Dutch former Colonies, Africa, Cape colony, Colonial Buildings

Dutch former Colonies, Africa, Cape colony, Colonial Buildings

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Groot-Constantia-800

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Groot-Constantia-01_to-800

(built: 1685)

Cape Colony/South-Africa

Groot Constantia was established in 1685 by the VOC Governor of the Cape of Good Hope Simon van der Stel, and was used to produce wine as well as other fruit and vegetables and cattle farming. Following Van der Stel’s death in 1712 the estate was broken up and sold in three parts: Groot Constantia; Klein Constantia; and Bergvliet). In 1778 the portion of the estate surrounding Van der Stel’s Cape Dutch-style manor house was sold to the Cloete family, who planted extensive vineyards and extended and improved the mansion by commissioning the architect Louis Michel Thibault. The house remained in the possession of the Cloete family until 1885, during which period the estate became famous for its production of Constantia dessert wine.

In 1885 Groot Constantia was purchased by the government of the Cape of Good Hope and was used as an experimental wine and agricultural estate. Following a disastrous fire in 1925 the house was extensively restored.In 1969 the manor house became part of the South African Cultural History Museum, and in 1993 the estate passed into the ownership of the Groot Constantia Trust. The exhibition in the house is managed by Iziko Museums of Cape Town, and is particularly focused on rural slavery and the life of slaves during the early Cape colonial period.

Groot Constantia is noted particularly for its production of high-quality red wines, including Shiraz, Merlot and blended red Gouverneurs Reserve. In 2003 the estate began production of a Constantia dessert wine, called Grand Constance, for the first time since the 1880s.

Anton Anreith (June 11, 1754 – March 4, 1822) was a sculptor and woodcarver from Riegel near Freiburg in Breisgau, Baden, Germany, who arrived at the Cape of Good Hope as a soldier in the service of the Dutch East-India Company in 1777. Although he was a trained sculptor, his was initially employed as a carpenter but in 1780, the Lutheran community commissioned him to carve a pulpit for their new church in Strand Street, Cape Town. He also carved the door of the neighbouring parsonage. In 1786, he was appointed master-sculptor to the Dutch East India Company.

From 1781, he worked closely with the architect Louis Michel Thibault. His first project with this architect was the Cloete wine-cellar at Groot Constantia for which he designed an elaborate baroque pediment, The Rape of Ganymede, a depiction of the myth of the youth, abducted by Zeus in the form of an eagle, who became cup-bearer to the Greek Gods. In 1789 they were joined by Hermann Schutte, an architect and builder from Bremen and the three of them had a profound influence on the development of Cape Town architecture in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. His works include the De Kat Balcony at the Castle of Good Hope, the Koopmans-De Wet House, and the Huguenot Memorial Museum in Franschhoek. In addition to his sculpture and plaster-work, Anreith made a living teaching life drawing and geometry. He was also head of the first art school in South Africa which was founded by the Freemasons. He became a Freemason in 1797 as a member of the Loge de Goede Hoop. He died in Bloem Street, Cape Town, unmarried and in poverty.

Dutch former Colonies, Africa, Cape colony

Dutch former Colonies, Africa, Cape colony

(Cape colony), (Kaapstad/Capetown) (1652 – 1806) finally British

South Africa

Arrival of the Dutch Painting of an account of the arrival of Jan van Riebeeck, by Charles Bell.

Shortly thereafter, the Dutch East India Company (in the Dutch of the day: Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC) decided to establish a permanent settlement. The VOC, one of the major European trading houses sailing the spice route to the East, had no intention of colonising the area, instead wanting only to establish a secure base camp where passing ships could shelter, and where hungry sailors could stock up on fresh supplies of meat, fruit, and vegetables. To this end, a small VOC expedition under the command of Jan van Riebeeck reached Table Bay on 6 April, 1651.

