Betung Kerihun National-Park Introduction

Betung Kerihun National-Park Introduction

General
Bentuang Karimun National Park is located at the headwaters of the Kapuas River in the far interior of West Kalimantan. The site covers an area of 800,000 ha. and borders the 200,000 ha. Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary in Sarawak. Together, these two parks form one of the first transborder parks in SE Asia.
The topography of the area ranges from lowland elevations at about 200 m to mountains almost 2,000 m high. As such, the site serves as an important water catchment area. Three of Borneo's greatest rivers, the Rejang and Lupar River in Sarawak and the Kapuas River in Kalimantan have their origins here. Habitats comprise lowland Dipterocarp forest, wet hill forest, montane forest, moss forest and some swamp forest.
Bentuang Karimun National Park is a valuable site for Bornean biodiversity, not only for its numerous endangered species, but undoubtedly for many more as yet undiscovered plants and animals. Initial surveys have discovered thousands of species of flora and fauna, including as many as 250 bird species and seven primates species.
Indigenous inhabitants of the region include a variety of Dayak tribes, who live from hunting, collecting forest products and subsistence farming based on a pattern of shifting cultivation.
Threats to the parks and the local people's traditional way of life include logging, illegal gold-mining and commercial extraction of forest products at unsustainable levels.
Access
Bentuang Karimun can be accessed by land, air and water from Putussibau, which can be reached from Pontianak by bus, boat or plane.
From Putussibau:
* Land: Badau-bound buses can drop you at Sadap village, from where longboats can be hired to the park's richest wildlife area along the Embaloh River. The local Ibans also act as guides.
* Air: The MAF flight from Putussibau to Tanjung Lokang inside the park takes about 25 minutes.
* Water: Longboat by way of the Kapuas river to Tanjung Lokang. The part between Nanga Lapung and Tanjung Lokang has five rapids and isn't recommended to the faint-hearted.
* Water: Longboat from Putussibau to the Nanga Menyakan area through the Sibau River.
Accommodation
There's no official accommodation as yet.
Addresses
PHPA, Putussibau
KSDA, Jl. Abdurrachman Saleh 33, Pontianak
KSDA, Semitau
WWF, Jl. Budi Karya No. 7, Pontianak
Topographically, Betung Kerihun National Park is hilly. The Muller range which connects Mt. Betung and Mt. Kerihun also forms the border between Indonesia and Serawak, Malaysia.

Small streams flow from the foothills of the Muller mountains to form the Kapuas, Sibau, Mendalam, Bungan and Embaloh Watersheds. The Park can only be reached via these rivers.

The Park has eight types of forest ecosystem such as lowland forest, old secondary forest, Dipterocarpus, sub-montane and montane forest, with a high value plant diversity of 1,216 species consisting of 418 genera and 110 families (75% endemic to Kalimantan). Fourteen species are "new records" in Indonesia, like Musa lawitiensis, Neouvaria acuminatissima, Castanopsis inermis, Lithocarpus philippinensis, Chisocheton cauliflorus, Syzygium spicata, and Shorea peltata; and 13 species of palm which are "new records" in Kalimantan, such as Pinanga bifidovariegata and Ixora sp.

There are some 48 species of mammal, including seven primate species such as the maroon leaf monkey (Presbytis rubicunda rubicunda), orangutan (Pongo satyrus), Mueller's Bornean grey gibbon (Hylobates muelleri), white-fronted leaf monkey (Presbytis frontata frontata), and banded leaf monkey (P. femoralis chrysomelas); 301 species of bird, 51 species of amphibian, 52 species of reptile, 170 species of insect, and 112 species of fish.

The dominant and most commonly seen animals are orangutan (Pongo satyrus), sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei), western tarsier (Tarsius bancanus borneanus), Mueller's Bornean grey gibbon (Hylobates muelleri), maroon leaf monkey (Presbytis rubicunda rubicunda), sun bear (Helarctos malayanus euryspilus), hairy-nosed otter (Lutra sumatrana), and larger Malay mouse deer (Tragulus napu borneanus).

The most distinct species of bird in this Park are the wreathed hornbill (Aceros undulatus) and the helmeted hornbill (Rhinoplax vigil) which is the mascot of West Kalimantan.

The Park has been proposed as a Trans-Border Reserve together with Lantjak Entimau Wildlife Reserve in Serawak.

The potentially vast biodiversity riches of the Park pose a challenge to researchers to reveal them. But the Park also has several other attractions such as beautiful vistas over the forest crown which seems to go on forever; crystal-clear water flowing from waterfalls on the hilltops; birdcalls and the screeches and cries of various animals.
As with other inland people throughout much of Kalimantan, most of the people living around the Park are Dayak. Here, they belong to the Dayak Iban, Dayak Taman, and Dayak Bukat tribes. Many people are still adorned with tattoos in typical and very distinctive patterns.
Interesting locations/attractions:

The Muller Range: this forms part of the national border. Mt. Kerihun and Mt. Betung are good places for climbing.
Tekelan, Sibau, Mendalam, Embaloh, Kanyau rivers: kayaking/canoeing, observing animals and plants, and cultural tourism.
Riam Lapan and Riam Matahari: hardy souls can test their whitewater rafting skills on numerous rapids, rated at class III-IV in difficulty, climaxing at class V in Riam Matahari.
Sedik, Batang Pilung and Jaan rivers: waterfalls, observing animals and plants, and cultural tourism.
Tanjung Lokang: located in the western part of the Park, there are steep slopes and limestone caves suitable for caving. Also sites of cultural interest.

