Dutch former Colonies, Asia, Dutch East Indies

Dutch former Colonies, Asia, Dutch East Indies

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The-Indies-1682

Ambon
Banda
Batavia
Various

The best Information is to read in

Wikipedia:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_East_Indies
Wikipedia:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_East_India_Company
In 1605, Portuguese trading posts in the Spice Islands of Maluku, Indonesia fell to the superior firepower of the Dutch. In 1619 a fortified base was established in Batavia (now Jakarta), and became the headquarters of the Dutch East Indies Company. Following the company's bankruptcy in 1800, Indonesian territory under its administration was nationalised as the Dutch East Indies. By the early twentieth the Netherlands had under its administration all the territory that now forms Indonesia. Indonesian independence was declared on 17 August 1945, and officially recognised by the Netherlands in December 1949 following the Indonesian National Revolution. Dutch New Guinea however, remained Dutch, until 1962, when it was transferred to Indonesia following United States pressure.

(Nethertlands East Indies) (1602-1949*/1963*)

 oAmbon (1600-1963)
o Banda (1621-1963)
o Batavia, Capital of Java (1619-1963)
o Java's North East Coast
o Makassar, on the island of Celebes (18 November 1667-1963)
o Molukken
o Bantam
o Sumatra's Westkust
o Banjarmasin, city on the island of Borneo (1606-1963)
o Cheribon, Java
o Palembang, Sumatra
o Pontianak,  Borneo
o Timor (1640-1963)
+ Roti
+ Savoe
+ Soemba
+ Solor
+ het oostelijk deel van Flores
+ Kisar (van 1912 tot 1926)

Ambon

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Amboina-[Ambon]-1724

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambon_Island

In 1513, the Portuguese were the first Europeans to land in Ambon, and it became the new centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku following their expulsion from Ternate.[2] The Portuguese, however, were regularly attacked from native Muslims on the island's northern coast, in particular Hitu, which had trading and religious links with major port cities on Java's north coast. They established a factory in 1521, but did not obtain peaceable possession of it until 1580. Indeed, the Portuguese never managed to control the local trade in spices, and failed in attempts to establish their authority over the Banda Islands, the nearby centre of nutmeg production.

The Portuguese were dispossessed by the Dutch already in 1605, when Steven van der Hagen took over the fort and without a single shot. Ambon was the headquarters of the Dutch East Indies Company (VOC) from 1610 to 1619 until the founding of Batavia (now Jakarta) by the Dutch.[3] About 1615 the English formed a settlement on the island at Cambello, which they retained until 1623, when it was destroyed by the Dutch. Frightful tortures inflicted on its unfortunate inhabitants were connected with its destruction. In 1654, after many fruitless negotiations, Oliver Cromwell compelled the United Provinces to give the sum of 300,000 gulden, as compensation to the descendants of those who suffered in the "Ambon Massacre", together with Manhattan.[4] In 1673 the poet John Dryden produced his tragedy Amboyna; or the Cruelties of the Dutch to the English Merchants. In 1796 the British, under Admiral Rainier, captured Ambon, but restored it to the Dutch at the peace of Amiens, in 1802. It was retaken by the British in 1810, but once more restored to the Dutch in 1814. Ambon used to be the world center of clove production; until the nineteenth century, the Dutch prohibited the rearing of the clove-tree in all the other islands subject to their rule, in order to secure the monopoly to Ambon.

During the Dutch period, Ambon city was the seat of the Dutch resident and military commander of the Moluccas. The town was protected by Fort Victoria, and a 1911 encyclopedia characterized it as "a clean little town with wide streets, well planted". The population was divided into two classes orang burger or citizens, and orang negri or villagers, the former being a class of native origin enjoying certain privileges conferred on their ancestors by the old Dutch East India Company. There were also, besides the Dutch, some Arabs, Chinese and a few Portuguese settlers.

Ambon city was the site of a major Dutch military base, which was captured from Allied forces by the Japanese in the Battle of Ambon (1942), during World War II. The battle was followed by the summary execution of more than 300 Allied POWs, in the Laha massacre.

