Mangrove Fern, Acrostichum aureum, Urap Piyai

Urap Piyai, Mangrove Fern,  Acrostichum aureum

http://mangroveactionproject.org/

Urap Piyai (Steamed Acrostichum aureum (Mangrove Fern)Acrostichum-aureum-400

Fiddleheads with Grated Coconut and Spices)

Urap is a steamed, boiled or sauteed vegetable dish served hot, usually with bean sprouts, spinach,

water spinach (kangkung or on choy), and other leafy vegetables. It is then served with a spicy peanut sauce, or sauted lightly in cocout oil with chillis. This recipe uses the bright read,

soft fiddleheads from Acrostichum aureum, and another herb, Beluntas (Pluchea indica) which

is commonly found in coastal villages in Indonesia.

Ingredients

– 1 bunch of Acrostichum aureum fiddleheads

– 1 small bunh of Beluntas leafs

– 1 bunch spinach

– 1 bunch kangkung

– 5 shallots

– 1/2 coconut (grated)

– 4 tablespoons coconut oil

– chilli peppers (if desired)

– salt to taste


Preparation

Clean all the leafy material. Boil. Put aside.

Slice shallots thin. Split chillis and remove seeds.

Dice chillis. Lightly saute shallots, chillis, grated

coconut and salt remaining ingredients in coconut

oil. Mix with boiled leafy material and

serve hot on a banana leaf.]

or

Mix shallots, chillis, grated coconut and salt in

a bowl and wrap mixture in banana leaves.

Steam Mix with boiled leafy material and serve

hot on a banana leaf

Urap Piyai (Steamed Acrostichum aureum (Mangrove Fern)

Fiddleheads with Grated Coconut and Spices)

Urap is a steamed, boiled or sauteed vegetable dish served hot, usually with bean sprouts, spinach,

water spinach (kangkung or on choy), and other leafy vegetables. It is then served witha

spicy peanut sauce, or sauted lightly in cocout oil with chillis. This recipe uses the bright read,

soft fiddleheads from Acrostichum aureum, and another herb, Beluntas (Pluchea indica) which

is commonly found in coastal villages in Indonesia.

Ingredients

– 1 bunch of Acrostichum aureum fiddleheads

– 1 small bunh of Beluntas leafs

– 1 bunch spinach

– 1 bunch kangkung

– 5 shallots

– 1/2 coconut (grated)

– 4 tablespoons coconut oil

– chilli peppers (if desired)

– salt to taste

Preparation

Clean all the leafy material. Boil. Put aside.

Slice shallots thin. Split chillis and remove seeds.

Dice chillis. Lightly saute shallots, chillis, grated

coconut and salt remaining ingredients in coconut

oil. Mix with boiled leafy material and

serve hot on a banana leaf.]

or

Mix shallots, chillis, grated coconut and salt in

a bowl and wrap mixture in banana leaves.

Steam Mix with boiled leafy material and serve

hot on a banana leaf

Acrostichum-aureum

Acrostichum speciosum

These ferns are among the few that can tolerate saline soil and grows in the back mangroves. But they cannot tolerate flooding. Besides brackish water, it also grows in freshwater swamps and marshes.
A. aureum has rounded leaf tips while A. speciosum has pointed leaf tips.
The young leaves are reddish. When older fronds become fertile, the underside of the leaflets at the tip becomes covered with red-brown sporangia.
spore bearing leaflets
Uses: The young shoots can be eaten raw as a salad or cooked (Malay, India, Sri Lanka). The leaves are also used as cattle feed. Older leaves when dried are parchment-like and used as fire-resistant roof thatch (Vietnam and the Pacific). The fibres of old leaves may also be used to make cord.
Traditional medicinal uses: Rhizomes are pounded into a paste and used to treat wounds and boils (Malay). Leaves are used to stop bleeding.
Role in the habitat: Among the first large low-growing plants to grow on the landward side of the mangrove, the fern provides shade for other plants and trees to take root. But on cleared mangroves, it can form impenetrable thickets which prevents other plants from taking root. Thus it is often considered a weed. For animals, these thickets provide safety and shelter. Birds such as the Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) make their nests in these thickets.

Mangrove Bruguiera Wajit, Bruguiera gymnnorhiza

Bruguiera Wajit, Rice Cooky, Bruguiera gymnnorhiza

http://mangroveactionproject.org/

Bruguiera Wajit , Rice CookyBruguiera-gymnorhiza-400

Ingredients

10 ripe Bruguiera gymnnorhiza fruits

1/2 kg granulated sugar

1 cup sago flour

1 package of red agar agar


Preparation

Clean the Bruguiera fruits, cut into small pieces and blend.