Best time of year to visit: September to December.

How to reach the Park: Pontianak-Putussibau by four wheel drive, about 18 hours; or by small plane (Cessna), about 2.5 hours. Then, from Putussibau along the Kapuas, Sibau and Mendalam rivers by semi-longboat, about 5 hours, or alternatively, from Putussibau up the Kapuas and Embaloh Hulu rivers by speed boat, about 3 hours; and then up the Embaloh Hulu river by semi-longboat, about 9 hours.

a total area of 800,000 hectares
Temperature 21° - 28° C
Rainfall 2,800 - 5,500 mm/year
Altitude 150 - 2,000 m asl.
Geographical location 112°18' - 114°12' E; 0°35' - 1°34' N
Accessibility : There are 3 ways to reach this area.
1. From Putussibau through the Kapuas River, the Sibau river and the Menyakan River by a semi long boat 8 hours.
2. From Putsuuibau goes along the Kapuas river and the Embaloh Hulu river for 3 hours by speed boat and transit by using motor boat (motor temple) to Embaloh Hulu (Benua Matinus valley) for + 2 days.
3. From Putussibau through Kapuas river to Bungan (a small village) by semi long boat for 8 hours.
Note: During dry season, especially in January or August the journey to the park will be longer.
This Park is the sister park to the Lanjak Entimau Nature Reserve in Sarawak. The diffrent type of ecosystem and the variety of its topography makes this park very unique. The three types of rainforest from the lowland to the upland described the variety of the flora of this park.
The dominant fauna in the park is the Orang Utan (Pongo pygmaeus) and the dominant bird is the Hornbill. The Dayak - the hinterland people of Kalimantan live around this park. One of their unique habit is to make " Tattoo " on their skin.
Flora
* Actinidiaceae
o Saurauia sp.
* Anacardiaceae
o Gluta sp.
o Semecarpus spp.
o Swintonia floribunda
* Annonaceae
o Polyalthia cf. lateriflora
* Araliaceae
o Schefflera sp.
* Aspleniaceae
o Asplenium nidus
* Dipterocarpaceae
o Dipterocarpus oblongifolius
o Dipterocarpus spp.
o Dryobalanops beccarii
o Dryobalanops spp.
o Hopea dryobalanoides
o Hopea spp.
o Parashorea spp.
o Shorea spp.
o Vatica spp.
* Ebenaceae
o Diospyros spp.
* Elaeocarpaceae
o Elaeocarpus sp.
* Ericaceae
o Rhododendron spp.
o Vaccinium sp.
* Euphorbiaceae
o Aporusa spp.
o Drypetes spp.
o Neoscortechinia kingii
o Pimelodendron papaverioides
* Fagaceae
o Lithocarpus sp.
* Flacourtiaceae
o Hydnocarpus spp.
* Lauraceae
o Cryptocarya sp.
o Dehaasia sp.
o Eusideroxylon zwageri
o Litsea spp.
* Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae
o Koompassia malaccensis
o Saraca declinata
* Meliaceae
o Aglaia spp.
o Aphanamixis sp.
o Chisocheton sp.
o Dysoxylum cf. caulostachyum
* Musaceae
o Musa spp.
* Myrtaceae
o Eugenia spp.
o Syzygium cupaeum
* Nepenthaceae
o Nepenthes spp.
* Oleaceae
o Chionanthus cf. macrocarpus
* Orchidaceae
o Arundina sp.
o Bulbophyllum spp.
o Coelogyne spp.
o Eria spp.
o Grammatophyllum speciosum
* Palmae
o Areca insignis
o Areca minuta
o Areca jugahpunya
o Areca spp.
o Calamus blumei
o Calamus caesius
o Calamus conirostris
o Calamus divaricatus
o Calamus erioacanthus
o Calamus flabellatus
o Calamus javensis
o Calamus laevigatus
o Calamus mattanensis
o Calamus myriacanthus
o Calamus ornatus
o Calamus paspalanthus
o calamus pogonacanthus
o Calamus tenompokensis
o Caryota sp.
o Ceratolobus discolor
o Daemonorops atra
o Daemonorops collarifera
o Daemonorops didymophylla
o Daemonorops formicaria
o Daemonorops fissa
o Daemonorops periancantha
o Daemonorops sabut
o Daemonorops sp.
o Eugeissona utilis
o Iguanura wallichiana
o Korthalsia cheb
o Korthalsia echinometra
o Korthalsia hispida
o Korthalsia rigida
o Korthalsia rostrata
o Korthalsia rostratioides
o Licuala borneensis
o Licuala petiolulata
o Licuala pygmaea
o Licuala spp.
o Pinanga aristata
o Pinanga angustisecta
o Pinanga bifidovariegata
o Pinanga brevipes
o Pinanga chaiana
o Pinanga lepidota
o Pinanga mooreana
o Pinanga patula
o Pinanga salicifolia
o Pinanga sessilifolia
o Pinanga tenella
o Pinanga tomentella
o Pinanga variegata
o Pinanga spp.
o Plectocomiopsis geminiflora
o Plectocomiopsis mira
o Plectocomiopsis triquetra
o Pogonotium divaricatum
o Salacca affinis
o Salacca dransfieldiana
o Salacca vermicularis
* Pandanaceae
o Pandanus spp.
* Podocarpaceae
o Podocarpus neriifolius
* Polygalaceae
o Xantophyllum spp.
* Rafflesiaceae
o Rafflesia sp.
* Rubiaceae
o Gardenia sp.
o Ixora javanica
o Ixora sp.
o Myrmeconauclea sp.
* Sapindaceae
o Nephelium ramboutan-ake
o Nephelium sp.
o Pometia pinnata
* Sterculiaceae
o Scaphium macropodum
* Thymelaeaceae
o Aquilaria malaccensis
* Ulmaceae
o Trema spp.
* Verbenaceae
o Teijsmanniodendron coriaceum
* Vitaceae
o Tetrastigma spp.
* Zingiberaceae
o Zingiber sp.
Mammals
* Cave fruit bat - Eonycteris spelaea
* Common long-tongued fruit bat - Macroglossus minimus
* Spotted-winged fruit bat - Balionycteris maculata
* Black-capped fruit bat - Chironax melanocephalus
* Lesser dog-faced fruit bat - Cynopterus brachyotis
* Dusky fruit bat - Penthetor lucasi
* Least leaf-nosed bat - Hipposideros cineraceus
* Cantor's leaf-nosed bat - Hipposideros galeritus
* Large leaf-nosed bat - Hipposideros larvatus
* Naked bat - Cheiromeles torquatus
* Intermediate horseshoe bat - Rhinolophus affinis
* Bornean horseshoe bat - Rhinolophus borneensis
* Trefoil horseshoe bat - Rhinolophus trifoliatus
* Lesser bent-winged bat - Miniopterus australis
* Javan bent-winged bat - Miniopterus medius
* Common bent-winged bat - Miniopterus schreibersii
* Long-tailed macaque - Macaca fascicularis
* Pig-tailed macaque - Macaca nemestrina
* Proboscis monkey - Nasalis larvatus
* White-fronted leaf monkey - Presbytis frontata
* Maroon leaf monkey - Presbytis rubicunda
* Orangutan - Pongo pygmaeus
* Bornean gibbon - Hylobates muelleri
* Western tarsier - Tarsius bancanus
* Clouded leopard - Neofelis nebulosa
* Malayan sun bear - Helarctos malayanus
* Leopard cat - Prionailurus bengalensis
* Banded palm civet - Hemigalus derbyanus
* Sambar - Cervus unicolor
* Bornean yellow muntjac - Muntiacus atherodes
* Barking deer - Muntiacus muntjak
* Large mouse deer - Tragulus napu
* Wild boar - Sus scrofa
* Common short-tailed porcupine - Hystrix brachyura
* Long-tailed giant rat - Leopoldamys sabanus
* Brown spiny rat - Maxomys rajah
* Whitehead's rat - Maxomys whiteheadi
* Malaysian wood rat - Rattus tiomanicus
* Prevost's squirrel - Callosciurus prevostii
* Least pygmy squirrel - Exilisciurus exilis
* Three-striped ground squirrel - Lariscus insignis
* Black-eared pygmy squirrel - Nannosciurus melanotis
* Tufted ground squirrel - Rheithrosciurus macrotis
* Shrew-faced squirrel - Rhinosciurus laticaudatus
* Low's squirrel - Sundasciurus lowii
* Slender squirrel - Sundasciurus tenuis
* Common giant squirrel - Ratufa affinis