Indonesia declared its independence in 1945. As a result of ethnic and religious tensions, as well as President Sukarno's making of Indonesia a centralised state, Ambon was the scene of a revolt against the Indonesian government, which resulted in the rebellion of Republic of the South Moluccas in 1950.

 

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Ambonees-war-Arnold-de-Vlaming-1663

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Ambon The-bay-of-Ambon,-with-Victoria-castle

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The-island-of-Ambon-1600-1700

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Ambon-map-1724

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Ambon-1724

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Ambon-1725

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Ambon fort-Victoria-Ambon-1981

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Cambello-and-the-fortress-1724

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Laala-near-the-sago-plantation-of-the-Dutch-East-India-Company-1724

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Luhu-and-fortress-Overburg-1724

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Banda Islands

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View-of-the-island-of-Banda-Neira-1600-1700

The Portuguese http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banda_Islands

In August 1511 on behalf of the king of Portugal, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca, which at the time was the hub of Asian trade. In November of that year, after having secured Malacca and learning of the Bandas' location, Albuquerque sent an expedition of three ships led by his good friend António de Abreu to find them. Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java, the Lesser Sundas and Ambon to Banda, arriving in early 1512.The first Europeans to reach the Bandas, the expedition remained in Banda for about one month, purchasing and filling their ships with Banda's nutmeg and mace, and with cloves in which Banda had a thriving entrepôt trade.D'Abreu sailed through Ambon while his second in command Francisco Serrão went ahead towards Maluku islands, was shipwrecked and ended up in Ternate. Distracted by hostilities else where in the archipelago, such as Ambon and Ternate, the Portuguese did not return until 1529; a Portuguese trader Captain Garcia landed troops in the Bandas. Five of the Banda islands were within gunshot of each other and he realised that a fort on the main island Neira would give him full control of the group. The Bandanese were however hostile to such a plan and their warlike antics were both costly and tiresome to Garcia whose men were attacked when they attempted to build a fort. From then on, the Portuguese were infrequent visitors to the islands preferring to buy their nutmeg from traders in Malacca.Unlike other eastern Indonesian islands, such as Ambon, Solor, Ternate and Morotai, the Bandanese displayed no enthusiasm for Christianity or the Europeans who brought it in the sixteenth century, and no serious attempt was made to Christianise the Bandanese.[4] Maintaining their independence, the Bandanese never allowed the Portuguese to build a fort or a permanent post in the islands. Ironically though, it was this lack of ports which brought the Dutch to trade at Banda instead of the clove islands of Ternate and Tidore.

The Dutch followed the Portuguese to Banda but were to have a much more dominating and lasting presence. Dutch-Bandanese relations were mutually resentful from the outset, with Holland’s first merchants complaining of Bandanese reneging on agreed deliveries and price, and cheating on quantity and quality. For the Bandanese, on the other hand, although they welcomed another competitor purchaser for their spices, the items of trade offered by the Dutch—heavy woollens, and damasks, unwanted manufactured goods, for example—were usually unsuitable in comparison to traditional trade products. The Javanese, Arab and Indian, and Portuguese traders for example brought indispensable items along steel knives, copper, medicines and prized Chinese porcelain.

As much as the Dutch disliked dealing with the Bandanese, the trade was a highly profitable one with spices selling for 300 times the purchase price in Banda. This amply justified the expense and risk in shipping them to Europe. It is even likely that the resulting boom helped finance an artistic renaissance in Holland supporting the likes of Rembrandt van Rijn. The allure of such profits saw an increasing number of Dutch expeditions; it was soon seen that competition from each would eat into all their profits. Thus the competitors united to form the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC) (the ‘Dutch East Indies Company).