While the new settlement traded out of necessity with the neighbouring Khoikhoi, it wasn’t a friendly relationship, and the company authorities made deliberate attempts to restrict contact. Partly as a consequence, VOC employees found themselves faced with a labour shortage. To remedy this, they released a small number of Dutch from their contracts and permitted them to establish farms, with which they would supply the VOC settlement from their harvests. This arrangement proved highly successful, producing abundant supplies of fruit, vegetables, wheat, and wine; they also later raised livestock. The small initial group of free burghers, as these farmers were known, steadily increased in number and began to expand their farms further north and east into the territory of the Khoikhoi.

The majority of burghers had Dutch ancestry and belonged to the Calvinist Reformed Church of the Netherlands, but there were also numerous Germans as well as some Scandinavians. In 1688 the Dutch and the Germans were joined by French Huguenots, also Calvinists, who were fleeing religious persecution in France under King Louis XIV.

In addition to establishing the free burgher system, van Riebeeck and the VOC also began to import large numbers of slaves, primarily from Madagascar and Indonesia. These slaves often married Dutch settlers, and their descendants became known as the Cape Coloureds and the Cape Malays. A significant number of the offspring from the White and slave unions were absorbed into the local proto-Afrikaans speaking White population. With this additional labour, the areas occupied by the VOC expanded further to the north and east, with inevitable clashes with the Khoikhoi. The newcomers drove the Khoikhoi from their traditional lands, decimated them with introduced diseases, and destroyed them with superior weapons when they fought back, which they did in a number of major wars and with guerilla resistance movements that continued into the 19th century. Most survivors were left with no option but to work for the Europeans in an exploitative arrangement that differed little from slavery.[citation needed] Over time, the Khoisan, their European overseers, and the imported slaves mixed, with the offspring of these unions forming the basis for today’s Coloured population.

The best-known Khoikhoi groups included the Griqua, who had originally lived on the western coast between St Helena Bay and the Cederberg Range. In the late 18th century, they managed to acquire guns and horses and began trekking north-east. En route, other groups of Khoisan, Coloureds, and even white adventurers joined them, and they rapidly gained a reputation as a formidable military force. Ultimately, the Griquas reached the Highveld around present-day Kimberley, where they carved out territory that came to be known as Griqualandalina.

 
In March 1647, with the shipwreck of the Dutch ship Nieuwe Haarlem, began the Dutch settlement in the zone, the shipwreck victims, built a small fort named “Sand Fort of the Cape of Good Hope”. They stayed for nearly one year at the Cape, finally they were rescued by a fleet of 12 ships under the command of W.G. de Jong, on one of these ships was also Jan van Riebeeck. After their return in Holland a part of the shipwrecked tryed to persuade the Dutch East India Company to open a trading center at the Cape. In 1652, a Dutch expedition of 90 Calvinist settlers, under the command of Jan Van Riebeeck, founded the first permanent settlement near the Cape of Good Hope. They arrived, on 6 April 1652, on board of five ships, the Reijer, the Oliphant, the Goede Hoop, the Walvisch end the Dromedaris in the bay of today’s Cape Town. A square wooden fort with four bastions was quickly built, on the left bank of the Salt River where is now the Central Post Office, and later were built also two redoubts near the shore, they were named Kyckuit and Duinhoop. In 1666 (the first stone was laid on 2 Janaury 1666), the fort was replaced by a new stone fort named castle of “Goede Hoop” a massive pentagonal fortress with a moat and bastions at each corner, the bastions were named: Nassau, Leerdam, Oranje, Katzenellenbogen and Buren. Like Prof. Ch. R. Boxer wrote in his book “The Dutch seaborne Empire”: “the Cape developed into a colony which was something unique, save for the short-lived New Netherland, in the possesion of the Dutch East and West India Companies. It had a healthy, subtropical and partly fertile interland, which was virtually unoccupied…..White colonisation was as feasible here as it had been in New Netherland, with the additional advantage that there was no rival European nation close at hand.” On 3 June 1652, the first child was born. The developement of a community of free burghers was the main secret of the success of the settlement. From the beginning were also started the first trades with the Hottentots that resided in the zone, but the relationships with these tribes were often problematic. In 1655, was launched the first coast vessel made of Cape timber. In 1657, two groups of farmers settled about three miles from the castle, at Groenevelt (or Dutch Garden) and Rodenbosch. In 1658, the population of the whole Cape Colony consisted of 162 persons slaves included. In 1659, wine was pressed for the first time from Cape grapes. During the first years the natives were the most persistent problem of the colony, they frequently stole the cattle, and to solve the problem was decided to built a strong fence around the farms to protect the cattle, these defences were extended from Blauwberg across the bay to Salt River, and then through Groote Schuur to the hill of Wynberg, three watch-houses were also built; the whole settlement, in this way, was protected from Hottentot incursion. Saldanha Bay, Dassen Island and Robben Island were developed as outpost of trade and stock raising. In 1660, a Dutch ship with 150 Slaves from Angola arrived at the Cape, later in the same year another ship arrived with more slaves, the number of slaves in the settlement rose to 187. A school was opened to teach Dutch and religion to the children of the White settlers, Mulattos and Hottentots also.

