Taphozous melanopogon, Black-bearded Tomb Bat

Taphozous melanopogon, Black-bearded Tomb Bat 


The Black-bearded Tomb Bat (Taphozous melanopogon) is a species of sac-winged bat in the family Emballonuridae. It is found in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Vietnam, and possibly the Philippines.

Hipposideros larvatus, Intermediate Roundleaf Bat

Hipposideros larvatus, Intermediate Roundleaf Bat 


The Intermediate Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros larvatus) is a species of bat in the family Hipposideridae. It is found in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam.

Hipposideros cervinus, Fawn Roundleaf Bat

Hipposideros cervinus, Fawn Roundleaf Bat 

The Fawn Leaf-nosed Bat[1] or Fawn Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros cervinus) is a species of bat in the family Hipposideridae. It is found in Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Vanuatu.Hipposideros-cervinus

Pteropus melanotus, Black-eared Flying Fox

Pteropus melanotus, Black-eared Flying Fox 


The Black-eared Flying Fox (Pteropus melanotus) is a species of megabat in the Pteropodidae family. It is found on Christmas Island (Australia), Andaman Islands (India), Nicobar Islands (India); Sumatra (Indonesia).

Pteropus conspicillatus

Pteropus conspicillatus, spectacled flying fox 


The spectacled flying fox (Pteropus conspicillatus), also known as the spectacled fruit bat, is a megabat that lives in Australia’s north-eastern regions of Queensland. It is also found in New Guinea and on the offshore islands including Woodlark Island, Alcester Island, Kiriwina, and Halmahera.

The spectacled flying fox was listed as a threatened species under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act of 1999. They are considered vulnerable due to a significant decline in numbers as a result of loss of their prime feeding habitat and secluded camp sites.


The head and body length is 22–24 cm, forearm 157–181 mm, weight 400–1000 g. A large black flying fox has pale yellow or straw-colored fur around its eyes. The mantle is pale yellow and goes across the back, neck, and shoulders. Some have pale yellow fur on the face and top of the head.


Spectacled flying foxes are forest dwellers and rainforests are their preferred habitat. They prefer to roost in the middle and upper canopy strata in the full sun. Colonies of the Spectacled flying fox can be found in rain forests, mangroves, and paperbark and eucalypt forests. No colony is known to be located more than 7 km from a rainforest.


The spectacled flying fox’s natural diet is rainforest fruits, riparian zone flowers, and flowers from Myrtaceae (primarily Eucalyptus and Syzygium species) and fruits from the Moraceae (figs) and Myrtaceae (primarily Syzygium) (AMBS 2004a; Richards 1987).

Life cycle

Spectacled flying foxes have one pup annually. Females are capable of breeding at one year of age (Garnett et al. 1999). Males probably do not breed until three to four years of age. They are suspected to be polygamous (similar to the Grey-headed flying fox, Pteropus poliocephalus. Female to male ratio may be as high as 2:1 (C. Tidemann undated, pers. comm. cited in Garnett et al. 1999). Conception occurs April to May. Sexual activity is continuous from about January to June. Females give birth to one young per year – October to December period. Juveniles are nursed for over five months and, on weaning, congregate in nursery trees in the colony. The juveniles fly out for increasing distances with the colony at night and are ‘parked’ in nursery trees, often kilometres distant from the colony, and are brought back to the colony in the morning (Richards & Spencer 1998).

Life expectancy

The natural lifespan is not known although one captive individual reached 17 years of age (Hall 1995; Flannery 1995). It is assumed most wild flying foxes live much shorter lives (Garnett et al. 1999).

Pteropus chrysoproctus, Moluccan flying fox

Pteropus chrysoproctus, Moluccan flying fox


The Moluccan flying fox, (Pteropus chrysoproctus), also known as the Ambon flying fox, is a species of megabat in the genus Pteropus. It is found in the low-lying forests (less than 250 m above sea level) of Seram Island (including Manusela National Park ), Buru, Ambon and nearby Maluku Islands of eastern Indonesia. Another Pteropus species, P. argentatus, was until recently considered to be the same species as P. chrysoproctus. The habitat has an area of less than 20,000 km² and is decreasing due to logging. For this reason, and because of hunting by the local population, these species are listed as near threatened by the IUCN since 1996

Pteropus alecto, black flying fox

Pteropus alecto, black flying fox


The black flying fox, Pteropus alecto, is a megabat in the family Pteropodidae. Members of the genus Pteropus include the largest bats in the world. The Pteropus genus has currently about 57 recognised species. The genus is primarily an island taxon, with 55 species having some or all of their distribution on islands.


Juvenile specimens of this species from Moa Island in Torres Strait have been described as a separate species, Pteropus banakrisi.[2] This supposed species was known as the “Torresian flying fox” or “Moa Island fruit bat”.

