Dutch former Colonies, Asia, Ceylon

Dutch former Colonies, Asia, Ceylon

Ceylon, sri lanka, galle, fort, voc

Galle Fort

Colombo
Batticaloa
Galle
Jaffna
Kalpitya
Kalutara
Mannar
Trincomalee
Matara,
Negombo
Tangalle
Hammenhiel
Pooneryn
Elephant Pass
Ruwanwella
The Dutch first landed in Ceylon in 1602, it was then under Portuguese control. Between 1636 and 1658 they managed to oust the Portuguese, initially at the invitation of local rulers. The Portuguese had ruled the coastline, though not the interior, of the island from 1505 to 1658. Buddhists, Hindus and Muslims had all suffered religious persecution under Portuguese rule; the Dutch were more interested in trade than in religious converts. The VOC proved unable to extend its control into the interior and only controlled coastal provinces. Ceylon remained a major Dutch trading post throughout the VOC period. Ceylon's importance came from it being a half-way point between their settlements in Indonesia and South Africa. The island itself was a source of cinnamon and elephants, which were sold to Indian princes. In 1796 the British seized control of the Dutch positions, at the urging of the ruler of Kandy. It was formally ceded in the treaty of Amiens.

Time Line

1505 - Galle Ceylon, now Sri Lanka, was first set up by the Portuguese as a trading station in 1505. Later it was taken by the Dutch who built a fort with 300 houses and shops inside the walls, all still standing. The Dutch passed off to the British for the last 100 years of the colonial period, so the French couldn't get Ceylon

• 1602 - In 1602, the Dutch appeared in the east. They assumed to aid the people of Ceylon against the oppression of the Portuguese, and succeeded in gaining a footing on the island. They soon expelled the Portuguese. If the Dutch are fairly dealt with in history, they were very uncomfortable friends to the poor people of Ceylon, who were driven on to the highlands in the interior, while the Dutch possessed the fertile lowlands which border all around on the coast. Ceylon abounds in rich ...

• 1656 - An example, on a large scale, of the disastrous results of employing political methods of spreading Christianity is afforded by the religious history of Ceylon. When the Dutch took over from the Portuguese the island of Ceylon in 1656, they attempted to force a Protestant form of Christianity upon its inhabitants by subjecting Buddhists, Hindus, and Eomanists who were not prepared to embrace Protestantism, to heavy civil disabilities.

• 1658 - The Dutch invaded Ceylon (Sri Lanka) in 1658 and was dominant for 140 years Again the Dutch were not able to capture the kingdom of Kandy. History says the Dutch like the Portuguese tried, but they were not successful.

• 1690 - But before speaking of this new king, I will briefly glance at the history of coffee in Ceylon. To begin with, it is a singular fact that not only a very large proportion of all the coffee that once clothed these thousand hills in Ceylon, but also the coffee plantations of many other lands are all lineally descended from one plant, which, about AD 1690,. was raised in a garden at Batavia by the Dutch governor, General Van Hoorne, to whom a few seeds had been presented by a trader ...

• 1766 - Before the Kandian war, which terminated in 1766, the Dutch annually exported from Ceylon from 8000 to 10000 bales of cinnamon, each weighing 86 Ib. Dutch, or about 92i English. This war, which was very unfortunate for the King- of Kandy, was extremely expensive to the Dutch. The,chief advantage they obtained was the entire possession of the harbours and coasts round the island.

• 1795 - In 1795 the British dispossessed the Dutch, and Ceylon has been from that time to our own days under the direct government of the English Crown. It might have seemed that warnings had been written with terrible distinctness upon the face of that twice-conquered ...

• 1815 - English history records that the whole island, by the invitation of the natives, was taken possession of, in 1815, by the British crown, under the sovereignty of which Ceylon still remains.

An interesting site about Dutch Ships wrecks :   http://cf.hum.uva.nl/galle/avondster/story.html
Nice site over Galle :       http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galle_fort
 

Ceylon, sri lanka,  voc, map

Ceylon

Ceylon, sri lanka,  voc, map

Ceylon 1724

Ceylon, sri lanka,  voc, kandi

 

Ceylon, sri lanka,  voc, kandy

Queen-in-Kandy--1830

Colombo
Batticaloa
Galle
Jaffna
Kalpitya
Kalutara
Mannar
Trincomalee
Matara,
Negombo
Tangalle
Hammenhiel
Pooneryn
Elephant Pass
Ruwanwella

 Fort Colombo (1656-1796)

Ceylon, sri lanka, colombo, fort, voc

Colombo 1775

 
factory, administration, residence of the governor, Product: cinnamon. There was a castle.
The first colonial fort built in Sri Lanka, Colombo started out as a trading post of the Portuguese and became the capital of Portuguese Ceylon. The first fort called Santa Barbara was built in 1518 but in 1524 it was abandoned. In 1554 a new fort was built and the city of Colombo developed. The Portuguese town was destroyed by the Dutch during the siege in 1655-56. The Dutch rebuilt Colombo fort and strengthened its bastions. In 1870 the Dutch fort of Colombo was demolished by the English. In the late nineteenth century the walls of the fort were demolished by the British to extend the growing city. Today there is no trace of the old fort or any part of it, however the area which the fort occupied is still referred to as fort which is the central business district of Colombo.
 