When Jan Van Riebeeck laid down his office in May 1662, there were 39 free farmers, of whom 15 were married. Free labourers employed on the farms amounted to 54. The whole farming community was of some 130 persons, besides the servants and the official of the VOC. After the departure of Jan van Riebeeck, began, in the colony, a period of confusion: during the first ten years 4 governors were appointed and after this brusted the war with France. During the government of Wagenaer, on 2 Janaury 1666 was laid the foundation stones of the Castle of Goode Hoop, which was completed in 1674 during the government of Isbrand Goske. In 1672, the white population was less than 600 souls, of whom only 64 were male free-burghers. On 9 April 1678 was laid the first stone of the Dutch Reformed church of Cape Town, this building was completed 25 years later. In 1679, the colony had 289 Europeans of whom 142 were free-burghers and 191 slaves, as in Ceylon, the free-burghers in Kaapstad (Cape Town) were in most cases tavern-keeping or to a lesser extent craftsmen and shopkeeper. In this year a new governor was appointed, he was the Mauritius born Simon van der Stel, he in the first year of his government, founded Stellenbosch, the second oldest town in South Africa, and during the twenty years of his government, promoted the immigration of new families from The Netherlands, built a new hospital and highly developed the colony. In 1688 a group of about 200 French Huguenots arrived, they settled in Stellenbosch, Drakenstein, Paarl and Franshhoek; developing farming and in particular vineyards. In 1691, the population of Kaapstad or “De Kaap” consisted of 1000 Europeans and 400 Slaves. In 1695, there were, in the colony, still only 340 free-burghers. In February 1699, Simon van der Stel handed over the government to his son William Adrian, during his administration he had several problems with the French Huguenot settlers. During the administration of Maurice de Chavonnes (1714-1724), to prevent Hottentots raid, a series of small outposts were built at strategic points in Tulbagh, Klapmuts, Groenekloof and Saldanha Baai.

In 1717, there were, in the colony, more than 5.000 souls, of whom 2.500 were Europeans (in most cases farmers and breeders) and 2.500 were slaves.

