Ilex paraguariensis

Ilex paraguariensis Yerba maté Aquifoliaceae

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Ilex-paraguariensis-01-800

Yerba mate is a widely-cultivated, medium-sized evergreen tree that can grow to 20 m high in the wild. Commonly, when cultivated, it is pruned into a shrubby, 4-8 m tall tree to make harvesting easier. Yerba mate is in the holly family, and bears holly-like leaves that are quite stiff and leathery. In the wild it grows near streams, and thrives at 1,500-2,000 feet above sea level. It has graceful, full-leafed branches, and white flowers that produce small red, black, or yellow berries. It is yerba mate’s tough, leathery leaves that are used medicinally and as a natural, refreshing tea beverage throughout South America. Yerba mate is indigenous to Paraguay, Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay; however, it is now cultivated in many tropical countries to supply a world demand for its leaves. Ilex-paraguariensis
Latin Name: Ilex paraguayensis Country of Origin: Paraguay Method of extraction: extracted with alcohol Parts Used: The dry leaves

Known to the natives for hundreds,  ....  read more

Vetiveria zizanoides

Vetiveria zizanoides Vetivert Gramineae
Vetiver is a tall, tufted, perennial, scented grass with long narrow leaves and an abundant complex lacework of underground white roots.
It is mainly cultivated in the tropics such as India, Tahiti, Java and Haiti.
Vetiver is also known as the ‘oil of tranquility’ because of its calming properties.
Vetiver grass was used in Calcutta for awnings, blinds and sunshades, in Java the roots were used for weaving mats and thatching huts and in Haiti the grassy parts were also used for thatching. It gave rooms an exquisite fragrance and deterred insects.
It is a popular ingredient for soaps, toiletries and perfumes and growing Vetiver grass protects against soil erosion.
Vetiver oil is extracted from the washed, chopped, dried and soaked roots and rootlets by steam distillation. The yield is 0.5%.
The main chemical components are: Benzoic, Vetiverol, Vetivone, Vetivene and Furfurol.
The therapeutic properties of Vetiver oil are: antiseptic, antispasmodic, stimulant and nervine.
Vetiver oil has a calming and soothing effect on the nervous system and could be helpful for muscular aches and pains.

Botanical Name: Vetiveria zizanoides Country of Origin: India – Wild Crafted Extraction Method: Steam Distillation Parts Used: Cleaned and Washed rootlets

The  ....  read more

Curcuma longa

Curcuma longa Turmeric Zingiberaceae
Curcuma-longa
Believed to have originated in India, turmeric is grown throughout tropical Asia for its bright orange rhizomes, which apart from their mildly spicy flavor are valued as a food coloring, providing a substitute for the very expensive saffron.
It is also used for dyeing cloth.
The broadly lance-shaped, bright green leaves can form large clumps up to about 3 ft (1 m) tall in hot areas.
Short, dense spikes of pale yellow flowers are produced in summer.
The fresh or dried roots provide color and pungent fragrance to chutneys, pickles and curries; it is harvested when the foliage begins to dry off .
Cultivation: In the tropics grow in a well-tilled garden bed in moderately fertile soil.
Plant rhizomes or tubers late in the dry season and water frequently when new leaves appear.
Harvest turmeric rhizomes when leaves show signs of dying back.
Country of Origin: South East Asia Extraction Method: Steam distilled

The rhizome contains up to 7% of an orange-yellow, volatile oil. Tumerone and artumerone together  ....  read more