Colombo city Fort size

Colombo Negombo and the dutch channels

The coast of Colombo

 Fort Batticaloa 1638

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, batticaloa

Batticaloa-1724

The batticaloa fort was built by the Portuguese in 1628 and was the first to be captured by the Dutch (18 May 1638). It is one of the most picturesque of the small Dutch fort of Sri Lanka, it’s situated in an island, still in good condition. Near Batticaloa the Portuguese had a tiny fort at Tanavare (there is a map of it but no remains) There is a 1st century CE Buddhist Dagaba inside the Dutch fort.
 

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, batticaloa

The Fort of Batticaloa

 Fort Galle 1640-1656

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, galle

 
Government in the hands of a commander. Galle was a factory and the departure of the return fleet to Cape of Good Hope is added together with the fleet from Batavia. The fort of Galle was to provide for the defense.
Galle fort was built first by the Portuguese, then modified by the Dutch during the 17th century. During the Dutch period in Ceylon, the Dutch brought labourers from Indonesia and Mozambique to build this massive fort. Even today, after 400 years of existence, it looks new and polished. Today many Dutch people who still own most of the properties inside the fort are looking at making this one of the modern wonders of the world.

Today, the citizens of Dutch fort in Galle are trying to make this a free port and a free trade zone. If successful no taxes are levied on the companies and individuals who reside inside the city.'

Galle 1724

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, galle

Galle coast

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, galle

Galle Fort

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, galle

Galle-1725

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, galle

Galle-fort-1684

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, galle

 Fort Jaffna (patnam), from 1658

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, jaffna, patnam

Jaffna - Manner 1724

 
Factory , Products: cotton clothing, pearls, elephants. Fort: Fort including Hamme Heel.
The original Portuguese fort, where the remaining Portuguese had assembled after the fall of Colombo, had been captured by the Dutch in 1658 after a three and a half month siege. Since 1680 until the takeover by the British in 1795 the fort went though several phases of development. Thus making it one of the strongest forts in Asia. Unlike the Colombo and Galle Forts, which were fortified towns, the Jaffna Fort had an almost exclusively military and administrative purpose. All the civilians lived in the residential town of Jaffna, adjoining the fort. Up till the 1970s the fort and its buildings were in their original state, despite its continuous use by the British and later the Ceylon government. During the Sri Lankan Civil War the fort and the town of Jaffna changed hands several times. Notably the Sri Lanka Army garrison of the fort lead out a siege for months before being withdrawn in the 1980s. As a result of the war much of the fort has been destroyed.
 

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, jaffna, patnam

Jaffna

 Fort Kalpitya 1667

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, kalpitya

Kalpitya 1724

 A factory. The fort was the cinnamon monopoly of the VOC maintain.
Located at the northern tip of the narrow land tongue that stretches to the north for about 50 kilometres beyond Puttlam, parallel to the mainland. Built in 1667, on the spot where the Portuguese had a stockade and a Jesuit chapel. The walls are about 4 meters high and inside are the remnants of the chapel, a commander's house, barrack rooms, a prison and several go downs. Kalpitiya was important since it command the entrance to the bay. Puttlam was an area that had large amounts cinnamon cultivations. The Dutch even built a canal from Puttlam via Negombo to Colombo to bring the cinnamon. The fort was neglect for many years until it was turned into a Sri Lankan Navy base for training and operational activity escalation of the Sri Lankan Civil War. The ramparts are in good condition today.
 

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, kalpitya

Kalpitya 1753

 Fort Kalutara

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, kalutara

Kalutara

 
The Portuguese first built a fort in Kalutara and was surrendered to the Dutch in 1655 without a shot being fired; it was later enlarged by the conquering Dutch with the addition two bastions. Very little of it remains today.

 Fort Mannar (Mannar), island near southern India), from 1658

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, mannar

Mannar-island-fort

 
Products: beads, cotton, clothing, fish, red dye for clothing and elephants. Fort Manar.
Built on the island of Mannar by the Portuguese in 1560, it surrendered to the Dutch on 22 February 1658 and was rebuilt by the Dutch in 1696. On 5 October 1795 the Dutch surrendered to the British. The fort has four bastions and it’s still in good condition.
 