Possibly:
* South-East Asian free-tailed bat - Mops mops
* Sumatran rhinoceros - Dicerorhinus sumatrensis
* Banteng - Bos javanicus
* Red-bellied sculptor squirrel - Glyphotes simus

Birds
* Crested Partridge - Rollulus rouloul
* Crested Fireback - Lophura ignita
* Bulwer's Pheasant - Lophura bulweri
* Great Argus - Argusianus argus
* Rufous Piculet - Sasia abnormis
* Sunda Woodpecker - Dendrocopos moluccensis
* Grey-capped Woodpecker - Dendrocopos canicapillus
* Banded Woodpecker - Picus mineaceus
* Crimson-winged Woodpecker - Picus puniceus
* Olive-backed Woodpecker - Dinopium rafflesii
* Common Flameback - Dinopium javanense
* Maroon Woodpecker - Blythipicus rubiginosus
* Orange-backed Woodpecker - Reinwardtipicus validus
* Buff-rumped Woodpecker - Meiglyptes tristis
* Buff-necked Woodpecker - Meiglyptes tukki
* Grey-and-buff Woodpecker - Hemicircus concretus
* Gold-whiskered Barbet - Megalaima chrysopogon
* Red-crowned Barbet - Megalaima rafflesii
* Red-throated Barbet - Megalaima mystacophanos
* Mountain Barbet - Megalaima monticola
* Yellow-crowned Barbet - Megalaima henricii
* Golden-naped Barbet - Megalaima pulcherrima
* Blue-eared Barbet - Megalaima australis
* Bornean Barbet - Megalaima eximia
* Brown Barbet - Calorhamphus fuliginosus
* Oriental Pied-Hornbill - Anthracoceros albirostris
* Black Hornbill - Anthracoceros malayanus
* Rhinoceros Hornbill - Buceros rhinoceros
* Helmeted Hornbill - Buceros vigil
* Bushy-crested Hornbill - Anorrhinus galeritus
* White-crowned Hornbill - Aceros comatus
* Wrinkled Hornbill - Aceros corrugatus
* Wreathed Hornbill - Aceros undulatus
* Red-naped Trogon - Harpactes kasumba
* Diard's Trogon - Harpactes diardii
* Whitehead's Trogon - Harpactes whiteheadi
* Scarlet-rumped Trogon - Harpactes duvaucelii
* Common Kingfisher - Alcedo atthis
* Blue-eared Kingfisher - Alcedo meninting
* Blue-banded Kingfisher - Alcedo euryzona
* Black-backed Kingfisher - Ceyx erithacus
* Rufous-backed Kingfisher - Ceyx rufidorsa
* Banded Kingfisher - Lacedo pulchella
* Stork-billed Kingfisher - Pelargopsis capensis
* Ruddy Kingfisher - Halcyon coromanda
* Black-capped Kingfisher - Halcyon pileata
* Rufous-collared Kingfisher - Actenoides concretus
* Indian Cuckoo - Cuculus micropterus
* Oriental Cuckoo - Cuculus saturatus
* Plaintive Cuckoo - Cacomantis merulinus
* Drongo Cuckoo - Surniculus lugubris
* Asian Koel - Eudynamys scolopacea
* Black-bellied Malkoha - Phaenicophaeus diardi
* Chestnut-bellied Malkoha - Phaenicophaeus sumatranus
* Raffles's Malkoha - Phaenicophaeus chlorophaeus
* Red-billed Malkoha - Phaenicophaeus javanicus
* Chestnut-breasted Malkoha - Phaenicophaeus curvirostris
* Greater Coucal - Centropus sinensis
* Lesser Coucal - Centropus bengalensis
* Blue-rumped Parrot - Psittinus cyanurus
* Blue-crowned Hanging-Parrot - Loriculus galgulus
* Long-tailed Parakeet - Psittacula longicauda
* Waterfall Swift - Hydrochous gigas
* Glossy Swiftlet - Collocalia esculenta
* Black-nest Swiftlet - Aerodramus maximus
* Edible-nest Swiftlet - Aerodramus fuciphagus
* Silver-rumped Spinetail - Rhaphidura leucopygialis
* Grey-rumped Treeswift - Hemiprocne longipennis
* Whiskered Treeswift - Hemiprocne comata
* Buffy Fish-Owl - Ketupa ketupu
* Malaysian Eared-Nightjar - Eurostopodus temminckii
* Ruddy Cuckoo-Dove - Macropygia emiliana
* Little Cuckoo-Dove - Macropygia ruficeps
* Emerald Dove - Chalcophaps indica
* Mountain Imperial-Pigeon - Ducula badia
* White-breasted Waterhen - Amaurornis phoenicurus
* Common Sandpiper - Tringa hypoleucos
* Red-necked Phalarope - Phalaropus lobatus
* Black Kite - Milvus migrans
* Brahminy Kite - Haliastur indus
* Lesser Fish-Eagle - Ichthyophaga humilis
* Crested Serpent-Eagle - Spilornis cheela
