Tropidolaemus wagleri

Tropidolaemus wagleri, Wagler’s Pit-Viper

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Tropidolaemus wagleri is a venomous pitviper species native to southeast Asia. The epithet, wagleri, is in honor of German herpetologist Johann Georg Wagler. No subspecies are currently recognized.[3] It is sometimes referred to as the temple viper because of its abundance around the Temple of the Azure Cloud in Malaysia.

Their venom is a strong hemotoxin, and is potentially fatal to humans.


Bubalus depressicornis

Bubalus depressicornis, Anoa, Anoa besar

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Anoa Bubalus-depressicornis, Anoa, Anoa besarare a subgenus of buffalo comprising two species native to Indonesia: the Mountain Anoa (Bubalus quarlesi) and the Lowland Anoa (Bubalus depressicornis). Both live in undisturbed forest, and are essentially miniature water buffalo, are similar in appearance to a deer, weighing 150–300 kg (330–660 lb). They live in deep rainforests.

Both are found on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia; the Mountain Anoa is also found on the nearby island of Buton. They apparently live singly or in pairs, rather than herds, except when the cows are about to give birth. One young is born per year.
A Lowland Anoa

Both species of anoa have been classified as endangered since the 1960s and the population continues to decrease. It is believed unlikely that there are more than 5000 animals of each species remaining. Reasons for the decline of the anoa include hunting for hide, horns and meat by the local peoples (though they were rarely hunted in their native range before the introduction of modern firearms); and loss of habitat due to the advancement of settlement. Currently, hunting is the more serious factor in most areas.

Mountain Anoa are also known as Anoa de Montana, Anoa de Quarle, Anoa des Montagnes, Anoa Pegunungan, and Quarle’s Anoa. Lowland Anoa are also known as Anoa de Ilanura or Anoa des Plaines. They are also called sapiutan (or sapi utan).

Lowland Anoa stand barely over 90 cm at the shoulder, and is the most diminutive of all wild cattle. It is most closely allied to the larger Asiatic buffaloes, showing the same reversal of the direction of the hair on the back. The horns are peculiar for their upright direction and comparative straightness, although they have the same triangular section as in other buffaloes. White spots are sometimes present below the eyes, and there may be white markings on the legs and back; and the absence or presence of these white markings may be indicative of distinct races. The horns of the cows are very small. The nearest allies of the anoa appear to be certain extinct buffaloes, of which the remains are found in the Siwalik Hills of northern India. In habits the animal appears to resemble the Indian buffalo.

Babyrousa babyrussa

Babyrousa babyrussa, Babirusa, pig-deer

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Babyrousa is a genus in the pig family (Suidae) found in Wallacea in Indonesia.The genus is monotypic within the subfamily Babyrousinae, or alternatively considered to form a tribe, Babyrousini, of the subfamily Suinae. All members of this genus were considered part of a single species until recently, the Babirusa or Pig-deer, B. babyrussa, but following the split into several species, this scientific name is restricted to the Buru Babirusa from Buru and the Sula Islands, whereas the best-known species, the North Sulawesi Babirusa, is named B. celebensis.The split, which uses the phylogenetic species concept, is based on differences in size, amount of hair on body and tail-tuft, and measurements of the skull and teeth.[2] Adult males of all babirusas have conspicuous tusks formed by their greatly elongated canine teeth. They are found in forested areas and are considered to be omnivorous. All extant species of babirusas are threatened by hunting and habitat destruction.

Macrogalidia musschenbroekii

Macrogalidia musschenbroekii, Sulawesi Palm Civet

The Macrogalidia-musschenbroekii, Sulawesi Palm CivetSulawesi Palm Civet (Macrogalidia musschenbroekii), also known as the Sulawesi Giant Civet, the Giant Civet and the Celebes Palm Civet, is a mammal that lives solely on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, particularly the North and Central regions.

The Sulawesi Palm Civet is a fairly large palm civet at 5 kg (11 lb) and 69 cm (27 in), plus a tail of 49 cm (19 in). It looks like a mongoose but with a smaller body. It is tan or tawny with lighter underside and some light spots. Its palm feet are very large and can be used to grasp which is helpful in climbing as the animal often climbs trees to prey upon the Sulawesi Hornbill and other smaller animals.

This animal, and all civets and palm civets, are sometimes called civet cats or genet cats, but, although they are in the same half of the Carnivora order as cats, they are not members of the cat family Felidae. It is the only member of the genus Macrogalidia.

Macaca tonkeana

Macaca tonkeana, Tonkean Black Macaque

 

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The TMacaca-tonkeana, Tonkean Black Macaqueonkean Black Macaque or Tonkean Macaque (Macaca tonkeana) is a species of primate in the Cercopithecidae family. It is endemic to central Sulawesi and the nearby Togian Islands in Indonesia. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Macaca pagensis

Macaca pagensis, Pagai Island Macaque

TheMacaca-pagensis, Pagai Island Macaque Pagai Island Macaque (Macaca pagensis), also known as the Pagai Macaque or Bokkoi, is an Old World monkey that is endemic to the Mentawai Islands off the west coast of Sumatra. It is listed as critically endangered on the IUCN Red List due to its ever-shrinking habitat. It formerly included the overall darker M. siberu as a subspecies, but this arrangement is polyphyletic,[3] leading to the two being classified as separate species. Both were formerly considered subspecies of M. nemestrina.[1]

Pagai Island Macaque males are generally larger than females. The males’ body length ranges from 45-55 cm and females’ body length is around 40–45 cm. Tail length is 13-16 cm for males and 10–13 cm for females. Males are also heavier, weighing around 6–9 kg while females weigh 4.5-6 kg. Their backs have a dark brown coloration, and chestnut to pale ochre on the sides of the neck, the front of the shoulders and the underside of this species. Legs are brown and their arms, reddish brown. The face of a Mentawai Macaques is furless and black-skinned with brown eyes. They have cheek pouches to carry food while foraging.