In 1720, were settled the Breede and Oliphant’s valleys. Jan de la Fontaine, became governor in 1724 and he was in control of the Cape Colony until 1739, except for an interval of three years, when was governor Gysbert Noodt. La Fontaine, was a quietly efficient governor, in 1730, the Little Karoo valley was reached; in 1734, he started to colonize Mossel Baai area. The first governor born in the Cape was appointed in 1739, he was Henry Swellengrebel, his name has been preserved in the town of Swellendam, which was founded during his government. During the government of Ryk Tulbagh (1751-1771), was reached the Orange River. In these years, the French astronomer Abbé de la Caille made, at Kaapstad, a chart and a catalogue of the sky of the Southern hemisfere. During the Tulbagh successor, Joachim van Plettemberg (1771-1785), the exploration of the Orange River valley was completed. Van Plettemberg was a capable and energetic governor. In 1780, there were 11.000-12.000 free-burghers whose at least 3.000 lived in Kaapstad. The Boers in the late 18th century regarded South Africa as their fatherland. In 1785, a new governor was appointed, he was van de Graaff, during his administration was founded the town of Graaff-Reinet. Kaapstad was now a town of 4.300 settlers without counting blacks and sailors. Stellenbosch was the foremost of the farming settlements In 1794, the Dutch East India Company went bankrupt and in 1795 the English seized the colony, the Dutch surrender in 1795 is knew as capitulation of Rustemburg. In 1795, the town of Kaapstad had 14.021 inhabitants, 4.357 were Europeans. In 1795, the Slaves in the whole colony were 16.839, the White were nearly 16.000. In 1802, at the Amiens’s treaty, the Netherlands (now Batava Republic) recover the colony. Jacob de Mist was appointed as new Dutch governor, he after three years of government, gave up the command to John Willians Janssens, he on 18 Janaury 1806, at Blauwberg, surrendered the colony to the British.

 

 

Cabo-de-Bona-Esperanca-1682

Kaapstad Tafelbaai Baai Fals 1724

Kaapstad Tafelbaai Baai Fals 1724

Mosselbaai

Mosselbaai-1753

oostkust-van-Afrika-1753

Robben  eiland, island

Robben-eiland-in-de-Tafelbaai-1753

Tafelberg

Tafelberg-1724

kaapstad fort

kaapstad fort

kaapstad fort

kaapstad fort

kaapstad fort

kaapstad fort

Riebeek

Riebeek

Riebeek

Riebeek

Dutch former Colonies, Africa, Togo

Dutch former Colonies, Africa, Togo

Petit Popo or Popo (Anecho or Aneho) (1731 – 1760)

Petit Popo, William's Fort

Whidah-or-Grand-Popo William’s Fort

Dutch former Colonies, Africa, St. Helena

Dutch former Colonies, Africa, St. Helena

St. Helena 1645-1651

1633  On 15th April, the Dutch government of the United  Provinces claimed possession of the Island.  There is

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Dutch former Colonies, Africa, Sierra Leone

Dutch former Colonies, Africa, Sierra Leone

Tasso Island (1664 destroyed by Admiral De Ruter)

Sierra Leone, Tasso Island

Sierra-leone

Dutch former Colonies, Africa, Senegal

Dutch former Colonies, Africa, Senegal

Island Goree 1588-1664

Gorée is a small island 900 m in length and 350 m in width sheltered by the Cape Vert Peninsula. Now part of the city of Dakar, it was a minor port and site of European settlement along the coast. Being almost devoid of drinking water, the island was not settled before the arrival of Europeans. The Portuguese were the first to establish a presence on Gorée (c. 1450), building a small stone chapel there and using land as a cemetery.

Gorée is known as the location of the House of Slaves (French: Maison des esclaves), built by an Afro-French Métis family about 1780–1784. The House of Slaves is one of the oldest houses on the island. It is now used as a tourist destination to dramatize the horrors of the slave trade throughout the Atlantic world. Well known in the West because of this museum, Gorée was actually relatively unimportant in the slave trade. The claim that the “house of slaves” was a slave-shipping point was refuted in 1959 by Raymond Mauny, shortly afterward the first professor of African history at the Sorbonne.