* Crested Goshawk - Accipiter trivirgatus
* Black Eagle - Ictinaetus malayensis
* Rufous-bellied Eagle - Hieraaetus kienerii
* Wallace's Hawk-Eagle - Spizaetus nanus
* Oriental Darter - Anhinga melanogaster
* Little Egret - Egretta garzetta
* Great Egret - Ardea alba
* Striated Heron - Butorides striatus
* Banded Pitta - Pitta guajana
* Blue-headed Pitta - Pitta baudii
* Garnet Pitta - Pitta granatina
* Fairy Pitta - Pitta nympha
* Dusky Broadbill - Corydon sumatranus
* Black-and-red Broadbill - Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos
* Banded Broadbill - Eurylaimus javanicus
* Black-and-yellow Broadbill - Eurylaimus ochromalus
* Green Broadbill - Calyptomena viridis
* Whitehead's Broadbill - Calyptomena whiteheadi
* Asian Fairy-bluebird - Irena puella
* Greater Green Leafbird - Chloropsis sonnerati
* Lesser Green Leafbird - Chloropsis cyanopogon
* Blue-winged Leafbird - Chloropsis cochinchinensis
* Crested Jay - Platylophus galericulatus
* Black Magpie - Platysmurus leucopterus
* Bornean Treepie - Dendrocitta cinerascens
* Slender-billed Crow - Corvus enca
* Large-billed Crow - Corvus macrorhynchos
* Dark-throated Oriole - Oriolus xanthonotus
* Sunda Cuckooshrike - Coracina larvata
* Lesser Cuckooshrike - Coracina fimbriata
* Scarlet Minivet - Pericrocotus flammeus
* Black-winged Flycatcher-shrike - Hemipus hirundinaceus
* Spotted Fantail - Rhipidura perlata
* Crow-billed Drongo - Dicrurus annectans
* Bronzed Drongo - Dicrurus aeneus
* Hair-crested Drongo - Dicrurus hottentottus
* Greater Racket-tailed Drongo - Dicrurus paradiseus
* Black-naped Monarch - Hypothymis azurea
* Asian Paradise-Flycatcher - Terpsiphone paradisi
* Common Iora - Aegithina tiphia
* Green Iora - Aegithina viridissima
* Rufous-winged Philentoma - Philentoma pyrhopterum
* Maroon-breasted Philentoma - Philentoma velatum
* Chestnut-capped Thrush - Zoothera interpres
* White-browed Shortwing - Brachypteryx montana
* Fulvous-chested Jungle-Flycatcher - Rhinomyias olivacea
* Grey-chested Jungle-Flycatcher - Rhinomyias umbratilis
* Rufous-tailed Jungle-Flycatcher - Rhinomyias ruficauda
* Eyebrowed Jungle-Flycatcher - Rhinomyias gularis
* Grey-streaked Flycatcher - Muscicapa griseisticta
* Dark-sided Flycatcher - Muscicapa sibirica
* Asian Brown Flycatcher - Muscicapa dauurica
* Ferruginous Flycatcher - Muscicapa ferruginea
* Mugimaki Flycatcher - Ficedula mugimaki
* Snowy-browed Flycatcher - Ficedula hyperythra
* Rufous-chested Flycatcher - Ficedula dumetoria
* Little Pied Flycatcher - Ficedula westermanni
* Indigo Flycatcher - Eumyias indigo
* Pale Blue-Flycatcher - Cyornis unicolor
* Hill Blue-Flycatcher - Cyornis banyumas
* Bornean Blue-Flycatcher - Cyornis superbus
* Large-billed Blue-Flycatcher - Cyornis caerulatus
* Malaysian Blue-Flycatcher - Cyornis turcosus
* Mangrove Blue-Flycatcher - Cyornis rufigastra
* Pygmy Blue-Flycatcher - Muscicapella hodgsoni
* Grey-headed Canary-Flycatcher - Culicicapa ceylonensis
* Oriental Magpie-Robin - Copsychus saularis
* White-rumped Shama - Copsychus malabaricus
* Rufous-tailed Shama - Trichixos pyrropyga
* Chestnut-naped Forktail - Enicurus ruficapillus
* White-crowned Forktail - Enicurus leschenaulti
* Hill Myna - Gracula religiosa
* Barn Swallow - Hirundo rustica
* Pacific Swallow - Hirundo tahitica
* Straw-headed Bulbul - Pycnonotus zeylanicus
* Black-and-white Bulbul - Pycnonotus melanoleucos
* Black-headed Bulbul - Pycnonotus atriceps
* Black-crested Bulbul - Pycnonotus melanicterus
* Scaly-breasted Bulbul - Pycnonotus squamatus
* Grey-bellied Bulbul - Pycnonotus cyaniventris
* Sooty-headed Bulbul - Pycnonotus aurigaster
* Puff-backed Bulbul - Pycnonotus eutilotus