Physical characteristics

The black flying fox has short black hair with a contrasting reddish-brown mantle with a mean forearm length of 164 mm (6.46 in) and a mean weight of 710 grams (1.57 lb). It is one of the largest bat species in the world, and has a wing-span of more than one metre.


Black flying foxes are native to Australia (NSW, Qld, NT and WA), Papua New Guinea (Western Province) and Indonesia (West Papua, Sulawesi, Sumba, and Savu).

Roosting habits

During the day individuals reside in large roosts (colonies or ‘camps’) consisting of hundreds to tens of thousands of individuals. They sometimes share their roosts with the grey-headed flying fox (Pteropus poliocephalus), the spectacled flying fox (Pteropus conspicillatus), and/or the little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus). They roost in mangroves, paperbark swamps, patches of rainforest and bamboo forests, and very rarely in caves or underneath overhangs.


Black flying foxes breed once a year. A single young is born and carried by its mother for the first month of life, after which it is left behind in the roost when the mother is out foraging at night.


Black flying foxes eat pollen and nectar from native eucalyptus, Lilypillies, paperbark and turpentine trees. When native foods are scarce, particularly during drought, the bats may take introduced or commercial fruits such as mangos and apples. This species had been known to travel up to 50 km a night in search of food.


The black flying fox is not listed as threatened on the IUCN Red List; nevertheless, the species is exposed to several threatening processes, including loss of foraging and roosting habitat, and mass die-offs caused by extreme temperature events.[citation needed] When present in urban environments black flying foxes are sometimes perceived as a nuisance. Because the roosting and foraging habits of the black flying fox bring the species into conflict with humans, it suffers from direct killing of animals in orchards and harassment and destruction of roosts.

As a disease vector

Negative public perception of the species has intensified with the discovery of three recently emerged zoonotic viruses that are potentially fatal to humans: Australian bat lyssavirus,[3] Hendra virus, and Menangle virus. However, only Australian bat lyssavirus is known from two isolated cases to be directly transmissible from bats to humans.

Wildlife rescue

Flying foxes often come to the attention of Australian wildlife care and rescue organisations such as Wildcare Australia, ONARR, Wildlife Carers Darling Downs, Bat Care, Bat Rescue, Tweed Valley Wildlife Carers, and WIRES when reported as injured, sick, orphaned or abandoned. A very high proportion of adult flying fox injuries are caused by entanglement in barbed wire fences or loose, improperly erected fruit tree netting, both of which can result in very serious injuries and a slow, agonizing death for the animal if not rescued quickly.

Macroglossus sobrinus, Long-tongued Fruit Bat

Macroglossus sobrinus, Long-tongued Fruit Bat 


The Long-tongued Fruit Bat (Macroglossus sobrinus) is a species of megabat.


M. sobrinus were mist-netted from Doi Suthep, Sungai Enam, Kuala Gandah, Wang Pinang Malaysia to Taleban[disambiguation needed] on the Asia Mainland. This species is distributed in Burma, Thailand, Vietnam and Peninsular, Sumatra, Java and Bali (Lekagul and McNeely 1977, Medway 1978). This species is commonly found in hilly areas in Malaysia (Lim 1966).

Biology and ecology

Five adult males and five adult females were recorded. On 25 March 1997, a full term foetus was aborted by a full term pregnant female (MTA97347) taken from Wang Pinang. Males with enlarged testes suggested that they were of sexually active state at Taleban in March 1997, Kuala Gandah in July 1997 and Doi Suthep in May 1997. M. sobrinus that were netted were all associated with banana plants in most sites and with flowering trees in Doi Suthep.

External measurements

  • FA = 46.12±1.25, TL = 3.81±1.07 (6), EL = 15.38±1.00, HD = 30.22±1.39, TB = 18.29±0.61, WT = 20.22±3.23, HB = 73.92±4.45, HF = 9.29±0.89, D5 = 58.50±1.73.

M. sobrinus can be isolated from M. minimus by using external morphological measurements. Comparatively, M. sobranus is than M. minimus in the forearm length (43.35 to 46.95 mm vs 40 to 43 mm) and head length (30.05 to 30.54 mm vs 26 to 28 mm) and heavier body weight (17 to 23 g vs 13 to19 g) (Medway 1978). However, the tail length (0-2 mm versus 0-5 mm) and hind foot (8 – 9 mm versus 15-18 mm) disagreed to that of Lekagul and McNeely (1977).

Cynopterus titthaecheilus, Indonesian short-nosed fruit bat

Cynopterus titthaecheilus, Indonesian short-nosed fruit bat 


The Indonesian short-nosed fruit bat (Cynopterus titthaecheilus) is a species of megabat in the Pteropodidae family. It is endemic to Indonesia, and has 3 subspecies:

  • Cynopterus titthaecheilus titthaecheilus
  • Cynopterus titthaecheilus major
  • Cynopterus titthaecheilus terminus