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, mannar

Mannar-island-fort

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, mannar

The-battle-at-Mannar.-Portuguese-soldiers,-and-their-frigates,-centre,-are-fighting-Dutch-ships

 Fort Trincomalee from 1639

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, trincomalee

Bay of Trincomalee

Factory, Products: cinnamon, clothing, beads, wood and Arek (stimulant). In the immediate vicinity around six forts, including Frederick and East Burgh.
Fort Fredrick is a fort built by Portuguese at Trincomalee in 1624. This was captured by a Dutch fleet under Admiral Westerwold in 1639. Not until 1665 was a new fort built here by the Dutch defend against the advancements of the British and the French. In 1672, the year when the Dutch Republic was attacked by France, Britain, and two German states, the French captured Trincomalee and later they occupied Batticaloa. However soon the French were forced to leave. Trincomalee was important for its large all-season secure harbor. In late 18th century Trincomalee traded hands once more with the French capturing it again and later handing back to the VOC at the Peace of Paris in 1784. In 1795 it was taken over by the British, and remained a British garrison till 1948. Coastal artillery guns were added during the two World Wars. Today it remains garrisoned by a detachment of the Sri Lanka Army but is accessible to visitors.
Fort Ostenburg A small fort built at the entrance to the inner harbour of Trincomalee by the Dutch and surrendered to the British 1795. It has been called "the most powerfully gunned fort in Ceylon" with strong batteries at sea level and many guns on the ridge above them. However little of it remains today, mainly due to the contraction of Coastal artillery placements by the British since the 1920 in the Ostenburg ridge. Much of these are well preserved by the Sri Lankan Navy, which maintains the Hoods Tower Museum here
 

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, trincomalee

Trincomalee 1724

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, trincomalee

Bay of Trincomalee and the Venloos Bay

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, trincomalee

the Venloos Bay

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, trincomalee

Trincomalee fort-1724

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, trincomalee

Trincomalee-Oostenburg-1724

Ceylon, sri lanka, fort, voc, trincomalee

The fort today

 Small Forts

Matara Fort

Factory. Products: cinnamon and elephants. Fort Star Fort.
The Marara fort was built by the Portuguese about 1550 but the actual fort was built by the Dutch when they took Matara, after the capture of Galle. The remains of the fort are in good preservation

The Star fort On the other side of the rive that flows throw the Matara town is the star fort. This little redoubt called Van Eck was built in 1763-1765 by the Dutch after the Matara rebellion in 1761-1762. This fort is the unique star shaped fort in Ceylon, over the gate of the fort is the Dutch coat of arms. It’s still in good condition .

Negombo fort

A small but important fort in the town of Negombo, north of Colombo was built by the Portuguese to defend Colombo. In 1640 the Dutch destroyed it and rebuilt it not on the usual square pattern, but on a pentagonal one, though it had only four bulwarks. The fort was located on a narrow strip of land between a lagoon and an inlet of the sea. It was surrounded by moats, and the gate was accessed via a drawbridge. The English occupied it in 1796. Today only part of the walls and an arched gateway remains of the fort. It is used as a prison by the Department of Prisons.

Tangalle fort

A small Dutch fort exists in the coastal town of Tangalle, south of the island. Tangalle was an important anchorage. Although much altered the fort still stands and in use as a prison by the Department of Prisons.

Fort Hammenhiel

Situated on a small island between Kayts and Karaitivu islands in the north of the country, Hammenhiel Fort was built by the Dutch to protect Jaffna. It remains in good condition garrisoned by the Sri Lanka Navy

Pooneryn fort

Built in the Pooneryn area of north portion of the island first by the Portuguese to protect its possessions in Jaffna, it was expanded by the Dutch till in 1770 it was recorded that it was square shaped with two bastions at opposite corners; the rampart on each of the sides was about 30 metres and was garrisoned till the late 1700s. The British built a rest house in 1805. Since 1983 due to the civil war it was garrisoned by the Sri Lankan Army till it withdrew from the Pooneryn area in 1991; and recaptured in 2009. Ruins of the fort remains, however in bad condition.

Elephant Pass Fort

Elephant Pass is one of the most strategic locations in Sri Lanka, linking the Jaffna peninsula with the rest of the island. In 1760 the Portuguese built a fort, which was later rebuilt and garrisoned by the Dutch in 1776 and later by the British.
A modern military base was built there in the area in 1952 by the Sri Lankan Army. The area has been the site of many major battles in the civil war. The state of the fort is unknown.

Ruwanwella Fort

Originally built as stockade in the 1590s by the Portuguese, how ever the Dutch, in 1665 built a wooden fort. The British in 1817, built the a new fort with two bastions and used as a outpost. Today it remains in good condition and houses a police station