Pogostemon patchouli

Pogostemon patchouli Patchouli  Labiatae

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Patchouli is an erect, branched, pubescent aromatic herb.
Varieties:  Improved varieties commonly cultivated are ‘Johore’, ‘Singapore’ and ‘Indonesia’
A well drained deep loamy soil rich in humus and nutrients, with a loose friable structure and with no impervious hard layer at the bottom is ideal.  A pH range of 5.5‑6.2 is suitable. Patchouli prefers warm humid climate with a fairly heavy and evenly distributed rainfall of 2500‑3000 mm per annum, a temperature of 24‑280C and an average atmospheric humidity of 75%. It grows successfully up to an altitude of 1000 m above  MSL. The crop grows  well under irrigation in less rainfall areas. Patchouli is  a shade  loving plant and can be grown as an intercrop in orchards, coconut or areca nut plantations.
Seeds and sowing: The plant is propagated vegetatively by stem cuttings having 4‑5 nodes and 15‑20 cm length.. Cuttings are prepared from the apical region of healthy stocks. The basal 2‑3 pairs of leaves are carefully removed and the cut ends are treated with IBA, IAA or NAA at 500, 1000 or 1500 ppm respectively for better rooting. Cuttings are planted  3-5 cm apart in nursery beds, seed pans or polythene bags. It is important to provide aeration,  partial shade and regular watering in order to get early and good rooting. Rooting occurs in 4‑5 weeks and they are ready for transplanting in 8‑10 weeks. Before transplanting, the field is prepared well and laid into beds of convenient size. Rooted cuttings are transplanted at 40‑60 cm spacing and irrigated if there is no rain.

Country of Origin: Malaysia Extraction Method: Steam distilled

Harvesting and processing The crop is harvested when the foliage becomes pale green to light brown and  ....  read more

Cryptocarya massoia

Cryptocarya massoia Massoia Lauraceae
The massoia tree is a medium-sized tree of the Lauracean family from New Guinea. It has optimal growth in rainforests between 400 m and 1000 m altitude. The aromatic bark from the tree has been an article of commerce for centuries. For example, it has been used by Javanese and Balinese women to prepare a warming ointment, called bobory, with a pleasant smell. It is said that white people get a scarlet blushing of the skin from this remedy, and today the concentrated oil from massoia bark is considered a skin irritant.
Massoia bark has a sweet, coconut-like aroma and is steam distilled to yield massoia bark oil. The bark is obtained by cutting the tree at the base, making circular incisions at one meter intervals, lifting the bark off and allowing it to dry. Each tree yields on average 65 kg of air dried bark. Current global supply of massoia bark oil comes from Indonesia, primarily from Irian jaya which is the western half of New Guinea. Its main use is in the flavour industry, where the major constituent, 6-n-pentyl-5,6-dihydro-2-pyrone or massoia lactone (70 %, sometimes more) is used as an additive in butter and milk flavors (international FEMA code 3744) under kosher guidelines . This lactone has also been identified in some flowers, e.g. tuberose.

Botanical Name: Cryptocaria massoia Country of Origin: Indonesia Method of Extraction: Steam Distilled Plant material: Bark of the tree Flash Point: >100 deg C.

 ....  read more

Bursera delpechiana

Bursera delpechiana Linaloe Burseraceae
Bursera-delpechiana
Linaloe is a large dioeciously tree whose wood as well as the berries and leaves yield essential oils which are used as the raw material for the extraction of linalool. Linaloe tree is a native of Mexico.
Linaloe plant requires a dry tropical climate with an annual rainfall of 500‑1000 mm.  It grows upto an altitude of 760 m. The tree is very hardy and it flourishes even on rocky soils.  In deep sandy loam it attains good height with spreading branches. Well drained medium or light loamy soil with neutral pH is ideal for growing the crop. Water logging causes cracking of stems and finally wilting away to death.
Seeds and sowing:  The plant is propagated by stem cuttings and seeds. Stem cuttings are usually used as seeds do not germinate easily and germination is very poor. Cuttings of about 1 m length and 1‑3 cm diameter are first planted in nursery or poly bags. About 90% recovery is obtained. The rooted cuttings are transplanted to the  main field after 4‑6 months  in pits of 80 cm cube at a spacing of 6‑7 m. The plants establish in the field very quickly. They start shedding leaves during November and are completely bare of foliage till late March when new flushes appear.
After cultivation: They are very hardy and once established do not need much care. No serious pests and diseases are noticed.