Probably no more than a few hundred slaves a year departed from here for transportation to the Americas. They were more often incidental passengers on ships carrying other cargoes rather than transported on slave ships. After the decline of the slave trade from Senegal in the 1770s and 1780s, the town became an important port for the shipment of peanuts, peanut oil, gum arabic, ivory, and other products of the “legitimate” trade. It was probably in relation to this trade that the Maison des Esclaves was built.[1]

The island of Gorée was one of the first places in Africa to be settled by Europeans, the Portuguese setting foot on the island in 1444. It was captured by the United Netherlands in 1588, then the Portuguese again, again the Dutch — who named it after the Dutch island of Goeree, and the British took it over under Robert Holmes in 1664.

After the French gained control in 1677, the island remained continuously French until 1960, when Senegal was granted independence. There were brief periods of English occupation during the various wars fought by France and England between 1677 and 1815.

Gorée was principally a trading post, administratively attached to Saint-Louis, capital of the Colony of Senegal. Apart from slaves, beeswax, hides and grain were also traded. The population of the island fluctuated according to circumstances, from a few hundred free Africans and Creoles to about 1,500. There would have been few European residents at any one time.

In the 18th and 19th century, Gorée was home to a Franco-African Creole, or Métis, community of merchants with links to similar communities in Saint-Louis and the Gambia, and across the Atlantic to France’s colonies in the Americas. Métis women, called signares from the Portuguese senhora, were especially important to the city’s business life. The signares owned ships and property and commanded male clerks. They were also famous for cultivating fashion and entertainment. One such signare, Anne Rossignol, lived in Saint-Domingue (the modern Haiti) in the 1780s before the Haitian Revolution. Schley, Jacobus van der, 1715–1779. Island of Gorée and its fortifications

In February 1794 during the French Revolution, France was the first nation in the world to abolish slavery. The slave trade from Senegal stopped. However, in May 1802 Napoleon reestablished slavery after intense lobbying from sugar plantation owners of the Caribbean départements of France. The wife of Napoleon, Joséphine de Beauharnais, daughter of a rich plantation owner from Martinique, supported their position.

In March 1815, during his political comeback known as the Hundred Days, Napoleon definitively abolished the slave trade to build relations with Great Britain. (Scotland had never recognized slavery and England finally abolished the slave trade in 1807.) This time abolition continued.

As the trade in slaves declined in the late eighteenth century, Gorée converted to legitimate commerce. The tiny city and port were ill situated for the shipment of industrial quantities of peanuts, which began arriving in bulk from the mainland. Consequently, its merchants established a presence directly on the mainland, first in Rufisque (1840) and then in Dakar (1857). Many of the established families started to leave the island.

Civic franchise for the citizens of Gorée was institutionalized in 1872, when it became a French “commune” with an elected mayor and a municipal council. Blaise Diagne, the first African deputy elected to the French National Assembly (served 1914 to 1934), was born on Gorée. From a peak of about 4,500 in 1845, the population fell to 1,500 in 1904. In 1940 Gorée was annexed to the municipality of Dakar.

Gorée is connected to the mainland by regular 30-minute ferry service – pedestrians only; there are no cars on the island. It is Senegal’s premier tourist site and became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1978. It now serves mostly as a memorial to the slave trade. The built-up urban core of the island is geared to tourism. Many of the historic commercial and residential buildings have been turned into restaurants and hotels.

 

Goree Island senegal, slavery,

Gorée Island-and-Citadel,-1874

 

Goree Island senegal, slavery,

Citadel

Goree Island senegal, slavery,

Goree Island senegal, slavery,

Citadel

Dutch former Colonies, Africa, San Thome and Principe

Dutch former Colonies, Africa, San Thome and Principe

18 October 1599. – 20 October 1599./3 October 1641-16 October 1641

Sant Thome

Map-of-the-island-of-Sant Thome

Dutch former Colonies, Africa, Nigeria

Dutch former Colonies, Africa, Nigeria

Benin (1705 – 1736)
Badagri (1737 – 1748)
Epe (1732 – 1755)
 