Mix the sago flour with 2 cups of cold water and strain the water off saving

the water. Mix the sugar, Bruguiera fruit, and sago water until even, then pour

contents into a wok and cook on low heat.

Halfway through the cooking process add the agar agar powder slowly and

stir evenly until thick. Cool and wrap in wax paper.

Bruguiera-gymnorhiza

Tumu is the most widely distributed of the Rhizophoreae family.
The kneed pneumatophores comprise a sponge-like system of air chambers and tubes which acts as an air reservoir when the roots are submerged. The pneumatophores are covered with many lenticels which allow air but not water to enter the root.
Uses as food: Leaves and peeled seedlings are soaked, boiled and eaten. Seedlings are the staple of some in Papua New Guinea, but eaten only in times of famine in Moluccas. Seedlings may be added to betel nut as an astringent. Seedlings are also made into a sweetmeat: they are sliced, soaked to leach out the tannins, then ground into a paste. The bark may be used to flavour fish.
Other uses: The timber is heavy and tough, but has straight fibres and a fine grain. This makes it hard to work with, but valuable as fishing stakes, pilings, telephone poles, railway sleepers, heavy pillars and beams, and other construction. It is commercially planted in Indonesia, Sabah and Sarawak to produce wood chips that is turned into paper pulp or to produce rayon fabric. It is also favoured as firewood and for conversion into charcoal as it produces the most heat among mangrove woods.
Traditional medicinal uses: The bark is astringent and used to treat malaria (Cambodia), cure fish poisoning (Marshall Islands), treat diarrhoea and fever (Indonesia). Elsewhere the fruit is used to treat eye problems, and scrapped skin of the fruit to stop bleeding. The fruit may also be chewed as a betel nut substitute. The leaves are used to control blood pressure (India).

Mangrove, Kolak Sweet Soup, Bruguiera gymnnorhiza

Kolak Sweet Soup, Bruguiera gymnnorhiza

http://mangroveactionproject.org/

Kolak (Avicennia spp. or Brugueira gymnorrhiza)

Kolak is a sweet soup like desert, usually made with cassava or sweet potatoe and cooking bananas.

Bruguiera-gymnorhiza-400

In this recipe, Avicennia fruits or Brugeira fruits are used instead. This is the famous dish

that is used to break the fast each evening during the month of Ramadan, especially common

in Sumatera.

Ingredients

– 1/4 kg prepared Avicennia fruits. (boiled again after being processed)

and/or

– 1/4 kilogram Brugueira gymnorrhiza fruits (boiled)

– 1/4 kg sagu flour

– 1 liter thin coconut milk

– 1 cup thick coconut milk

– two pandan (Pandanus odurus) leaves

– 1/4 kg granualted sugar

Preparation

If using Avicennia fruits, make sure they are fully processed as instructed on page 8 and use

whole. If using Brugeira fruits, cut into 1 inch pieces. Add fruit to sagu flour and stir.

Boil 1 liter of coconut milk (thin) with sugar. Add pandan leaves after reaching a boil. Add sagu/

fruit mixture and continue to boil until fruits soften. Remove from heat. Add thick coconut milk.

Serve hot or cold.



Bruguiera-gymnorhiza

Tumu is the most widely distributed of the Rhizophoreae family.
The kneed pneumatophores comprise a sponge-like system of air chambers and tubes which acts as an air reservoir when the roots are submerged. The pneumatophores are covered with many lenticels which allow air but not water to enter the root.
Uses as food: Leaves and peeled seedlings are soaked, boiled and eaten. Seedlings are the staple of some in Papua New Guinea, but eaten only in times of famine in Moluccas. Seedlings may be added to betel nut as an astringent. Seedlings are also made into a sweetmeat: they are sliced, soaked to leach out the tannins, then ground into a paste. The bark may be used to flavour fish.
Other uses: The timber is heavy and tough, but has straight fibres and a fine grain. This makes it hard to work with, but valuable as fishing stakes, pilings, telephone poles, railway sleepers, heavy pillars and beams, and other construction. It is commercially planted in Indonesia, Sabah and Sarawak to produce wood chips that is turned into paper pulp or to produce rayon fabric. It is also favoured as firewood and for conversion into charcoal as it produces the most heat among mangrove woods.
Traditional medicinal uses: The bark is astringent and used to treat malaria (Cambodia), cure fish poisoning (Marshall Islands), treat diarrhoea and fever (Indonesia). Elsewhere the fruit is used to treat eye problems, and scrapped skin of the fruit to stop bleeding. The fruit may also be chewed as a betel nut substitute. The leaves are used to control blood pressure (India).