* Flavescent Bulbul - Pycnonotus flavescens
* Olive-winged Bulbul - Pycnonotus plumosus
* Cream-vented Bulbul - Pycnonotus simplex
* Red-eyed Bulbul - Pycnonotus brunneus
* Spectacled Bulbul - Pycnonotus erythropthalmos
* Finsch's Bulbul - Alophoixus finschii
* Ochraceous Bulbul - Alophoixus ochraceus
* Grey-cheeked Bulbul - Alophoixus bres
* Yellow-bellied Bulbul - Alophoixus phaeocephalus
* Hook-billed Bulbul - Setornis criniger
* Hairy-backed Bulbul - Tricholestes criniger
* Buff-vented Bulbul - Iole olivacea
* Streaked Bulbul - Ixos malaccensis
* Ashy Bulbul - Hemixos flavala
* Yellow-bellied Prinia - Prinia flaviventris
* Pygmy White-eye - Oculocincta squamifrons
* Mountain Blackeye - Chlorocharis emiliae
* Lanceolated Warbler - Locustella lanceolata
* Pallas's Grasshopper-Warbler - Locustella certhiola
* Mountain Tailorbird - Orthotomus cuculatus
* Dark-necked Tailorbird - Orthotomus atrogularis
* Rufous-tailed Tailorbird - Orthotomus sericeus
* White-chested Babbler - Trichastoma rostratum
* Ferruginous Babbler - Trichastoma bicolor
* Abbott's Babbler - Malacocincla abbotti
* Horsfield's Babbler - Malacocincla sepiarium
* Black-browed Babbler - Malacocincla perspicillata
* Short-tailed Babbler - Malacocincla malaccensis
* Temminck's Babbler - Pellorneum pyrrogenys
* Black-capped Babbler - Pellorneum capistratum
* Moustached Babbler - Malacopteron magnirostre
* Sooty-capped Babbler - Malacopteron affine
* Scaly-crowned Babbler - Malacopteron cinereum
* Rufous-crowned Babbler - Malacopteron magnum
* Grey-breasted Babbler - Malacopteron albogulare
* Chestnut-backed Scimitar-Babbler - Pomatorhinus montanus
* Bornean Wren-Babbler - Ptilocichla leucogrammica
* Striped Wren-Babbler - Kenopia striata
* Eyebrowed Wren-Babbler - Napothera epilepidota
* Rufous-fronted Babbler - Stachyris rufifrons
* Grey-throated Babbler - Stachyris nigriceps
* Grey-headed Babbler - Stachyris poliocephala
* White-necked Babbler - Stachyris leucotis
* Black-throated Babbler - Stachyris nigricollis
* Chestnut-rumped Babbler - Stachyris maculata
* Chestnut-winged Babbler - Stachyris erythroptera
* Fluffy-backed Tit-Babbler - Macronous ptilosus
* Brown Fulvetta - Alcippe brunneicauda
* Chestnut-crested Yuhina - Yuhina everetti
* White-bellied Yuhina - Yuhina zantholeuca
* Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker - Prionochilus maculatus
* Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker - Prionochilus percussus
* Yellow-rumped Flowerpecker - Prionochilus xanthopygius
* Scarlet-breasted Flowerpecker - Prionochilus thoracicus
* Brown-backed Flowerpecker - Dicaeum everetti
* Yellow-vented Flowerpecker - Dicaeum chrysorrheum
* Orange-bellied Flowerpecker - Dicaeum trigonostigma
* Plain Flowerpecker - Dicaeum concolor
* Black-sided Flowerpecker - Dicaeum monticolum
* Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker - Dicaeum cruentatum
* Plain Sunbird - Anthreptes simplex
* Plain-throated Sunbird - Anthreptes malacensis
* Red-throated Sunbird - Anthreptes rhodolaema
* Ruby-cheeked Sunbird - Anthreptes singalensis
* Purple-naped Sunbird - Hypogramma hypogrammicum
* Purple-throated Sunbird - Nectarinia sperata
* Olive-backed Sunbird - Nectarinia jugularis
* Crimson Sunbird - Aethopyga siparaja
* Little Spiderhunter - Arachnothera longirostra
* Thick-billed Spiderhunter - Arachnothera crassirostris
* Long-billed Spiderhunter - Arachnothera robusta
* Spectacled Spiderhunter - Arachnothera flavigaster
* Grey-breasted Spiderhunter - Arachnothera affinis
* Bornean Spiderhunter - Arachnothera everetti
* Whitehead's Spiderhunter - Arachnothera juliae
* Eurasian Tree Sparrow - Passer montanus
* Yellow Wagtail - Motacilla flava
* Grey Wagtail - Motacilla cinerea