Nigeria, benin

Houses-in-Benin

Nigeria, benin

Houses-in-Benin

Calabar River

Map-of-the-mouth-of-the-Calabar River

Calabar River

Map-of-the-mouth-of-the-Kalbar-River

Nigeria, benin

View-of-the-city-of-Benin

Dutch former Colonies, Africa, Mozambique

Dutch former Colonies, Africa, Mozambique

Maputo Bay 1720-1730

The bay was discovered by the Portuguese navigator António de Campo, one of Vasco da Gama captains, in 1502. In 1544 the merchant trader Lourenço Marques explored the upper reaches of the estuaries leading into the bay. Subsequently King John III ordered the Bay to be named Baia de Lourenço Marques. Lourenço Marques is reputed to have named the bay Baía da Lagoa (Port. “Bay of the lagoon”). The origin of the more commonly known name Delagoa Bay is unknown. One interpretation is that Baia da Lagoa has been corrupted to Delagoa Bay. Another interpretation is that the goa in the name refers to the Portuguese colony Goa, and that Delagoa Bay was a port of call for Portuguese merchant ships on the way from Goa to Portugal.

In 1720 the Dutch East India Company built a fort and factory called Lijdzaamheid (Lydsaamheid) on the spot of Lourenço Marques (now Maputo), since April 1721 governed by an Opperhoofd (Chief facor), under authority of the Dutch Cape Colony, interrupted by Taylor’s pirate occupation April 1722 – 28 August 1722; in December 1730 the settlement was abandoned.

Maputo Bay

Map-of-the-Bay-of-Mozambique

Dutch former Colonies, Africa, Mauritius

Dutch former Colonies, Africa, Mauritius

Fort Arguin (1638-1658/1664-1710) finally French

The first European to visit the island was the Portuguese explorer Nuno Tristão in 1443. In 1445, Prince Henry the Navigator set up a trading post on the island, which acquired gum arabic and slaves for Portugal. By 1455, 800 slaves were shipped from Arguin to Portugal every year.

In 1633, during its war against Spain (which then controlled Portugal), the Netherlands seized control of Arguin. It remained under Dutch rule until 1678, although Dutch governance was interrupted by English rule in 1665. France briefly controlled the island in September 1678, but the island was then abandoned until 1685.

Arguin was a colony of the German electorate of Brandenburg, and its successor, the Kingdom of Prussia, from 1685 to 1721. France then took control of the island, only to lose it again the following year to the Netherlands. France regained it in 1724. This period of French rule lasted four years, because, in 1728, it reverted to the control of Mauritanian tribal chiefs. The island became a French possession once more during the early twentieth century, as part of the French colony, Mauritania, and it remained under Mauritanian rule when that country became independent in 1960.

The Dutch Settlements (1638-1658 and 1664-1710)

The first Dutchman visiting the island was in 1598, Wybrant Warwijck that renamed the island after the Dutch stadholder Maurits.

During the first 40 years of Dutch activity in the East, Mauritius was often used by the VOC ships in search of fresh food as a call station, but they never built, during these years, a permanent settlement. The greatest raw materials of the island were ebony and wild animals like the notorius Dodo, pigs, goats and tortoises.

In the 1630s. the presence of a permanent Dutch settlement in Mauritius was judged necessary by the VOC to prevent the occupation of the island by the French or the English companies. Finally the Hollanders settled on the East coast of the island in the south-eastern harbour which they called “Haven van Warwijck”, where the town of Vieux Grand Port now stands.

GOVERNORS YEARS Cornelis Gooyer 1638-1639 Adriaen van der Stel 1639-1645 Jacob van der Meersch 1645-1648 Reiner Por 1648-1653 Maximiliaan de Jongh 1653-1656 Abraham Evertsz 1656-1658 No Dutch Occupation 1658-1664 Jacobus van Nieuwlant 1664-1665 George Wreede 1665-1673 Hubert Hugo 1673-1677 Isaac Lamotius 1677-1692 Roelof Diodati 1692-1703 Adriaan Momber van der Velde 1703-1710

Here, in May 1638, they built a square wooden fort with bastions and cannons at each corner, which was named Fort Frederik Hendrik. This fort was garrisoned, at first, by a force of 25 Dutchmen under the command of the first governor: Cornelis Gooyer. The fort was finished on 29 August 1638.