Mangrove, Acanthus Ebracteatus Tea, Sea Holly Tea

Acanthus Ebracteatus Tea, Sea Holly Tea, Teh Jeruju

Acanthus Ebracteatus Tea Acanthus-ebracteatus-400

We stumbled upon this product in some alternative medicine stores in Southern Thailand. MAP-Indonesia has developed a solar drying hut for use in drying the leaves to a consistent humidity.

Acanthus ilicifolius tea is a general tonic, and is safe to drink every day. It is best served like green tea, without sugar or other sweeteners. It is also best not to come in contact with metal (such as spoons) or some of the medicinal qualities may be lost.

The tea is an antioxidant and is used traditionally as an anti-allergen, for boil treatment of boils or ab­scesses, to guard against infection and to expel kidney stones.

Ingredients

-97% Holly mangrove (Acanthus Ebracteatus) leaves

-3% Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius) leaves

Preparation

Cut thorns off of the leaves.  Dry in sun with the Pandan leaves.  Chop leaves into fine pieces or grind. Continuing drying under controlled conditions if possible. 

Serve like green tea.

We use a solar dryer which is a solar heating plate attached to a drying house made of bamboo with strategic ventilation to ensure consistent internal temperature and humidity.

The solar heating plate can be made of a corrugated iron sheet in a plywood box with a glass cover.  The iron sheet is covered with a wire mesh on the upper surface and painted black.  The solar panel is connected to the small hut with a pipe.  Racks are built into the hut with holes allowing for even air flow.  Two exhaust chimneys are built into the roof.

Acanthus-ebracteatus

These plants have no relation whatsoever with the Christmas Holly, although they appear similar.
In fact, not all the leaves have the spiny edges that give them their common name. Leaves growing the deep shade can be totally spineless.
Unlike some mangrove plants, Sea Holly do not exclude salt at the root level. In fact, their sap is salty and excess salt is secreted through the leaves, to be removed by rain or wind. Sometimes, the salt can be seen as a white crystalline layer on the upper surface.
The plant produces a cluster of flowers that develop into pods. When the pods ripen, they explode to propel the seeds up to 2m away.
Sea Holly grows on mud near the hide tide mark, often on mud lobster mounds. It can grow equally well under trees and in open areas. But it grows especially well in areas with more freshwater input. The plant can sometimes cover large areas and form thickets, particularly in disturbed mangrove. They also grow along river banks.
Uses: In Indonesia, the entire plant is placed in rice sacks to keep the rice dry (i.e., acts as a desiccant).
Traditional medicinal uses: The leaves of A. ilicifolius are used to treat rheumatism, neuralgia and poison arrow wounds (Malaysia). It is widely believed among mangrove dwellers that chewing the leaves will protect against snake bite. The pounded seeds are used to treat boils, the juice of leaves to prevent hair loss and the leaves themselves to ward off evil (Malay). Both species are also used to treat kidney stones. The whole plant is boiled in fresh water, and the patient drinks the solution instead of water, half a glass at a time, until the signs and symptoms disappear (Thailand). Water extracted from the bark is used to treat colds and skin allergies. Ground fresh bark is used as an antiseptic. Tea brewed from the leaves relieves pain and purifies the blood (widespread in both the Old and New World).

Mangrove, Acanthus ilicifolius Crackers

Acanthus ilicifolius Crackers

http://mangroveactionproject.org/

Acanthus-ebracteatus-400

Acanthus ilicifolius Crackers
Fried crakcers are called krupuk in Indonesia and are made in a variety of shapes, sizes,
colors and flavors. These krupuk use broth from Acanthus leaves to add both color and
flavour.
Ingredients:
– 1 kg flour (cassava or sago palm)
– 1 clove garlic
– 1½ teaspoons salt
– 1½ teaspoons sugar
– ½ teaspoon baking soda
– 1 teaspoon black pepper powder
– 300 grams of Acanthus ilicifolius or A. ebractateus leaves.
– banana leaves for wrapping
Preparation
Remove spines from Acanthus leaves. Chop leaves very fine and boil in a liter of water for
3 minutes. Strain the greenish water from the leaves. Use only the water.
Little by little add greenish water to 1 kilogram of flour while stirring the flour mixture. Add
the salt, sugar, pepper, and baking soda. Pound the garlic and add to the mixture. When
the flour mixture has cooled down a bit, form into a dough with your hands.
Roll the dough into a piece of banana leaf and tie off the ends with some string or plastic
or a flexible twig. Steam the rolled dough in a pot (put some water under a rice sieve and
boil the water) for one full hour.