Country of Origin: Mexico Extraction Method: Steam distilled

Harvesting and processing: Linaloe plant raised from cuttings set fruits the first year itself  ....  read more

Cinnamomum Culilawan

Cinnamomum Culilawan Lawang Lauraceae
No information found for this tree..
Country of Origin: Indonesia Extraction Method: Steam distilled

Over 400 years ago a villager discovered that by rubbing a leaf from the Lawang tree on his swollen  ....  read more

Artemisia pallens

Artemisia pallens Davana Asteraceae
Artemisia-pallens
Davana is a delicate, erect, branched annual herb, the flowering top of which yields an essential oil which is extensively used in high grade fine perfumes. Davana is probably a native of South India. It is an erect branched annual herb 45 60 cm tall and covered with greyish white tomentum.
Davana is a delicate plant and hence cannot withstand heavy rains.  It prefers light drizzles, bright sunshine, and a mild winter with no frost and heavy morning dew during the growing season. Cloudy weather and rains during flowering and seed ripening stages adversely affects the yield.  The crop grown during November gives the maximum herb and oil yield. However, the crop can be grown round the year for use in garlands and bouquets.  The plant grows on various types of soils ranging from sandy loam to medium black soils, but humus rich red loam soils are ideal.
Seeds and sowing:  The plant is propagated by seeds. Seeds are short‑viable and hence cannot be stored for long. Transplanting is generally practised in the crop. A nursery area of 500 m2  sown with about 1.5 kg seeds is sufficient for planting one hectare.  The seeds are mixed with fine sand, broadcast over the nursery bed, covered with a thin layer of sand and watered regularly. Seeds germinate in about 3‑4 days. When the seedlings are 10‑12 cm tall they are transplanted to the main field at 15 x 7.5 cm spacing. 

Country of Origin: India Extraction Method: Steam distilled

Harvesting and processing: The crop is harvested during February March when a large number of flower buds  ....  read more

Piper cubeba

Piper cubeba Cubeb pepper Piperaceae
Cubeba pepper (Javanese pepper, Piper cubeba)
Plant family: Piperaceae (pepper family).
Origin: Indonesia. Most cubeb pepper is today harvested in Java and other Indonesian islands, but also from some African countries (Sierra Leone, Congo), cubeb pepper is exported.
Used plant part: Fruit. The stalked berries are a little bit larger than pepper corns, having a furrowed surface. Most berries are hollow. They are sold whole and should be crushed or ground before usage.
Sensoric quality
Pungent and bitter with a strong terpene aroma. The aroma is variously described dry-woody, warm-camphoraceous and spicey-peppery.
Cubeb peppercorns Use:
In Europe, the bitter and hot cubebs have been a popular substitute for black pepper in the 16th and 17th century, but have fallen much in disfavour since then. Their fate resembles negro pepper, which is a spice of similar flavour and today largely unavailable on the European market. The main reason for both spices’ sudden disappearance is probably their pronounced bitterness, which made them inferior to black pepper as soon as the latter got imported at reasonable price. Today, cubebs are mostly used in some North African states, most notably in Tunisia and Morocco.

Country of Origin: Indonesia Extraction Method: Steam distilled Characteristics and Constituents of Piper Longum :

The fruits contain 1% volatile oil, resin, alkaloids  ....  read more

Cinnamon zeylanicum

Cinnamon zeylanicum Cinnamon Lauraceae
Cinnamon-zeylanicum
Wild cinnamon trees are confined to tropical evergreen rain forests up to 1800 m from MSL. The best cultivated cinnamon is grown at low altitudes in Sri Lanka with an average temperature of 300C and 2000 2500 mm rainfall per annum. Sandy loam soils with admixture of humus or vegetative mould is the best for sweet and fragrant bark. Proximity to sea, humid conditions and saltish water are good for the crop.
Seeds and sowing: It is propagated mainly by seed and rarely by cuttings of young 3 leaved shoots, layering of shoots and by the division of old rootstocks. Seeds soon lose their viability and should be sown fresh after the removal of the pulp. Germination takes 2 3 weeks time. Seeds are sown thickly in nurseries in May June. When 4 months old, seedlings are transplanted into poly bags or baskets. After a further 10 12 months they are planted in the main field at 2 3 m spacing.

Country of origin: Sri Lanka Extraction Method: Steam Distillation Parts Used: The chips, featherings or trimmings of bark

The cinnamon bark oil is light yellow  ....  read more