In 1639 a new governor was appointed, he was Adriaen van der Stel, the father of the then famous governor of the Cape of Good Hope: Simon van der Stel, that was born in Mauritius during his father government of the island. The new governor rebuilt the fort and armed it with 14 cannons, the garrison was enlarged to 80 men, the first slaves were imported from Madagascar and in order to develop this “trade” in 1642 a Dutch factory was established in the Bay of Antongil (N-E Madagascar) this factory was closed at the end of the year 1646. During van der Stel government, were also did several attempt to develop agricolture (sugar cane, vegetables, fruit trees), but because of rats all they failed.

The Dutch settlements in Mauritius Top In 1645, Adriaen van der Stel was transferred and Jacob van der Meersch became the new governor, during his government the wood-cutting of ebony trees was developed, a five km road was built in Flacq in order to improve it, and several burghers settled in the island. In 1655, during the government of Reiner Por there were, in the three settlements of the island (Grand Port Bay, Flacq and Trou d’Eau Douce), 100 peoples amongst planters with theirs families and slaves, and 60 VOC employes, a new attempt to introduce agricolture in a bigger scale was done, but too this time the cultivations were destroyed by the rats, this was the coup de grace to the weak economy of the island, actually, in 1658 the VOC decided to abandon the colony.

The last governor Abraham Evertsz in 1658 destroyed the fort Frederik Hendrik and with the remaining 40 inhabitants abandoned Mauritius.

Between 1658 to 1664 Mauritius was uninhabited, except for several shipwrecked victims.

In 1663, the VOC ordered the governor of the Cape colony to restablished the Dutch settlement in Mauritius. In the summer of the 1664, a ship under the new governor Jacobus Nieuwlant anchored in the “Haven van Warwijck” were there were the ruins of the old fort Frederik Hendrik. Nieuwlant government was short, he died at the end of May 1665. George Wreede was appointed as governor, he start again the ebony-cutting and attempt were made to develop farming.

In 1673, after the dead of Wreede, Hubert Hugo became governor, he was an excellent commander, he developed farming, repaired the fort, built a new church, a saw mill, a tannery and 16 km of road (in Flacq). The population of the island incresed. The Burghers had settled around the island: in the present area of Flacq (the main settlement), Black River and Port Louis.

In 1677, Isaac Lamotius was appointed as new governor of Fort Frederik Hendrik, the garrison was 55 soldiers and slaves, the Burghers were 32. During the Lamotius government were killed the last Dodos. In 1692, Roelof Diodati became governor, he was of Swiss-Italian descent.

In 1695, a big hurricane devasted the island, several of the Burghers lost all theirs crops, many left the island. In 1703, was appointed the last Dutch governor of Mauritius: Adriaan Momber van der Velde, during his government, the island economy tried by misfortune was reduced in extreme poverty, the VOC, in 1706 finally decided to evacuate the island, at that time the Dutch population was of 48 VOC servants, 32 Burghers (5 were living in Black River, 15 in the North-Western harbour and 12 in Flacq) with 24 wives and 69 children, there were also 71 slaves; in total 244 persons.
In February 1710, the last Dutchman left Mauritius
Vestiges
Remains of Fort Frederick Hendrick and a small museum about the Dutch settlement; monument (1998) commemorating the place where the Dutch landed in 1598 at Vieux Port.

Citade

Arguin castle

View of Arguin castle

Mauritius

rede-op-het-eiland-Mauritius-1753

Mauritius

Mauritius-roadstead