Let the whole thing sit overnight (can be refrigerated).
In the morning open the banana leaves and slice the
dough into thin silver dollar size pieces.
Place on a tray and let dry in the sun for the whole morning
until hard.
After drying in the sun they are ready to fry in hot oil in a
wok by placing a few pieces in at a time and turn them
over after 5 seconds.
jeruju
jeruj
The Acanthus crackers can
be packaged dried before
frying, allowing the consumer
to cook the crakcers themselves.
This adds significantly
to the shelf life of the Krupuk
from several weeks to several
months.




Acanthus-ebracteatus

These plants have no relation whatsoever with the Christmas Holly, although they appear similar.
In fact, not all the leaves have the spiny edges that give them their common name. Leaves growing the deep shade can be totally spineless.
Unlike some mangrove plants, Sea Holly do not exclude salt at the root level. In fact, their sap is salty and excess salt is secreted through the leaves, to be removed by rain or wind. Sometimes, the salt can be seen as a white crystalline layer on the upper surface.
The plant produces a cluster of flowers that develop into pods. When the pods ripen, they explode to propel the seeds up to 2m away.
Sea Holly grows on mud near the hide tide mark, often on mud lobster mounds. It can grow equally well under trees and in open areas. But it grows especially well in areas with more freshwater input. The plant can sometimes cover large areas and form thickets, particularly in disturbed mangrove. They also grow along river banks.
Uses: In Indonesia, the entire plant is placed in rice sacks to keep the rice dry (i.e., acts as a desiccant).
Traditional medicinal uses: The leaves of A. ilicifolius are used to treat rheumatism, neuralgia and poison arrow wounds (Malaysia). It is widely believed among mangrove dwellers that chewing the leaves will protect against snake bite. The pounded seeds are used to treat boils, the juice of leaves to prevent hair loss and the leaves themselves to ward off evil (Malay). Both species are also used to treat kidney stones. The whole plant is boiled in fresh water, and the patient drinks the solution instead of water, half a glass at a time, until the signs and symptoms disappear (Thailand). Water extracted from the bark is used to treat colds and skin allergies. Ground fresh bark is used as an antiseptic. Tea brewed from the leaves relieves pain and purifies the blood (widespread in both the Old and New World).

Mangrove, Nypa Sugar, Nypa fruticans

Nypa Sugar, Nypa fruticans

http://mangroveactionproject.org/

Nypa Sugar Nypa-fruticans-400

Ingredients

Fresh sap from inflouresence of Nypa fruticans Bark from Ceriops tagal or Roots of Morinda citrifolia (Noni)

Preparation

The stalk from a fruiting Nypa needs to be bent and beat with a large stick every day for a month before sap collection.  Sap is collected by cutting off the fruiting ....  read more

Mangrove, Nypa Wajit Nypa fruticans

Nypa Wajit , Nypa fruticans

http://mangroveactionproject.org/

Nypa-fruticans-400

Nypa Wajit

Ingredients

1 whole ripe nipah fruit 1/4 kg of palm sugar 2 tablespoons granulated sugar 3 large fingers of ginger 1 piece of coconut the size of your thumb

Preparation

Open the individual Nypah seed pods to get at the fruit inside. Spereate the fruit from the single seed inside. Grate the Nypah fruit, coconut and ginger. Boil the palm sugar in a cup of water, strain and add to the grated mixture.  Toss and add salt to taste.