Reptiles
* Malayan Flat-shelled Turtle - Notochelys platynota
* Asian Brown Tortoise - Manouria emys
* Malayan Softshell Turtle - Dogania subplana
* - Bronchocela jubata
* - Draco fimbriatus
* Common Flying Lizard - Draco volans
* - Gonocephalus grandis
* - Gonocephalus megalepis
* - Phoxophrys nigrilabris
* - Aeluroscalabotes felinus
* Tree Gecko - Cyrtodactylus consubrinus
* - Cyrtodactylus malayanus
* - Cyrtodactylus pubisulcus
* Four-clawed Gecko - Gehyra mutilata
* House Gecko - Hemidactylus frenatus
* - Apterygodon vittatum
* Olive Tree Skink - Dasia olivacea
* Common Sun Skink - Mabuya multifasciata
* - Tropidophorus brookei
* - Tropidophorus micropus
* Dumeril's Monitor - Varanus dumerilii
* Water Monitor - Varanus salvator
* Green Whip Snake - Ahaetulla prasina
* White-fronted Water Snake - Amphiesma flavifrons
* Peter's Keelback - Amphiesma petersii
* Mangrove Cat Snake - Boiga dendrophila
* Brown Cat Snake - Boiga irregularis
* Jasper Cat Snake - Boiga jaspidea
* Striped Bronze-back - Dendrelaphis caudolineatus
* Elegant Bronze-back - Dendrelaphis formosus
* Painted Bronze-back - Dendrelaphis pictus
* Rainbow Tree Snake - Gonyophis margaritatus
* - Lepturophis albofuscus
* - Liopeltis tricolor
* Banded Wolf Snake - Lycodon subcinctus
* Blue-necked Keelback - Macropisthodon rhodomelas
* Mock Viper - Psammodynastes pulverulentus
* Red-bellied Keelback - Rhabdophis conspicillatus
* Malayan Brown Snake - Xenelaphis hexagonotus
* Triangled Keelback - Xenochrophis trianguligerus
* Hagen's Pit-Viper - Trimeresurus hageni
* Sumatran Pit-Viper - Trimeresurus sumatranus
* Wagler's Pit-Viper - Tropidolaemus wagleri
* Red-headed Krait - Bungarus flaviceps
* Reticulated Python - Python reticulatus
* False Gavial - Tomistoma schlegelii