Habitat and ecology

The macaques’ natural habitat is rainforest, but can also be found in riverine and coastal swamp-forests. It lives high above the forest floor in the canopy, forages between 24 and 36 meters and may sleep as high as 45 meters. The primary diet of the species is figs. They may split up into splinter groups to forage for food and to sleep. They will eat alongside groups of Mentawai Langurs. Macaca pagensis groups consist of around 5-25 indiviuals. There is typically a single male per group, along with adult females and their offspring. The male decides where to go and communicates this to the rest of the group with high-pitched cries. Roaming, solitary Pagai Island Macaques may challenge the dominant male for his position leading to aggressive fights. The natural predators of the species are the Crested Serpent Eagle and the Reticulated Python. When spotted the macaques will alarm the rest of the group with a short, gruff bark.

Reproduction

Females show fertility and willingness to mate by displaying their swollen and reddened genitals. Females crouch to initiate mating. The gestation period is between 5 to 6 months. A single offspring is born during the nighttime hours. The mother eats the placenta and licks the infant clean before morning. The mother and young share a close bond into adulthood.

Population and threats

The species’ primary habitat is on the Mentawai Islands 150 km off the west coast of Sumatra. They populate three of the four major islands in the chain (North Pagai, South Pagai and Sipora). Due to deforestation by immigrants from the Indonesian mainland the species is now listed as critically endangered on the IUCN red list. The primary reasons behind deforestation on the island are the clearing of large areas of land for cash crop and oil palm plantations, as well as commercial logging. As a result, the water levels in the forest rivers fluctuate to a much greater degree than before. The alternating flooding and low water levels has also caused an increase in the population of malarial mosquitoes

Macaca nigra nigra

Macaca nigra nigra, Celebes Crested Macaque

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TheMacaca-nigra-nigra, Celebes Crested MacaqueCelebes Crested Macaque (Macaca nigra), also known as the Crested Black Macaque, Sulawesi Crested Macaque, or the Black “Ape”, is an Old World monkey that lives in the northeast of the Indonesian island of Sulawesi (Celebes) as well as on smaller neighboring islands.

Its skin and hairless face is, with the exception of some white hair in the shoulder range, entirely jet black. The long muzzle with high cheeks and the long hair tuft, or crest, at the top side of the head are remarkable. The tail is only approximately 2 cm (1 in) of stub. With a total body length of 45 cm (18 in) to 60 cm (24 in) and a weight of 7 to 10 kg, it is one of the smaller macaque species.
Illustration

The Celebes Crested Macaque is a diurnal rain forest dweller. This macaque is primarily terrestrial, spending more than 60% of its day on the ground foraging for food and socializing, while sleeping and searching for food in the trees.

It lives in groups of 5 to 25 animals. Smaller groups have only a single male, while larger groups have up to four males. The females, however, always outnumber the males by about 4:1. Since young males must leave their birth group upon maturity, they sometimes form bachelor groups before they look for a connection to an existing mixed group. Communication consists of various sounds and gestures; such as the presentation of the long eyeteeth while grimacing a clear threatening gesture.

The Celebes Crested Macaque is frugivorous, with 70% of its diet consisting of fruits. It also consumes leaves, buds, seeds, fungus, birds and bird eggs, insects (such as caterpillars), and the occasional small lizard or frog.

The Celebes Crested Macaque is promiscuous, with both males and females mating multiple times with multiple partners. The receptivity of the females is clearly indicated by a tumescence (swelling) and redness which, in contrast to the black skin color, is particularly remarkable. The gestation time is 174 days, and the birth of the usually single offspring happens in the spring when food is more plentiful. Young animals are nursed approximately one year and become fully mature in 3 to 4 years, females somewhat sooner than males. Its life expectancy is estimated at approximately 20 years.

Because it devastates crops and fields, the Celebes Crested Macaque is hunted as a pest. It is also hunted to provide bushmeat. Clearing the rain forests further threatens its survival. Its situation on the small neighbouring islands of Sulawesi (such as Bacan) is somewhat better, since these have a low human population. The total population of the macaque on Sulawesi is estimated at 4,000-6,000, while a booming population of up to 100,000 monkeys is found on Bacan Moluccas.

A captive Crested Macaque named Natasha began walking on her hind legs after a stroke.

Macaca nemestrina

Macaca nemestrina, Pig-tailed Macaque, Beruk

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The South Macaca-nemestrina, Pig-tailed Macaque, Berutern Pig-tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) is a medium-sized Old World monkey found in the southern half of the Thai-Malay Peninsula (only just extending into southernmost Thailand), Borneo, Sumatra and Bangka Island.This omnivorous macaque is mostly found in forest, but will also enter plantations and gardens. It formerly included the Northern Pig-tailed, Pagai Island, and Siberut Macaques as subspecies.