Nypa-fruticans

The Nipah Palm is the among the few palms that grow well in mangroves. It grows in soft mud, usually where the water is calmer, but where there is regular inflow of freshwater and nutritious silt. They can be found inland, as far as the tide can deposit the Palm’s floating seeds. It can tolerate infrequent inundation, so long as the soil does not dry out for too long.
It is the mangrove plant with the oldest known fossil, with pollen dated 70 million years old. Compared to the Coconut Palm, the Nipah Palm appears to lack a trunk, with its leaves growing straight out of the ground. In fact, its trunk is horizontal and lies underground. The trunk branches and each branch ends with a bunch of fronds.
The base of the frond is air-filled to help it stay upright. This habit of growing from underground stems results in almost pure stands of Nipah Palm.
The fruits form into a large ball about the size and shape of a soccer-ball, rising from the mud on a stick. When it ripens, the ball breaks away and breaks up into individual fruits. These float away and may even germinate as they float.
Uses as food: Before the inflorescence blooms, it is tapped to collect a sweet sap. Young Nipah Palm shoots can be eaten. The petals of the flower can be brewed to make an aromatic tea.
The immature fruits are white translucent and hard jelly-like. Called attap chee, they are a common ingredient in local desserts.
In the Indonesian islands of Roti and Savu, the sap tapped from the palm is fed to pigs instead, allowing the pigs to fatten during the dry season when other fodder is scarce. The pigs are also fed the leftovers after sugar preparation. In this way, the Nipah Palm results in protein for the community.
Other uses: Dried fronds are used as thatching and called attap in Malay and nipa in the Philippines. They are also woven into mats, baskets and other household items. Young leaves are used to roll cigarettes.

Mangrove, Nypa Fruit Kolak, Nypa fruticans

Nypa Fruit Kolak , Nypa fruticans

http://mangroveactionproject.org/

Nypa-fruticans-400

Nypa Fruit Kolak
Kolak is a sweet compote made of starchy fruits (cassava,
bananas, etc.) stewed in coconut milk and sugar. Although
eaten anytime, it is traditionally served at sundown to break
the daily fast during the month of Ramadan.
Ingredients
– 1 whole ripe nipah fruit
– 1/4 of a coconut
– 1/4 kg of palm sugar
– 3 large fingers of ginger
– salt to taste

Preparation
Open the individual Nypah seed
pods to get at the fruit inside.
Spereate the fruit from the single
seed inside. Boil the fruit. Grate the
coconut and press the meat with
water over a strainer to get coconut
milk. Mix the coconut milk,
boiled nypah fruit, and sugar. Add
salt to taste. The consistency shold
be soupy with floating pieces of
nypah fruit. You can add boiled
banana, sweet potato and jackfruit
to the mixture if desired.


Nypa-fruticans

The Nipah Palm is the among the few palms that grow well in mangroves. It grows in soft mud, usually where the water is calmer, but where there is regular inflow of freshwater and nutritious silt. They can be found inland, as far as the tide can deposit the Palm’s floating seeds. It can tolerate infrequent inundation, so long as the soil does not dry out for too long.
It is the mangrove plant with the oldest known fossil, with pollen dated 70 million years old. Compared to the Coconut Palm, the Nipah Palm appears to lack a trunk, with its leaves growing straight out of the ground. In fact, its trunk is horizontal and lies underground. The trunk branches and each branch ends with a bunch of fronds.
The base of the frond is air-filled to help it stay upright. This habit of growing from underground stems results in almost pure stands of Nipah Palm.
The fruits form into a large ball about the size and shape of a soccer-ball, rising from the mud on a stick. When it ripens, the ball breaks away and breaks up into individual fruits. These float away and may even germinate as they float.
Uses as food: Before the inflorescence blooms, it is tapped to collect a sweet sap. Young Nipah Palm shoots can be eaten. The petals of the flower can be brewed to make an aromatic tea.
The immature fruits are white translucent and hard jelly-like. Called attap chee, they are a common ingredient in local desserts.
In the Indonesian islands of Roti and Savu, the sap tapped from the palm is fed to pigs instead, allowing the pigs to fatten during the dry season when other fodder is scarce. The pigs are also fed the leftovers after sugar preparation. In this way, the Nipah Palm results in protein for the community.
Other uses: Dried fronds are used as thatching and called attap in Malay and nipa in the Philippines. They are also woven into mats, baskets and other household items. Young leaves are used to roll cigarettes.

Mangrove, Sonneratia Wajit, Sticky Mangrove Apples, Sonneratia caseolaris

Sonneratia Wajit, Sticky Mangrove Apples, Berembang, Sonneratia caseolaris

http://mangroveactionproject.org/

Sonneratia Wajit (Sticky Mangrove Apples)Sonneratia-caseolaris-400

Ingredients

18 ripe Sonneratia caseolaris (or S. ovata) fruits

1/2 kg granulated sugar

1 cup sago flour

1 package of red agar agar

Preparation

Peel the Sonenratia fruits and discard

most of the seeds. Mix the sago flour with

2 cups of cold water and strain the water

off saving the water.