Possibly
* Bornean Crocodile - Crocodylus raninus

Amphibians
* - Ansonia albomaculata
* - Ansonia leptopus
* - Ansonia minuta
* - Ansonia spinulifer
* Malayan Giant Toad - Bufo asper
* - Bufo divergens
* - Bufo juxtasper
* - Pedostibes hosii
* - Kalophrynus pleurostigma
* - Microhyla cf. borneensis
* - Microhyla maculifera
* - Microhyla perparva
* - Microhyla petrigena
* - Leptobrachella mjoebergi
* - Leptobrachium abbotti
* - Leptobrachium montanum
* - Leptolax hamidi
* - Megophrys nasuta
* - Amolops phaeomerus
* - Amolops poecilus
* - Limnonectes ibanorum
* - Limnonectes laticeps
* - Limnonectes malesianus
* - Limnonectes palavanensis
* - Phrynoglossus laevis
* - Rana chalconota
* - Rana erythraea
* - Rana glandulosa
* - Rana hosii
* - Rana nicobariensis
* - Staurois latopalmatus
* - Staurois natator
* - Staurois tuberilinguis
* - Philautus hosii
* - Philautus tectus
* - Polypedates leucomystax
* - Polypedatus otilophus
* - Rhacophorus appendiculatus
* - Rhacophorus gauni

Fishes
* - Barbodes balleroides
* - Barbodes collingwoodii
* - Barbodes schwanenfeldii
* - Crossochilus cobitis
* - Crossochilus oblongus
* - Cyclocheilichthys armatus
* - Epalzeorhynchos kallopterus
* - Garra borneensis
* - Hampala bimaculata
* - Hampala macrolepidota
* - Labiobarbus kuhlii
* - Lobocheilus kajanensis
* - Macrochirichthys macrochirus
* - Osteochilus borneensis
* - Osteochilus enneaporos
* - Osteochilus intermedius
* - Osteochilus kahajanensis
* - Osteochilus microcephalus
* - Osteochilus pleurotaenia
* - Osteochilus waandersii
* - Paracrossochilus acerus
* - Rasbora argyrotaenia
* - Rasbora bankanensis
* - Rasbora lateristriata
* - Rasbora volzii
* - Schismatorhynchus heterorhynchus
* - Tor tambra
* - Tor tambroides
* - Gastromyzon embalohensis
* - Glaniopsis multiradiata
* - Homaloptera nebulosa
* - Homaloptera ophiolepis
* - Homaloptera orthogoniata
* - Homaloptera tweediei
* - Homaloptera zollingeri
* - Nemacheilus longipectoralis
* - Noegastromyzon nieuwenhuisi
* - Parhomaloptera microstoma
* - Protomyzon griswoldi
* - Vaillantella maassi
* - Acanthopsis dialuzona
* - Acanthopsis octoactinotus
* - Acanthopsis robertsi
* - Botia hymenophysa
* - Botia macracanthus
* - Botia reversa
* - Gyrinocheilus pustulosus
* - Leiocassis micropogon
* - Mystus nemurus
* - Mystus nigriceps
* - Acrochordonichthys melanogaster
* - Bagarius yarrelli
* - Glyptothorax major
* - Clarias batrachus
* - Osphronemus goramy
* - Channa lucius
* - Macrognathus aculeatus
* - Macrognathus unicolor
* - Tetraodon leiurus

The East Malaysian State of Sarawak on the island of Borneo possesses forests extremely rich in tropical hardwoods. With about 60% of its land area still under forest cover, Sarawak has a thriving timber industry. During the 1980s, concerns were raised about the sustainability of the use of these forests and the conservation of the State's vast biological diversity. Thus, in 1989, the Government of Malaysia invited ITTO to send a delegation to Sarawak assess the sustainable utilsation and conservation of tropical forests there and to make recommendations for further strength-ening sustainable forest management policies and practices. One of the recommendations of the resulting Mission report in 1990 was that the conservation of forest biodiversity was best served through in situ preservation of that heritage. The report went on to suggest, specifically, that Lanjak-Entimau, a wildlife sanctuary of approximately 170,000 hectares in southwestern Sarawak, be given priority for development as a Totally Protected Area. The Sanctuary had been gazetted in 1983, primarily as an orangutan reserve, but had remained relatively uncharted territory since that time.