Until the early seventeenth century the Bandas were ruled by a group of leading citizens, the orang kaya (literally 'rich men'), each of these was a head of district. At the time nutmeg was one of the "fine spices" kept expensive in Europe by disciplined manipulation of the market, but a desirable commodity for Dutch traders in the ports of India as well; economic historian Fernand Braudel notes that India consumed twice as much as Europe . A number of Banda’s orang kaya were persuaded (or deceived) by the Dutch to sign a treaty granting the Dutch a monopoly on spice purchases. Even though the Bandanese had little understanding of the significance of the treaty known as 'The Eternal Compact', or that not all Bandanese leaders had signed, it would later be used to justify Dutch troops being brought in to defend their monopoly.

The Bandanese soon grew tired of the Dutch actions; the low prices, the useless trade items, and the enforcement of Dutch sole rights to the purchase of the coveted spices. The end of the line for the Bandanese came in 1609 when the Dutch reinforced Fort Nassau on Bandanaira Island. The orang kaya called a meeting with the Dutch admiral and forty of his highest-ranking men and ambushed and killed them all.

While Portuguese and Spanish activity in the region had weakened, the English had built fortified trading posts on tiny Ai and Run islands, ten to twenty kilometres from the main Banda Islands. With the British paying higher prices, they were significantly undermining Dutch aims for a monopoly, and as Dutch-British tensions increased, the Dutch built, in 1611, the larger and more strategic Fort Belgica, above Fort Nassau. In 1615, the Dutch invaded Ai with 900 men and the British retreated to Run where they regrouped. That same night, the British launched a surprise counter-attack on Ai retaking the island and killing 200 Dutchmen. A year later, a much stronger Dutch force attacked Ai which itself was initially hampered by cannonade fire, but after a month of siege the defenders ran out of ammunition and were slaughtered. The Dutch strengthened the fort renaming it 'Fort Revenge'. European control of the Bandas was still contested up until 1667 when, under the Treaty of Breda (1667), the British traded the small island of Run for Manhattan, giving the Dutch full control of the Banda archipelago.

On August 9th, 1810. The British captured the Islands and accepted their surrender from the Dutch after engaging the Fortifications in action by Captain C. Cole, with the British warships of HMS Caroline thirty-six guns, HMS Piedmontaise, thirty-eight guns, Captain Foote and the HMS Barracouta, eighteen guns. Captain Kenah, having on board about one hundred men of the Madras European Regiment after sailing from Madras with supplies for Amboyna, recently captured by the British.

Newly-appointed VOC governor-general Jan Pieterszoon Coen set about enforcing Dutch monopoly over the Banda’s spice trade. In 1621 well-armed soldiers were landed on Bandaneira Island and within a few days they had also occupied neighbouring and larger Lontar. The orang kaya were forced at gunpoint to sign an unfeasibly arduous treaty, one that was in fact impossible to keep, thus providing Coen an excuse to use superior Dutch force against the Bandanese.The Dutch quickly noted a number of alleged violations of the new treaty, in response to which Coen launched a punitive massacre. Japanese mercenaries were hired to deal with the orang kaya, forty of whom were beheaded with their heads impaled and displayed on bamboo spears.

The population of the Banda Islands prior to Dutch conquest is generally estimated to have been around 13-15,000 people, some of whom were Malay and Javanese traders, as well as Chinese and Arabs. The actual numbers of Bandanese who were killed, forcibly expelled or fled the islands in 1621 remain uncertain. But readings of historical sources suggest around one thousand Bandanese likely survived in the islands, and were spread throughout the nutmeg groves as forced labourers . The Dutch subsequently re-settled the islands with imported slaves, convicts and indentured labourers (to work the nutmeg plantations), as well as immigrants from elsewhere in Indonesia. Most survivors fled as refugees to the islands of their trading partners, in particular Keffing and Guli Guli in the Seram Laut chain and Kei Besar. Shipments of surviving Bandanese were also sent to Batavia (Jakarta) to work as slaves in developing the city and its fortress. Some 530 of these individuals were later returned to the islands because of their much-needed expertise in nutmeg cultivation (something sorely lacking among newly-arrived Dutch settlers) .

Whereas up until this point the Dutch presence had been simply as traders, that was sometimes treaty-based, the Banda conquest marked the start of the first overt colonial rule in Indonesia albeit under the auspices of the VOC.