Mix the sugar, sonneratia fruit, and sago

water until even, then pur contents into a

wok and cook on low heat.

Halfway through the cooking process

add the agar agar powder slowly and stir

evenly until thick.

Cool and wrap in wax paper.

Sonneratia-caseolaris

The tree is usually found in tidal river-banks and creeks with mud banks and is considered the most inland of the Sonneratia species.

Features: Tall tree 5-15m tall. The young branches hang down like those of the weeping willow (Salix babylonica) or angsana (Pterocarpus indicus). Leaves nearly circular or oval (6-8cm), narrow at the base, arranged opposite one another. The leaves have a ‘tidy’ appearance compared to those of Perepat (Sonneratia alba). Flowers with petals narrow and dark red, and many long white stamens that are pink at the base, forming a powder-puff shape. Sepals broadly triangular and yellowish greenish on the inside. The flowers open late in the evening and lasts for one night only. According to Giesen, the night-blooming flowers contain abundant nectar and are pollinated by bats and moths.

Fruit with calyx lobes flat, spreading out horizontally. Conical pneumatophores at first greenish grey with flaky bark that may grow to 2m tall at maturity. Many narrow roots may grow horizontally into the substrate at the base of the pneumatophore.

Human uses: According to Burkill, the young fruit is sour and used to flavour curries and chutnies. When ripe, the fruit have a “cheese-like taste” and is eaten raw or cooked. The pneumatophores are converted into corks for fishing net floats by shaping them and boiling them in water. The timber is not much used as the salt in it rusts iron nails and screws. Medicinal uses include various parts of the fruit for haemorrhage and coughs. According to Giesen, it makes poor timber but is occasionally used in salt-water piling. The pnematophores are used for making wooden soles of shoes.


Mangrove, Sonneratia Lempok, Candied Mangrove Appless, Sonneratia caseolaris

Sonneratia Lempok, Candied Mangrove Apples, Sonneratia caseolaris

http://mangroveactionproject.org/

Sonneratia-caseolaris-400

Sonneratia Lempok (Candied Mangrove Apples)

Ingredients

– 1kg ripe Sonneratia caseolaris (or S. ovata) fruits (peeled)

– 1/2 kg granulated sugar

– 1 tablespoon vanilla extract

– 1/2 teaspoon salt

– 3 liters water

Preparation

Peel the Sonenratia fruits and discard most of the seeds. Clean with water.

Mix with water and blend in blender. Strain off remainnig seeds. Strain again

and use only the juice to mix with sugar, vanilla and salt.

Place in a pot and cook over medium heat until thick. Remove from heat.

Form little balls of the mixture and sprinkle with granulated sugar.

Wrap in banana leaves or plastic. Use the calyx/bract of the Sonneratia fruit

as a cap for the sweet.

Sonneratia-caseolaris

The tree is usually found in tidal river-banks and creeks with mud banks and is considered the most inland of the Sonneratia species.

Features: Tall tree 5-15m tall. The young branches hang down like those of the weeping willow (Salix babylonica) or angsana (Pterocarpus indicus). Leaves nearly circular or oval (6-8cm), narrow at the base, arranged opposite one another. The leaves have a ‘tidy’ appearance compared to those of Perepat (Sonneratia alba). Flowers with petals narrow and dark red, and many long white stamens that are pink at the base, forming a powder-puff shape. Sepals broadly triangular and yellowish greenish on the inside. The flowers open late in the evening and lasts for one night only. According to Giesen, the night-blooming flowers contain abundant nectar and are pollinated by bats and moths.

Fruit with calyx lobes flat, spreading out horizontally. Conical pneumatophores at first greenish grey with flaky bark that may grow to 2m tall at maturity. Many narrow roots may grow horizontally into the substrate at the base of the pneumatophore.

Human uses: According to Burkill, the young fruit is sour and used to flavour curries and chutnies. When ripe, the fruit have a “cheese-like taste” and is eaten raw or cooked. The pneumatophores are converted into corks for fishing net floats by shaping them and boiling them in water. The timber is not much used as the salt in it rusts iron nails and screws. Medicinal uses include various parts of the fruit for haemorrhage and coughs. According to Giesen, it makes poor timber but is occasionally used in salt-water piling. The pnematophores are used for making wooden soles of shoes.