The land either side of the border between the Lanjak-Entimau and Bentuang Karimun reserves supports a population of over one thousand orangutans. Photo: Wildlife Office of Forest Department, Kuching, Sarawak
In response to this recommendation, in 1992 a combined team of international and local consultants, as well as staff from the Sarawak Forest Department, set out to conduct inventories of Lanjak-Entimau's major geographical, geological, floral and faunal characteristics, and to obtain information concerning the livelihoods and attitudes of the native peoples residing near the Sanctuary. This formed the basis of the ITTO project PD106/90. Fieldwork for the first phase of the project was initiated in mid-1993 with visits by researchers comprising a forest botanist, a primatologist, an ornithologist, a herpetologist, an entomologist, a soils expert and a sociologist.

Development of Lanjak-Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary as a Totally Protected Area has been crucial to the conservation of tropical biodiversity, not only because of the richness of its own flora and fauna, but even more so because of its links to the Bentuang Karimun National Park in West Kalimantan, Indonesia (see Box). Their combined areas of almost one million hectares, form one of the world's largest transboundary, biodiversity reserves in humid tropical forest.

Species Richness

Phase I of Project 106/90 was completed in mid-1994 and following submission of the consultants' report, a picture of the unique natural history of Lanjak-Entimau began to emerge. More than 1,000 species of trees (> 10 cm diameter) were found, making the area among the most floristically rich sites studied in Borneo. There is such an abundance of valuable timber species that the forest ecologist on the team has designated several areas as gene banks or seed sources for the future. In addition, botanical surveys in cooperation with the Kedayan, Lun Bawang and local Iban people have recorded 140 species of plants used in traditional medicine and at least 114 locally consumed varieties of wild fruits and vegetables. Specimens of South-East Asia's giant parasitic flower, the Rafflesia, were also reported from the southern areas of Lanjak-Entimau.

Faunal survey results have been equally exciting. The number of orangutans in the Sanctuary is estimated to be more than 1,000 individuals, while the population of Bornean gibbons is understood to exceed 20,000. This gives Lanjak-Entimau the highest known population density of the species ever recorded in Borneo. Birds are also abundant with over 200 species recorded, including the rare Bulwer's pheasant, seven of the eight species of hornbills known from Sarawak, and about half of the bird species known to be endemic to Borneo. Herpetofaunal surveys recorded a total of 78 different species, of which one was extremely rare and at least four others have been found to be new to science. Casual collections of fish from several streams in the Sanctuary recorded 36 species, of which two are previously undescribed, and a collection of crabs from both freshwater and forest floor habitats resulted in the discovery of one new genus and three new species.

Members of the research team next to one of the giant Shorea trees in Hill Dipterocarp Forest, Lanjak-Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary. Photo: P. Chai.
Local Support

Interviews by the project sociologist among 102 communities residing on the periphery of the Lanjak-Entimau area provided a coherent picture of their needs and aspirations and the ways in which they view the Sanctuary and its development as a Totally Protected Area. Under the 1983 gazettement, some have enjoyed special rights to gather forest products from designated areas within the Sanctuary. They also hunt on the boundary areas, predominantly for wild boar (Sus barbatus) and, to a lesser extent, for deer (Cervus unicolor) for meat. Though poverty does touch them, they retain a positive view of the Lanjak-Entimau Sanctuary as a source of stability and sustenance. Interviews indicated that a majority polled (70 per cent) expressed support for preservation of the Sanctuary, strict enforcement of the laws protecting it and a programme by which communities near the boundary can exercise control over entry into the Protected Area.

Permanent Facilities

This year, Phase II of the Lanjak-Entimau project will see the initiation of infrastructural, scientific and community development within the Sanctuary. A headquarters, a well-equipped research station and new ranger facilities will be erected at strategic entry points on the Sanctuary's boundaries. Scientific biodiversity inventories, both new and extended from Phase I will begin on ethnobotany, mycology, canopy invertebrates, fish and important game species. Integrated into these projects will be a training and educational programme for staff members of the Sarawak Forest Department and participants from local communities. The purpose of this programme will be to increase the level of technical expertise for the long-term development of biodiversity based resources from forested areas in the buffer zone adjoining the Sanctuary. Special emphasis will be given to the development of gene banks for economically important timber species, cultivation of non-timber forest products such as rattan, ethno-botanical gardens for cultivation of medicinal plants by local people and management of game and fish populations to ensure sustainable long-term use.

These integrated research and training programmes will be implemented in close cooperation with the proposed Centre for Biodiversity Conservation to be established in Kuching next year. Primarily, this will be a depository for Sarawak's collections of plant and animal specimens. It is envisaged that the Centre will also plan, coordinate and undertake research on biodiversity and, with the Sarawak Forest Department, will be able to take on projects initiated in the Lanjak-Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary following completion of Phase II.

The Lanjak-Entimau project has proved to be even more exciting than was ever anticipated. In a decade the Sanctuary has evolved from a remote and unknown orangutan reserve to hold status as one of the equatorial world's richest known centres for tropical biodiversity conservation.