’s eye pepper,
 cabe rawit
Tabasco pepper  
Capsicum frutescens is a species of chili pepper that includes the following cultivar and varieties:

Piri piri, also called African Bird’s Eye or African devil
Kambuzi pepper, Malawian pepper
Malagueta pepper
Tabasco pepper, used to make Tabasco sauce
Thai pepper, also called Bird’s Eye chili, Chili Padi or Siling labuyo


The Capsicum frutescens species likely originated in South or Central America. It spread quickly throughout the tropical and subtropical regions in this area and still grows wild today. Capsicum frutescens is currently native to the majority of Central America as well as Northern and Western South America. It is believed that C. frutescens is the ancestor to the C. chinese species.

Pepper varieties in Capsicum frutescens can be annual or short-lived perennial plants. Flowers are white with a greenish white or greenish yellow corolla, and are either insect or self-fertilized. The plants’ berries typically grow erect; ellipsoid-conical to lanceoloid shaped. They are usually very small and pungent, growing 10-20mm long and 3-7mm in diameter. Fruit typically grows a pale yellow and matures to a bright red, but can also be other colors. C. frutescens has a smaller variety of subspecies, likely because of the lack of human breeding compared to other capsicum species. More recently, however, C. frutescens has been bred to produce ornamental strains, because of its large quantities of erect peppers growing in colorful ripening patterns.

According to Richard Pankhurst, C. frutescens (known as barbaré) was so important to the national cuisine of Ethiopia, at least as early as the 19th century, “that it was cultivated extensively in the warmer areas wherever the soil was suitable.” Although it was grown in every province, barbaré was especially extensive in Yejju, “which supplied much of Showa as well as other neighboring provinces.” He singles out the upper Golima river valley as being almost entirely devoted to the cultivation of this plant, where thousands of acres were devoted to the plant and it was harvested year round

Capsicum chinense

Capsicum chinense, Chili peppers, Solanaceae

7 pages
Ají dulce pepper   Datil pepper Fatalii pepper Madame Jeanette
Habanero pepper Bhut Jolokia pepper Scotch bonnet pepper  
Capsicum chinense (syn. Capsicum sinense), commonly known as “Yellow Lantern Chili”, is a species of Chilli Pepper native to The Americas. C. chinense chillies are well-known for their exceptional heat.


Despite it’s name, Capsicum chinense or “Chinese capsicum” is misleading. All capsica originate in the New World. Nikolaus Joseph von Jacquin (1727–1817), a Dutch botanist, erroneously named the species in 1776, because he believed that they originated in China.
Plant appearance

Within Capsicum chinense, the appearance and characteristics of the plants can vary greatly. Varieties such as the well-known habaneros grow to form a small, compact perennial bush approximately half a metre in height. The flowers, like with most Capsicums, are small and white with five petals. When it forms, the fruit varies greatly in colour and shape, with red, orange, and yellow being the most common final colours, but ones such as brown also being known. Some varieties such as C. chinense “Trinidad Scorpion” form far larger (up to two metre) high bushes, with very large fruit yields offset only by the very long 80-120 day ripening time for such fruits. Another similarity with other chilli species would be shallow roots, which are very common in chillies.

Capsicum chinense is native to Central America, The Yucatan region, and the Caribbean islands. In warm climates such as these it behaves as a perennial and can last for several years, but like others, cooler climates normally lead to C. chinense not surviving the winter. However, it will readily germinate from last year’s seed the next growing season, and the cycle continues.
Cultivation and agriculture

Chinense peppers have been cultivated for hundreds of years in their native regions and have only recently been introduced to areas of Asia where they are also farmed. They are popular with many gardeners for their bright colours (ornamental value) and for their fruit in vegetable gardens.
Culinary use

C. chinense and its varieties have been used for centuries in Yucatan and Caribbean-style cooking to add a significant amount of heat to their traditional food. The chillies are mainly used in stews and sauces, as well as marinade for joints of meat, usually chicken. The peppers for these dishes are almost always grown/sourced locally, as there are many people in the native regions that grow chillies.

Western food at times also calls for some of these chillies. For example, Habaneros (a group of C. chinense varieties) are commonly used in hot sauces and extra-spicy salsas, due to the popularity of Mexican food in Western culture. The peppers are also commonly used to add moderate heat to very large quantities of soup and stew in restaurants, in an effort to cut costs (1 hot chilli counts for serveral mild ones).

Capsicum baccatum

Capsicum baccatum , Chili peppers, Solanaceae

2 pages
  Aji amarillo pepper Peppadew pepper  
Capsicum baccatum is a species of chili pepper that includes the following cultivar and varieties:

Aji amarillo, or amarillo chili
Lemon drop
Bishop’s Crown
Brazilian Starfish
Wild Baccatum

Origins and distribution

The C. baccatum species, particularly the Ají amarillo chili (Aji is the caribean word for chili and/or peppers that the Spaniards colonizers extended to most of Central and South America), is typically associated with Peruvian cuisine, and is considered part of its condiment trinity together with red onion and garlic. Aji amarillo literally means yellow chili, however the yellow color appears when cooked, the mature pods are bright orange.

Today the Ají amarillo is mainly seen in South American markets and in Latin American food stores around the world where Peruvian and Bolivian expatriates are numerous. The wild baccatum species (C. baccatum var. baccatum) is most common in Bolivia with outlier populations in Peru (rare) and Paraguay, northern Argentina, and southern Brazil.
Ají amarillo

Pepper varieties in the C. baccatum species have white or cream colored flowers, and typically have a green or gold corolla. The flowers are either insect or self-fertilized. The fruit pods of the baccatum species have been cultivated into a wide variety of shapes and sizes, unlike other capsicum species which tend to have a characteristic shape. The pods typically hang down, unlike a Capsicum frutescens plant, and can have a citrus or fruity flavor.
Culinary usage

Aji amarillo is one of the main ingredients of the Peruvian and Bolivian cuisine condiment and is a main ingredient in many of their dishes and sauces. In Peru the chilis are mostly used fresh, in Bolivia dried and ground. Common dishes with aji amarillo are the Peruvian stew “Aji de Gallina” (“Chili with Hen”), the “Huancaina sauce”, and the Bolivian “Fricase Paceno” among others.
[edit] Use by Moche
Ají Amarillo Pepper. Moche Culture. Larco Museum Collection.

The Moche culture often represented fruits and vegetables in their art, including Ají amarillo peppers.