|Administratively, the island of Enggano located in North Bengkulu area. Sub Enggano, with the geographical position from 102.05 to 102.23 east longitude and 05.17 – 05.30 South latitude. Enggano Island area of approximately 40,000 ha, which consists of 6 villages, the village of Banjarsari, TechRepublic, Apoho, Malakoni, kana, and Kahyapu, Enggano District, North Bengkulu, Bengkulu Province, a district government center in the village of Apoho.|
Enggano Island is one of the small island on the West Coast of Sumatra, which has a length of about 42 km and 16 km wide. Enggano island ecosystem conditions, in general, is still relatively good compared to other islands on the West Coast of Sumatra. Enggano island ecosystems have specific characteristics and is more vulnerable than mainland ecosystems. Little disturbance in one element of the existing ecosystem, will result in disruption of the entire ecosystem of the island.
Of the existing area, a population of 2462 Enggano soul, divided into 6 tribes, the Tribe Kaitora, Kauno Interest, Interest Kaaoha, Family Kaarubi, Kaaruba Tribe, and Tribal Kamai (arrivals). Spread in six villages: the Village Banjarsari (484 inhabitants), TechRepublic (502 inhabitants), Apoho (252 inhabitants), Malakoni (319 inhabitants), kana (476 inhabitants), and Kahyapu (429 inhabitants).
Typically, means of transportation used to transport the sea outside is, of Pilot boat, which docked at Pier Malakoni, and NMC King Enggano, which docked at Pier Kahyapu, and occasionally can also use the fishing boat (weight 16 tons), if public transportation impaired.
Appropriation Forest Area
Based on the Decree No. 420/kpts.II/1999 the designation of forest areas in the province of Bengkulu, Enggano Island has been divided into several function areas, namely forest conservation and production forests. Forest conservation of protected forest and natural reserve area of 1810.57 ha and forest area of 2191.78 Ha Production. Hunting Park and Mount Nanu’ua by the Minister of Agriculture No letter. 741/Kpts/Um/II/1978 30 November 1978 an area of 10,000 ha. In detail, the distribution area Enggano Island can be seen in Table below:
Table. Tata to forest areas and functions
No Forest Function Register Area (ha)
1 Upper Malakoni Limited Production Forest 99 2191.78
Buwa-2 Bukit Buwa Protected Forest 98 3450.00
3 Mountain Park Nanu’ua Buru 59 10,000.00
4 Bay Klowe Nature Reserve 96 331.23
Bahewo River 5 Nature Reserves 97 496.06
6 Kioyo I and II 100 305.00 Nature Reserve
7 Cape Laksaha Nature Reserve 95A 333.28
– Total – – 17,107.35
So far, the forest on the island of Enggano still traditionally managed on the basis of customary law. Forest products that have received public attention and managed and sold to other islands is only the result of non-timber forest, such as rattan. While timber forest products is relatively small. Itupun illegal. Forest damage occurred in the village of Banjar Sari Mek and due to land clearing for oil palm perkebuanan covering 1588.85 ha of ex PT EDP. The type of forest there is lots of wood in the forest, which can be utilized well and processed as home building materials, garden fences, and firewood as well as shade trees. Kinds of wood, according to Enggano language, among others: apua, Merbau, Bintangor, Nehek, Marang, Kiyahit, and Kasai.
However, the most favored by residents for building materials is a type of wood and merbau apua. As for the type of wood and Kasai Nehek more widely used for firewood and garden fence. While the results of non-timber forest used by the public is Nibung, Rattan, and Gnetum gnemon forest.
Current Conditions Enggano Island
(a) Crop Cultivation is Developed
In general, the cultivation of plants developed by indigenous peoples and immigrants in Enggano, can be grouped into two, namely the age of annual cash crops and seasonal crops. Hard or annual plants, in addition to produce direct, is also used as plant protectors. Communities like 8 types of plants a tree, namely: Gnetum gnemon, Clove, Cocoa, Coconut, Jengkol, forest Cempedak / Jackfruit, Breadfruit, and Mango.
Of the eight species are perennials, Gnetum gnemon is still a very desirable plant and a source of economic and have greater benefits than other plants. Because in addition to be sold directly, also can be processed to be made ’emping’ the price is relatively high. These plants are not familiar with season (continuous production), also does not require intensive care. These plants have very long known by the public.
Gnetum gnemon addition, new plants have been developed, the plant Cocoa (Chocolate), Cocoa plants easy to grow, the harvest faster, and the price is quite promising. Initially, the plant community developed Cocoa arrivals in the village of Banjar Sari. Currently, the cultivation of Cocoa by transmigration communities in the village Banjarsari, kana, and Kahyapu. Now, a total of Cocoa Plantation on the island of Enggano not less than 650 ha.
(b) appropriation of Nature Reserves
Opening of conservation forest in the island of Enggano already started to happen. The opening of a large scale, among other things, the Cape Nature Reserve Laksaha Reg 95 A in the village of River Kahabi Banjarsari and Borahia River or around the coordinates of E. 05o 18’49, 7 “S. 102o 08’35, 5 “.
Opening is done by the Bugis people who previously lived in Bengkulu. Recent field data (May, 2005), showed that approximately 40 head of household (KK), which is active in the nature reserve. With a broad ownership of 5-6 ha per family, crops Cacao (Brown) developed by the community.
In addition, large areas of Cape Nature Reserve Laksaha direct border with Banjarsari village settlements, especially the transmigration settlement. Seeing these conditions, the pressure on the activity and the need of land would threaten the sustainability of this region.
Conditions in the field showed, in addition to land clearing for plantations in this nature reserve, also happens logging Nibung high enough. Recorded logging Nibung (Oncosperma tigillaria), type of plants used for fences and poles (outside the Enggano Island), has occurred since 2002.
Illegal Logging) “> (c) Logging (Illegal Logging)
Logging and timber theft occurred in several places on the island of Enggano. Data field in May 2005, showed that there are two points of logging activities. First, in the Buru Nanu’a Reg Park and Nature Reserve 59 River Bahewo Reg 97. Place this logging, among other things, the British Interior Region 100 to 200 m from the shoreline around Sawang Mononio. While based on the position coordinates of points contained in E. 05o 29’49, 5 “S. 102o 21’56, 2 “Nanu’a Hunting Park area.
One of the environmental wrecking efforts Enggano Island are illegal logging, illegal logging, as happened in the Garden of Buru Nanu’a, Bengkulu (02.06).
While in Bahewo River Nature Reserve logging occurs in the blood border nature reserve area and villages around Kahyapu Transmigration Maon River. This logging chinesaw machine with timber species Merbau. This timber transported through the Port of using ships MI Kahyapu Elf King Enggano to Bengkulu. Not long ago, on May 29, 2005, through the port, Merbau wood transported as many as 5 M3’s Maksum, naval person in charge there. Based on some of the information society, transport of timber to Bengkulu this happens every boat departure to Bengkulu. In one week, the ship KM Enggano Elf King 2 The average commute time Enggano-Bengkulu. Thus, it can be expected that the number of Merbau timber from the island of Enggano each month to reach 40 M3.