Having decimated the islands' population, Coen divided the productive land of approximately half a million nutmeg trees into sixty-eight 1.2-hectare perken. These land parcels were then handed to Dutch planters known as perkeniers of which 34 were on Lontar, 31 on Ai and 3 on Neira. With few Bandanese left to work them, slaves from elsewhere were brought in. Now enjoying control of the nutmeg production the VOC paid the perkeniers 1/122nd of the Dutch market price for nutmeg, however, the perkeniers still profited immensely building substantial villas with opulent imported European decorations.

The outlying island of Run was harder for the VOC to control and they exterminated all nutmeg trees there. The production and export of nutmeg was a VOC monopoly for almost two hundred years. Fort Belgica, one of many forts built by the Dutch East India Company, is one of the largest remaining European forts in Indonesia.

Religious violence between Christians and Muslims, spilling over from intercommunal conflict in Ambon affected the islands in the late 1990s. The disturbance and resulting deaths damaged the previously prosperous tourism industry.

 

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Banda-Neira-1724

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Fort-Belgica-1824

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Fort-Nassau-1646

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fort-Belgica

Batavia

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Within Batavia's walls, wealthy Dutch built tall houses and pestilential canals. Commercial opportunities attracted Indonesian and especially Chinese immigrants, the increasing numbers creating burdens on the city. Tensions grew as the colonial government tried to restrict Chinese migration through deportations. On 9 October 1740, 5,000 Chinese were massacred and the following year, Chinese inhabitants were moved to Glodok outside the city walls.[3] The city began to move further south as epidemics in 1835 and 1870 encouraged more people to move far south of the port. The Koningsplein, now Merdeka Square, was completed in 1818, and Kebayoran Baru was the last Dutch-built residential area.[3]

In Indonesian National Revival era, Mohammad Husni Thamrin, a member of Volksraad criticized the Colonial Government for ignoring the development of kampung (inlander's area) while focusing the development for the rich people in Menteng. He also talked on the issue of Farming Tax and other taxes which burdened people. Some of his speeches are still relevant in today's Jakarta. An important street in today's Jakarta was named after him.

 

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Andries-Beeckman---The-Castle-of-Batavia

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The-castle-Batavia-1656

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The new Gate 1682

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De-KRUYS-KERCK( church)-op-BATAVIA-1682

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de-TYGERS-GRAFT(canal)-op-BATAVIA-1682

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GOEVERNUERS-HUYS-BINNENT-KASTEEL-1682

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Het-SLACHT-ofte-VLEES-HAL-op-BATATVIA-1682

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RAET-of-STADTHUYS-1682

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SPINHUYS-1682

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T-WEESHUYS(orphans)-op-BATAVIA-1682

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VIS(fish)-MARKT-op-BATAVIA-1682

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Batavia-Townhall-1770

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Plattegrond (map)-van-Batavia-1740

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Defences-around-Batavia-in-the-1660s

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De-stad (city)-Batavia-1682

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De-walls-of-Batavia-with-the-outside-Portugese-church-1709

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The-fort-Jacatra-outside-Batavia-in-1709

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 The old castel gate-Batavia-1888

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Murdering of thousands of Chinese in Batavia 1740

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Stadhuis-Batavia

Indies various

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Attack-on-Makassar,-12th-of-juni-1660,Sombaopu,Panakok, Makassar

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Makassar-War-between-VOC-Cornelis-Speelman-and-the-Boeginese-king-Radja-Pallaca

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Seabattle-between-VOC-and-Portuguese-ships,-Makassar

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Borneo-map-1724

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Atjeh-1724

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Banten-city-Java-1724

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Java-East,-Madura-and-Bali-1724

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Surabaya,-Pasoeroean-Forts

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Surabaya-house-of-the-Resident

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Moluccas-1724

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Ternate-and-the-fort-Gamma-Lamma-1724

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Moluccas Cambello-and-the-fortress-1724

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Moluccas Luhu-and-fortress-Overburg-1724

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Moluccas Suppression-of-the-Ihamau-of-Honomoa-(Saparua)-1663

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New-Guinee-ccoast-1724